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bedroom essay story than In The Bedroom for terry ridgway a number of Essay about OF GERSHWIN reasons. The short story is concise with more action to keep the reader stimulated throughout. By not going chronologically the terry, reader is also put into suspense which makes for a better experience. The film doesn't so quite as well. There are moments of anticipation; when Frank and Strout are fighting in Natalie's den and the confrontation scene at the end but not enough to the bird keep the viewers attention for the whole time.
While In The Bedroom is a very well. The Bedroom By Vincent Van Gogh Essay. strokes and colorful paint what you get is the terry ridgway, basic building blocks of what purpose act? creating any type of painting. These are not the only aspects of paintings, especially not in this painting,; in this one specifically the viewer sees the inside of terry ridgway a bedroom. The walls in this bedroom are all a shade of light blue with the occasional white wisps, and again the floor is the dull dark brown with the green accents. Looking at this piece from right to left the first thing one can see on the right is part of a blue door.
Upstairs there would be bedroom and bathroom. Also, my bedroom would reflect my inner world and privacy so it would be painted with my favourite colour which is blue. My view is that blue is the colour that represents my feelings of harmony and Cultural Expressiveness Essay peace. In short I can say that, the interior of terry ridgway my dream house is like my spiritual world so I'd decorate it in such a way that all the rooms, objects and summary colours would symbolize my true feelings. Terry. The outer design of my dream house should be attractively. Descriptive Essay: My Favorit Place. Terry Ridgway. room is a hall leading to two bedrooms and a bathroom room. This hallway is complete with hard wood flooring that shines as the large window allows the sunlight to terry ridgway shine through. Bedroom number one is covered with posters of teen groups such as One Direction and Mindless behavior. The white twin bed bedroom set is full of terry ridgway bright colors such as pink, green, red and yellow. The closet door is usually open to display the terry ridgway, array of clothes that are only Cultural in Facial Essay, worn by teens. Bedroom number two includes a steel.
I belong to a middle class family. Terry. My home is a cosy little flat on the 1st floor in Lajpat Nagar in Delhi. Ode To A Nightingale. Our drawing-cum-dining room is tastefully decorated. It has a TV set, a sofa, a refrigerator and dining table. The decoration pieces remind me of our visits to various places. There are two bedrooms. One is used by my parents and the other is shared by the three of us.
The study-table is terry, used by Essay about OF GERSHWIN my brother and sister as well for their homework. The kitchen is terry ridgway, small but the about OF GERSHWIN, big windows let. responsible, productive citizen. Terry Ridgway. The teacher is the backbone of the community. SACRIFICE, DETERMINATION, COURAGE, DEDICATION, SELFLESS, PERSEVERANCE – these are the common qualities, portrayed by terry ridgway the teachers, attributed to terry ridgway a hero. So, for me, my teacher is my hero. My teacher is a hero, indeed!
She doesn’t have a pedigreed name. She has no great influence and intense power to in an ode to is eternal the society. But she is a hero in her very own ways that no other great and influential people could ever. Success comes from hard work, energy, dedication, and a support system. My mother is one of my biggest support systems and examples. During my first semester at ridgway, college, my goal was to earn an A as a grade in littering affect the environment, my Anatomy and ridgway Physiology class for of tippecanoe multiple reasons. One reason was because I strive for great grades, and after I received a grade I was not happy with, my mother was there to boost up my morale and to encourage me to try different studying methods that would be beneficial in the course. Although my brother took it to the extreme, I could definitely relate to Larry's decision to put himself between any conversations his parents had.
At one point in the story, Larry commented While [Father] talked to ridgway Mother I played loudly with my toys to show my total lack of concern, (102) and affect the environment I pictured my brother doing the exact same thing while Rodney talked. While he never repeated his actions of that first night, he continued to terry ridgway do everything he could to inconvenience any conversations the. Essay about My Family: My Mother, My Role Model. Terry Ridgway. do for the rest of my life. Guess who was there for me? Who was there to help me? Of course my mom, and for that I admire her. My mother is a wise, smart and educated person, she has two masters degree and for me she’s an example of what intelligent person should be like.
Sometimes she comes home tired from work, and she still makes time for her family. She makes sure that we have done our homework and is always making sure we have everything that we need. I learned from terry ridgway, my mother that if I work. of my feet, I promptly switch off my radio, hop painfully back over to my bed, and Differences Expressiveness jump in for terry ridgway another 30 minutes kip. You can't hide forever though, and at some point the enemy of work dodgers the what dawes, world over that people tell me is my mother ruthlessly hunts me down and terry hounds me from my resting place. Finally giving in to the inevitability of consciousness with all promise of is eternal further sleep dissolved, I grab my freshly crumpled clothes from the top bunk of my bed. Ridgway. My Career Choice: Accounting Essay. I have previously done work experience at how does littering, my local estate agents.
This showed me the ridgway, fundamentals of business and how to make a profit. During my time at the estate agents I had many tasks to do which really helped me develop my confidence in how to deal with customers. One of the tasks I was given at my placement was to sell a two-bedroom first floor flat, I had to firstly show the clients the house and of tippecanoe summary then persuade them to buy it; which I succeed in. This task really helped me more confidence. We didnt tell family until Christmas Day. Most of my family was happy for me, but some of them were a little doubtful that I would stop the nonsense I had gotten myself into. Terry. And indeed I did. Summary. I moved back home with my parents, and I started my life all over again. I was a brand new person, and in terry ridgway, less then 8 months, my life was going to change even more.
On August 9, 2006 my son was born. He was the most beautiful baby boy I had even layed eyes on. He was so special, and he had to be sent from. Terry Ridgway. Personal Narrative: My Dad is My Hero Essay. Terry. I get home at 11:45 p.m. and my cell phone rings again, my hairs stood up and I looked at my fiance and said, Something bad happened; I know it. I picked up the phone to battle of tippecanoe summary hear my mother who was speaking very slowly, Danielle, something happened to your father, he is no longer with us. I will never forget how my knees buckled and I hit the floor, I can't remember much except that my fiance had carried me to my bed and I started dialing everyone I know to pass on this horrific news. I woke.
My Greatest Influence: My Mother Essay. history stored in those places. One summer, while we still lived in Brooklyn, New York, my family and ridgway I headed up north to Canada. We stayed at a stunning hotel with an outstanding view of the Niagara Falls splashing down menacingly into the water. During the night, the falls would change color due to the lighting it was given. Although I was still really young, I understood just about everything I learned from my mother in this trip. Once the light was seen through the what was the purpose of the severalty, thick fabric of the hotel curtains. My Grandmother, My Guardian Angel Essay. Terry. through the day without much spoken appreciation-- a simple thank-you or a small compliment-- from most of how does littering affect my relatives. I don't think a lot of them knew just how much they should have said until the day came when we all fell silently speechless.
Recalling the day of August 4th, 2003, the ridgway, day my grandmother was diagnosed with cancer, is difficult because I once had no words to describe my emotions or the situation I was faced with. I remember the cramped hospital waiting room where we all sat and. Better to Betray My Country and Not My Friend Essay. breaks a law, such as the Weather Underground did in battle of tippecanoe, their protest of the lack of ridgway attention being given to the Vietnam War, their actions are unjustified. Now let us distinguish between an unjust action and an unjust cause. The Weathermen were in my opinion morally justified to go against the government and of tippecanoe summary protest the war in Vietnam (obviously protest is very different than betrayal, but for the sake of an ridgway, example …). This was their morally justified cause. By bombing buildings and bashing glass. book report- my sister my sorrow Essay.
mother is always concerned for her younger daughter, even before they realize that she has cancer. When the THE TIMES OF GERSHWIN, signs of Beth’s’ cancer begin to appear with her losing weight, getting bruises, bleeding gums etc. Her mother kicks into overdrive- “Naturally my mother, the vigilante, thought I had one of those eating disorders a lot of girls these days have and started snooping around to ridgway see if I was taking laxatives or deliberately throwing up.” Each of the characters in the book have their own separate. need to depend on my mother as much as i used to. She influenced me to become a better man that my father was, to work hard in terry ridgway, life, and terry never give up even when there are many obstacles to overcome. Her life goal was to give me and my brother a life she never had , and in an now my life goal is to give my mother a life my grandparents never had. My last sentence Her life goal was to give me and terry ridgway my brother a life she never had , and now my life goal is to give my mother a life my grandparents never. back in 1993, one cold night in how does the environment, Bloomington, IL, I watched my father brutally beat my mother. I stood there helpless and unable to terry ridgway protect my mother.
As time went on the beatings and abuse became worse. Finally, my mother had enough and called the Essay about THE TIMES OF GERSHWIN, police. I was in the 3rd grade when my mother and father divorced. I really didn’t understand why I didn’t see my father anymore. I began to have so much hatred toward my mother. I started blaming my mother for terry ridgway his absence. I began to battle of tippecanoe summary act out, using drugs. that fit my standards or my budget. When I finally came to terms with the facts that I just wants going to be able to move back to terry Cleveland and live on my own I settled on the decision to move back to my parents. I was weary about my decision to move back in with my parents but I knew my current living situation was not tolerable for any longer period of time. About. I was so busy packing my life away and caught up in the drama with my current roommate I barely thought about how drastic my life would. Terry Ridgway. I. My mother, as my age progressed, steadily became less god-like and more realistic.
I realized that my mother, the same as all people, had her faults. She also, in turn, seemed to have trouble losing my absolute devotion. I had stopped running to her with every new discovery I made, and I no longer turned to her for advice in how does littering, my life, although I needed it most as I matured. Terry Ridgway. I was growing up. Littering Affect. Her last baby, and only girl, was making her own decisions and mistakes, and I think my mother. this point in terry, my life from age five to seven years old, my dad has signed me up for terry ridgway different leagues such as mini mites. Terry. Mini mites, is terry ridgway, one of the first leagues you participate in and I remember it as being a blast. It was fun as I began to terry ridgway meet new hockey players, which I know to this day. Some friends I began to play with throughout my hockey years. Mini mites weren’t my strong leagues, as it wasn’t many. Squirts were the battle summary, next league I was involved with.
This time in my life was when. I was so happy to see my father; on the other hand, as my six-foot, three-inch, overpowering father approached him, he was laughing nervously. As he went to shake my father's colossal hand, he was astonished. He stared at my father's right hand, shaking it as my father's left arm reached over to pound his ample back. The encounter successfully created the infancy stages of ridgway a new friendship between the two most important men in my life; and at terry ridgway, that moment, I knew he was my soul mate. Marching. once responded to a comment by another student regarding my inability to grasp the concept of math that “Rebeca, doesn’t grasp it as easy as others do” she said this of course, out ridgway, loud in a class full of my peers; from that point on I rebelled, I wanted nothing to do with math. Yet, here I was today left with my realities and about THE TIMES OF GERSHWIN consequences of a long life struggle and fear that perhaps was begun by a teachers comment. Hoping and prying that my current peers and instructor would understand why this. First of all, I would like to begin with my favourite section which is the novel section. This is the place where I spend most of my time, let it be before or after work when there are no more chores to be done.
As I come back from office as early as 3 p.m., I have my bath and guess what? I will pick a book from my novel collection and try my best to finish reading it before the next day. There are about 598 novels in this section which includes the ridgway, best ever novels written such as Blood Meridian. environment to be the terry ridgway, same every day. I want it to be an exciting place to be. I want my students to want to come to terry ridgway class. I will use music in the background for Essay about THE TIMES OF GERSHWIN writing assignments. Ridgway. I have seen in practice what I thought in theory; music frees up the creative mind and is conducive to more expressive writing. Students have shown me this works. Although I will never dictate in was the of the dawes severalty, my classroom, I will be very disciplined, because you do have to have control. I will do. anything that was taught in class, especially during lectures. Ridgway. I feel that my lack of Differences in Facial Expressiveness success in earning top grades affected my social interactions with my peers.
They assumed that my poor grades and lack of interest in ridgway, the discussions in class meant that I was unintelligent or ‘less than’ they were, socially and intellectually. As I grew older I discovered my knack for learning and have been able to capitalize on my abilities to be efficient at reading comprehension, and terry ridgway visual memory retention. 2012) Like I said, I plan on owning my own salon, so the terry, pay will probably be better than that, but I’ll be getting paid to do something that I love, and that’s what matters most to me. I know that I have a long way to go if I want to make my dream of being a hairstylist and Expressiveness Essay owning my own salon come true, but right now I am doing what I can to make it happen, and I know if I keep trying, one day my dream will definitely become a reality. I will be able to find my place in terry, the lucrative career of. Once I got their “latest moves” down cold I would practice them in front of my full-length mirror. Expressiveness. My friends and terry ridgway I would then attempt to Essay THE TIMES dance like them at our little Junior High dances. The funny part was we even had dance competitions to see which one of us was a better dancer.
Of course the winner was never announced, according to the principal, “We were all excellent dancers.” However, I always had that feeling in my mind that if it ever came down to terry ridgway it, I would have won the contest. I simply. in Jennys new car and I was care free, mostly day-dreaming about my intentions of battle of tippecanoe summary purchasing my own vehicle soon. I was scheduled to be at work by 5pm that day and I was excited to get there and add another twenty dollars to my car savings. Jenny took the ridgway, same route I would take to my house, Annapolis st, which was often busy at this time due to the two Elementary schools that fall along the three mile stretch between our school and my house. The speed limit on Annapolis st. is 25 mph because of the. experience the subject in one way or another. Different ways to do this would be to do a project, to make up a skit, or even teach the other students about it. As an instructor, I intend to be a role model for my students.
I will never do or say anything that I would not want them to repeat. My students will feel free to come and talk to me when they have a problem no matter what it deals with. If I can help in any way, I will. I believe in rewarding and punishing behaviors in the classroom. If. it teaches students to littering affect the environment think critically and accomplish problem solving tasks. Terry. The reading and writing of literature will help them think and interpret on a higher educational level. Instead of being a strict teacher, I will be a facilitator. My classroom will be one of control, and not one with a strict code of song is eternal order.
I feel that if a teacher orders students around they will be given less respect. If you keep them in line without being too controlling, they will be more effective listeners. When I went off I was amazed I survived. Me and my big brother and my little brother had fun with a lot more roller coasters. Soon it was eight forty five, the park was going to terry close in ode to a nightingale the bird is eternal, fifteen minutes because it was Sunday and it closed early. My big brother warned me we had to go ride the superman. We had to run because we were on the other side of the park. Soon we arrived at ridgway, eight fifty, and the worst thing happened in the world. The person in charge of the roller coaster would not let anyone. Terry Ridgway. I still saw dance as a way of entertaining myself.
By the terry, age of five, I was already in battle summary, the United States and here is where I got inspired by professional dancers. My uncle's wife is a professional dancer and she had her own dancing studio where she taught Salsa, Merengue, Bachata, and Regional Mexicano (Hispanic dance genres). Her studio was big with mirrored walls and hard wood floors. On one of the terry, walls, there was a painting of a dancing couple surrounded by music notes. On the corner of the. As in doing this and the information that was shared that my judgment I could not choose be two of the people. I learn that instead of judging people with you first see them that I need to look at the visual but also determine some of the hidden characteristics so that I can be more informed about Differences in Facial Essay that person. Reference University of terry ridgway Phoenix. (2009). My Place for Diversity Multimedia [Multimedia]. Cultural In Facial Expressiveness. Retrieved from University of ridgway Phoenix, DIVERSITY ISSUES IN COMMUNICATION website. * preferences. What Was The Purpose Dawes Severalty Act?. teacher.
One of my greatest fears during high school was that I would choose a career that would eventually become tedious but I would have to stick with the terry, job because of family or financial commitments. I have a hard time believing that being a teacher could ever become tedious. The idea of interacting with students, parents, administrators, and the government excites me. Terry Ridgway. I cannot wait to share all my skills and abilities with the ridgway, people around me and in turn benefit from the talents of my. Essay on The Most Unforgettable Day in My Life. into a run towards the littering, neighbour’s place when I saw my children standing at the door of the bedroom, looking anxious and scared. Click. I switched on a plastic smile.
Then let out a peal of terry ridgway laughter “Papa has got himself locked in. He he he!” They were not amused. “It’s OK.” I persisted through my plastic smile. “I’ll get Vinni’s father. He’ll open it. Dawes Severalty. Don’t worry.” My daughter went back to her books (a cool customer and I love her for it). Terry Ridgway. My son went slowly back to his cane chair, with a somber. living your American Dream.
Second, spare time is THE TIMES, very important in my American Dream. I believe that a good relationship with the family is terry ridgway, one of the most important things in everyone?s American Dream; however, most people do not realize that strong relationships are based on the amount of quality time spent with each other. Having a high-paying, enjoyable job as well as spare time to in an a nightingale song spend with my family, would truly be my American Dream. Also, having spare time just to be relaxed can help. course, I never physically leave the windowless art room when I travel. I don't get any less out of it though. My postcards don't require stamps. It is forty minutes of my day, and ridgway an exotic voyage each time. Cultural Differences Essay. Educator Mortimer Adler says that the terry ridgway, primary cause of genuine learning is the activity of the learner's own mind.
I read the ode to the bird song is eternal, words over and over, and pack a paper-bag lunch to send with my imagination on its trek. I have traveled the world several times over in this fashion, picking up fragments. Terry Ridgway. active for a number of years doing odd carpenter jobs. Mom kept active in church and community work. Purpose Act?. I took my schooling at terry, Orpington for grades 1 to 8. I enjoyed playing ball, prisoner's base and smoking behind the barn. After school was out for the day, i helped mom and dad on the farm. Farming has changed over ode to the bird is eternal the years, as it does not involve the manual labor that our parents knew. My parents immigrated to terry ridgway Canada in 1937, along with many other people, to claim land and Canada as their new home. Cultural In Facial. getting out of the way. Terry Ridgway. In fact, he had been a boxer in one of his lives, so such mannerisms fit right in with my image of him. What’s more, beneath his ever-present white dress shirt, top button opened, sleeves rolled up, a pack of Camels tucked in the shirt cuff James Dean style, his upper body radiated the sort of strength you didn’t have to prove, something the terry ridgway, swaggering bullies in my neighborhood didn’t know how to terry master.
I so much wanted to battle of tippecanoe be close to and absorb his demeanor. But the intermittent. speak to my mother in ridgway, a more official and basic way thus the terry ridgway, variation in spoken language between my sister and my mother is due to me wanting to adapt to the way my friends and the younger generation of my family use the aspects of music to express their feelings. I also used “YOLO” to strengthen the connection between me and my sister so that she would know that we have a lot of things in common in terms of understanding general teenage knowledge. I do not use slang when conversing with my parents. schedule, he always made time for us. Ridgway. When my mom was pregnant, he would always answer to her needs, even if it meant being absent from work. Essay About OF GERSHWIN. With my mother getting close to having me, he bought my mom to work with him during his night shift so he could take care of her. He made a little bed for my mom in the back room of his shop so she can rest while he worked. He was the bread-winner of the family, yet he never neglected us. He cares a lot for terry ridgway us.
My dad will do anything for his children. Since. morning, and nobody was in my aunt’s house except my cousin and me. I went to my dad’s house, but nobody was there and everything was dark. It seemed strange to me because last night everybody was there, so I knew that they took my dad to the hospital. It was 8:00 in THE TIMES, the morning, and nobody came to terry tell me what was going on, so I started to pray with my cousin. Since she had already lost her dad, she told me that I have to be prepared for anything. Then, my mom came in and tried to. That eased my mind a little. However, that was all we found of my dear wallet. My friend and I gave up after wasting an hour of finding nothing.
Losing my wallet made me depressed for the rest of the day. I could not believe I did something so stupid. The next day, I received a call from my father. In An Is Eternal. He was contacted by the sheriff’s department from Henderson County, where I was during this fiasco. When he answered the terry, phone, the sheriff said This is Deputy 'so-and-so' from the Henderson County.
I believe that adding more vegetables such as broccoli and chili or a bean dip to Differences in Facial my diet can positively impact my fiber intake. Dietary Modifications. Ridgway. Some of the major patterns or trends that arise in terry ridgway, my diet are the lack of proper nutrition. I can certainly see that most of my diet consists of terry items that are quick and easy to prepare. I find it much easier to eat unhealthy foods than to about eat properly which one of the biggest problems with nutrition in ridgway, the United States today. I am a walking. mail lady. In the afternoon she sits on the light brown two-seater swing that hangs on terry ridgway, our white wrap around porch. At night, we sit in the floor and terry ridgway I brush her hair. This is her normal bedtime routine. Lucy sleeps with me each night on the end of my white water bed. At the same time every night, she willingly secludes herself from the family and prances upstairs to sleep alone, until I get there.
Her back aligns the window tracing the side of the bed and a nightingale the bird is eternal her stomach lies flat on the heated water. better life than majority of ridgway what the world experiences, I find myself in Essay THE TIMES, an opportunity to assist those of lesser means. That is why I usually volunteer my time, and at terry, times funds or skill to assist in of tippecanoe summary, outreaches. I have no plans to terry stop at any time soon, therefore I see myself making more contributions to community service. I also assist in my school. I participate actively in sports and in other activities above and over the required amount, other activities include assistance at marketing and. information. Terry Ridgway. Like many other Chinese, my grandparents slightly altered their family history.
Instead to reporting they had three daughters and one son, they reported they had four sons. In the China, it was usually the ridgway, men who came to Cultural in Facial Expressiveness the United States to ridgway work for a better living. In An. By having extra birth certificates, my grandparents were able to sell them to ridgway other immigrants allowing them to come to America, which was very common at the time. Meanwhile, my grandparents became married in China. pen a paragraph, I think those words. Reading my first paper of the terry ridgway, year, and then my last, the difference is ever so clear. The thesis actually carries throughout, ending up at a beautiful conclusion, that miraculously relates back to ridgway the thesis. It is a beautiful method, and a valuable lesson, and I am glad that I was able to incorporate it into my writing. Of The Severalty Act?. On a greater scale than this classes contribution to my writing, was its enrichment of my literary analysis.
I have always enjoyed criticizing.
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3 The Application Program Interface. This section describes the C API for Lua, that is, the set of C functions available to the host program to communicate with Lua. All API functions and related types and constants are declared in the header file lua.h . Even when we use the term function, any facility in the API may be provided as a macro instead. All such macros use each of their arguments exactly once (except for the first argument, which is always a Lua state), and so do not generate any hidden side-effects. As in ridgway most C libraries, the Lua API functions do not check their arguments for validity or consistency. However, you can change this behavior by compiling Lua with a proper definition for the macro luai_apicheck , in file luaconf.h . Lua uses a virtual stack to pass values to and from C. Each element in this stack represents a Lua value ( nil , number, string, etc.).
Whenever Lua calls C, the called function gets a new stack, which is independent of previous stacks and of stacks of C functions that are still active. This stack initially contains any arguments to Cultural Essay the C function and it is terry ridgway where the of the, C function pushes its results to be returned to the caller (see lua_CFunction ). For convenience, most query operations in the API do not follow a strict stack discipline. Instead, they can refer to ridgway any element in the stack by using an terry ridgway, index : A positive index represents an absolute stack position (starting at 1); a negative index represents an offset relative to terry ridgway the top of the stack. More specifically, if the stack has n elements, then index 1 represents the first element (that is, the element that was pushed onto the stack first) and index n represents the last element; index -1 also represents the last element (that is, the element at the top) and battle summary, index -n represents the terry ridgway, first element. We say that an index is valid if it lies between 1 and the stack top (that is, if 1 ≤ abs(index) ≤ top ). When you interact with Lua API, you are responsible for terry ridgway, ensuring consistency. In particular, you are responsible for controlling stack overflow . You can use the function lua_checkstack to grow the stack size. Whenever Lua calls C, it ensures that at ridgway least LUA_MINSTACK stack positions are available. LUA_MINSTACK is defined as 20, so that usually you do not have to worry about stack space unless your code has loops pushing elements onto the stack. Most query functions accept as indices any value inside the available stack space, that is, indices up to the maximum stack size you have set through lua_checkstack . Such indices are called acceptable indices . Terry Ridgway! More formally, we define an acceptable index as follows:
Note that 0 is never an acceptable index. Unless otherwise noted, any function that accepts valid indices can also be called with pseudo-indices , which represent some Lua values that are accessible to C code but which are not in the stack. Pseudo-indices are used to access the thread environment, the function environment, the registry, and the upvalues of a C function (see §3.4). The thread environment (where global variables live) is always at pseudo-index LUA_GLOBALSINDEX . Terry! The environment of the running C function is always at pseudo-index LUA_ENVIRONINDEX . To access and change the value of global variables, you can use regular table operations over an environment table. For instance, to access the value of a global variable, do. When a C function is created, it is possible to what severalty act? associate some values with it, thus creating a C closure ; these values are called upvalues and are accessible to the function whenever it is called (see lua_pushcclosure ). Whenever a C function is called, its upvalues are located at specific pseudo-indices. These pseudo-indices are produced by the macro lua_upvalueindex . The first value associated with a function is at position lua_upvalueindex(1) , and so on. Any access to lua_upvalueindex( n ) , where n is greater than the number of upvalues of the current function (but not greater than 256), produces an acceptable (but invalid) index.
Lua provides a registry , a pre-defined table that can be used by any C code to store whatever Lua value it needs to store. This table is always located at pseudo-index LUA_REGISTRYINDEX . Terry! Any C library can store data into this table, but it should take care to choose keys different from those used by other libraries, to avoid collisions. Typically, you should use as key a string containing your library name or a light userdata with the address of a C object in your code. The integer keys in the registry are used by summary, the reference mechanism, implemented by the auxiliary library, and ridgway, therefore should not be used for other purposes. Internally, Lua uses the terry ridgway, C longjmp facility to handle errors. (You can also choose to terry ridgway use exceptions if you use C++; see file luaconf.h .) When Lua faces any error (such as memory allocation errors, type errors, syntax errors, and runtime errors) it raises an error; that is, it does a long jump. A protected environment uses setjmp to how does the environment set a recover point; any error jumps to the most recent active recover point.
Most functions in terry ridgway the API can throw an error, for instance due to a memory allocation error. The documentation for each function indicates whether it can throw errors. Inside a C function you can throw an error by calling lua_error . Here we list all functions and types from the C API in alphabetical order. Each function has an indicator like this: [-o, +p, x ] The first field, o , is how many elements the function pops from the stack. The second field, p , is how many elements the function pushes onto the stack. Is Eternal! (Any function always pushes its results after popping its arguments.) A field in the form x|y means the function can push (or pop) x or y elements, depending on the situation; an interrogation mark ' ? ' means that we cannot know how many elements the function pops/pushes by ridgway, looking only at its arguments (e.g., they may depend on what is on in Facial Expressiveness, the stack). The third field, x , tells whether the function may throw errors: ' - ' means the function never throws any error; ' m ' means the function may throw an error only due to terry ridgway not enough memory; ' e ' means the function may throw other kinds of errors; ' v ' means the was the, function may throw an error on purpose. The type of the terry, memory-allocation function used by terry ridgway, Lua states.
The allocator function must provide a functionality similar to realloc , but not exactly the same. Its arguments are ud , an opaque pointer passed to lua_newstate ; ptr , a pointer to the block being allocated/reallocated/freed; osize , the original size of the block; nsize , the new size of the block. ptr is NULL if and only if osize is zero. Terry! When nsize is zero, the allocator must return NULL ; if osize is not zero, it should free the block pointed to by ptr . When nsize is not zero, the allocator returns NULL if and only if it cannot fill the request. When nsize is not zero and osize is summary zero, the allocator should behave like malloc . When nsize and osize are not zero, the allocator behaves like realloc . Lua assumes that the allocator never fails when osize = nsize . Here is a simple implementation for the allocator function. Terry! It is used in the auxiliary library by luaL_newstate . This code assumes that free(NULL) has no effect and that realloc(NULL, size) is equivalent to malloc(size) . ANSI C ensures both behaviors. Sets a new panic function and returns the old one. If an error happens outside any protected environment, Lua calls a panic function and was the purpose dawes severalty, then calls exit(EXIT_FAILURE) , thus exiting the host application.
Your panic function can avoid this exit by never returning (e.g., doing a long jump). The panic function can access the error message at the top of the stack. Calls a function. To call a function you must use the terry ridgway, following protocol: first, the function to be called is pushed onto the stack; then, the arguments to the function are pushed in of tippecanoe direct order; that is, the terry, first argument is pushed first. Finally you call lua_call ; nargs is the number of what purpose of the dawes, arguments that you pushed onto the stack. All arguments and ridgway, the function value are popped from the Essay THE TIMES, stack when the function is called. Ridgway! The function results are pushed onto the stack when the function returns.
The number of results is OF GERSHWIN adjusted to nresults , unless nresults is LUA_MULTRET . In this case, all results from the function are pushed. Lua takes care that the returned values fit into the stack space. The function results are pushed onto terry, the stack in direct order (the first result is pushed first), so that after the call the last result is on terry ridgway, the top of the stack. Any error inside the called function is propagated upwards (with a longjmp ). The following example shows how the host program can do the equivalent to this Lua code: Here it is in terry ridgway C:
Note that the code above is balanced: at its end, the ode to the bird is eternal, stack is back to its original configuration. Terry! This is considered good programming practice. Type for C functions. In order to communicate properly with Lua, a C function must use the following protocol, which defines the Differences Expressiveness, way parameters and results are passed: a C function receives its arguments from Lua in its stack in direct order (the first argument is pushed first). So, when the function starts, lua_gettop(L) returns the number of arguments received by the function. The first argument (if any) is at index 1 and its last argument is at index lua_gettop(L) . Terry! To return values to Lua, a C function just pushes them onto the stack, in direct order (the first result is pushed first), and returns the number of results. Any other value in the stack below the results will be properly discarded by Lua. What Purpose Of The Severalty! Like a Lua function, a C function called by terry, Lua can also return many results. As an example, the following function receives a variable number of numerical arguments and Cultural Differences Expressiveness, returns their average and sum:
Ensures that there are at least extra free stack slots in the stack. It returns false if it cannot grow the stack to that size. This function never shrinks the stack; if the stack is already larger than the new size, it is terry left unchanged. Destroys all objects in the given Lua state (calling the battle of tippecanoe summary, corresponding garbage-collection metamethods, if any) and terry ridgway, frees all dynamic memory used by this state. On several platforms, you may not need to call this function, because all resources are naturally released when the host program ends. On the other hand, long-running programs, such as a daemon or a web server, might need to release states as soon as they are not needed, to avoid growing too large. Concatenates the n values at the top of the stack, pops them, and was the of the, leaves the terry, result at the top. If n is how does affect 1, the result is the terry, single value on terry ridgway, the stack (that is, the function does nothing); if n is 0, the result is the empty string. Concatenation is performed following the usual semantics of Lua (see §2.5.4).
Calls the C function func in protected mode. func starts with only terry ridgway, one element in its stack, a light userdata containing ud . In case of Differences in Facial Essay, errors, lua_cpcall returns the same error codes as lua_pcall , plus the terry ridgway, error object on the top of the stack; otherwise, it returns zero, and in an ode to song is eternal, does not change the stack. All values returned by terry, func are discarded. Creates a new empty table and pushes it onto Essay THE TIMES, the stack. The new table has space pre-allocated for narr array elements and nrec non-array elements. This pre-allocation is terry useful when you know exactly how many elements the table will have. How Does Littering The Environment! Otherwise you can use the function lua_newtable . Dumps a function as a binary chunk. Terry Ridgway! Receives a Lua function on the top of the stack and produces a binary chunk that, if loaded again, results in a function equivalent to the one dumped. As it produces parts of the chunk, lua_dump calls function writer (see lua_Writer ) with the given data to write them. The value returned is the error code returned by the last call to Essay about the writer; 0 means no errors. This function does not pop the Lua function from the stack. Returns 1 if the ridgway, two values in acceptable indices index1 and how does littering affect the environment, index2 are equal, following the semantics of the Lua == operator (that is, may call metamethods).
Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the indices is non valid. Generates a Lua error. The error message (which can actually be a Lua value of any type) must be on the stack top. This function does a long jump, and therefore never returns. (see luaL_error ). Controls the garbage collector. This function performs several tasks, according to the value of the parameter what : LUA_GCSTOP : stops the garbage collector. LUA_GCRESTART : restarts the garbage collector. LUA_GCCOLLECT : performs a full garbage-collection cycle. LUA_GCCOUNT : returns the terry, current amount of how does the environment, memory (in Kbytes) in use by Lua. LUA_GCCOUNTB : returns the remainder of dividing the current amount of terry ridgway, bytes of in an the bird, memory in use by Lua by 1024. LUA_GCSTEP : performs an incremental step of garbage collection.
The step size is controlled by data (larger values mean more steps) in a non-specified way. If you want to terry control the step size you must experimentally tune the value of in an is eternal, data . The function returns 1 if the step finished a garbage-collection cycle. LUA_GCSETPAUSE : sets data as the terry, new value for the pause of the collector (see §2.10). The function returns the previous value of the pause. LUA_GCSETSTEPMUL : sets data as the new value for the step multiplier of the collector (see §2.10). The function returns the previous value of the a nightingale the bird song, step multiplier.
Returns the memory-allocation function of a given state. If ud is not NULL , Lua stores in *ud the opaque pointer passed to lua_newstate . Pushes onto the stack the environment table of the value at the given index. Pushes onto the stack the value t[k] , where t is the value at the given valid index. As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the index event (see §2.8). Pushes onto the stack the value of the global name . It is terry ridgway defined as a macro: Pushes onto in Facial Essay, the stack the metatable of the value at the given acceptable index. If the index is terry ridgway not valid, or if the value does not have a metatable, the function returns 0 and pushes nothing on the stack. Pushes onto the stack the what was the of the severalty act?, value t[k] , where t is the value at the given valid index and k is the value at the top of the stack. This function pops the terry, key from the stack (putting the resulting value in its place).
As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the index event (see §2.8). Returns the index of the top element in the stack. Because indices start at 1, this result is equal to the number of Cultural Differences in Facial Essay, elements in the stack (and so 0 means an empty stack). Moves the top element into the given valid index, shifting up the elements above this index to open space. Cannot be called with a pseudo-index, because a pseudo-index is not an actual stack position. The type used by the Lua API to represent integral values.
By default it is a ptrdiff_t , which is usually the largest signed integral type the machine handles comfortably. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index has type boolean, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a C function, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a function (either C or Lua), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the ridgway, value at the given acceptable index is a light userdata, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at ode to a nightingale song is eternal the given acceptable index is nil , and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the given acceptable index is ridgway not valid (that is, it refers to an element outside the current stack), and 0 otherwise.
Returns 1 if the given acceptable index is terry ridgway not valid (that is, it refers to an element outside the current stack) or if the value at this index is nil , and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the terry ridgway, value at the given acceptable index is a number or a string convertible to a number, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is littering the environment a string or a number (which is always convertible to a string), and terry ridgway, 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the Differences Expressiveness, value at the given acceptable index is a table, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the terry, value at battle the given acceptable index is a thread, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a userdata (either full or light), and 0 otherwise.
Returns 1 if the value at acceptable index index1 is smaller than the value at acceptable index index2 , following the semantics of the Lua operator (that is, may call metamethods). Ridgway! Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the indices is in an song non valid. Loads a Lua chunk. If there are no errors, lua_load pushes the compiled chunk as a Lua function on top of the ridgway, stack. Otherwise, it pushes an Cultural in Facial Expressiveness Essay, error message. The return values of lua_load are: 0: no errors; LUA_ERRSYNTAX : syntax error during pre-compilation; LUA_ERRMEM : memory allocation error.
This function only loads a chunk; it does not run it. lua_load automatically detects whether the chunk is text or binary, and loads it accordingly (see program luac ). The lua_load function uses a user-supplied reader function to read the chunk (see lua_Reader ). The data argument is an opaque value passed to the reader function. The chunkname argument gives a name to the chunk, which is used for error messages and in terry ridgway debug information (see §3.8). Creates a new, independent state. Returns NULL if cannot create the state (due to lack of memory).
The argument f is the allocator function; Lua does all memory allocation for this state through this function. Essay About THE TIMES OF GERSHWIN! The second argument, ud , is an opaque pointer that Lua simply passes to the allocator in every call. Creates a new empty table and pushes it onto the stack. It is equivalent to ridgway lua_createtable(L, 0, 0) . Creates a new thread, pushes it on the stack, and terry ridgway, returns a pointer to a lua_State that represents this new thread. Terry Ridgway! The new state returned by this function shares with the original state all global objects (such as tables), but has an independent execution stack. There is no explicit function to close or to destroy a thread.
Threads are subject to garbage collection, like any Lua object. This function allocates a new block of in an ode to, memory with the given size, pushes onto the stack a new full userdata with the block address, and returns this address. Userdata represent C values in Lua. A full userdata represents a block of memory. Ridgway! It is an object (like a table): you must create it, it can have its own metatable, and you can detect when it is being collected. A full userdata is only equal to itself (under raw equality). When Lua collects a full userdata with a gc metamethod, Lua calls the metamethod and marks the userdata as finalized. When this userdata is collected again then Lua frees its corresponding memory. Pops a key from the stack, and pushes a key-value pair from the table at the given index (the next pair after the given key). If there are no more elements in the table, then lua_next returns 0 (and pushes nothing).
A typical traversal looks like this: While traversing a table, do not call lua_tolstring directly on a key, unless you know that the key is Differences in Facial Expressiveness Essay actually a string. Recall that lua_tolstring changes the value at the given index; this confuses the next call to ridgway lua_next . The type of numbers in Lua. By default, it is terry ridgway double, but that can be changed in ridgway luaconf.h . Through the configuration file you can change Lua to operate with another type for numbers (e.g., float or long). Returns the length of the value at the given acceptable index: for strings, this is the battle summary, string length; for terry ridgway, tables, this is the littering the environment, result of the length operator (' # '); for userdata, this is the size of the ridgway, block of memory allocated for the userdata; for other values, it is in Facial Expressiveness Essay 0. Calls a function in protected mode. Both nargs and ridgway, nresults have the same meaning as in lua_call . If there are no errors during the call, lua_pcall behaves exactly like lua_call . However, if there is any error, lua_pcall catches it, pushes a single value on the stack (the error message), and returns an error code. Like lua_call , lua_pcall always removes the terry ridgway, function and its arguments from the stack.
If errfunc is 0, then the terry ridgway, error message returned on the stack is exactly the original error message. Otherwise, errfunc is the stack index of an error handler function . In An A Nightingale The Bird Is Eternal! (In the current implementation, this index cannot be a pseudo-index.) In case of terry ridgway, runtime errors, this function will be called with the error message and its return value will be the message returned on the stack by ode to a nightingale, lua_pcall . Typically, the error handler function is used to add more debug information to the error message, such as a stack traceback. Such information cannot be gathered after the return of lua_pcall , since by then the stack has unwound. The lua_pcall function returns 0 in terry case of success or one of the following error codes (defined in lua.h ): LUA_ERRRUN : a runtime error. LUA_ERRMEM : memory allocation error. For such errors, Lua does not call the how does littering affect, error handler function. LUA_ERRERR : error while running the error handler function. Pops n elements from the stack. Pushes a boolean value with value b onto the stack.
Pushes a new C closure onto the stack. When a C function is created, it is terry possible to associate some values with it, thus creating a C closure (see §3.4); these values are then accessible to summary the function whenever it is terry called. To associate values with a C function, first these values should be pushed onto the stack (when there are multiple values, the first value is pushed first). Then lua_pushcclosure is called to what was the of the dawes act? create and push the terry, C function onto the stack, with the argument n telling how many values should be associated with the function. lua_pushcclosure also pops these values from the stack. The maximum value for n is 255.
Pushes a C function onto battle, the stack. This function receives a pointer to a C function and pushes onto the stack a Lua value of type function that, when called, invokes the corresponding C function. Any function to be registered in Lua must follow the correct protocol to receive its parameters and return its results (see lua_CFunction ). lua_pushcfunction is terry ridgway defined as a macro: Pushes onto the stack a formatted string and returns a pointer to terry ridgway this string. It is ridgway similar to the C function sprintf , but has some important differences: You do not have to terry ridgway allocate space for the result: the result is a Lua string and Lua takes care of memory allocation (and deallocation, through garbage collection). The conversion specifiers are quite restricted. There are no flags, widths, or precisions.
The conversion specifiers can only ridgway, be ' %% ' (inserts a ' % ' in terry ridgway the string), ' %s ' (inserts a zero-terminated string, with no size restrictions), ' %f ' (inserts a lua_Number ), ' %p ' (inserts a pointer as a hexadecimal numeral), ' %d ' (inserts an int ), and ' %c ' (inserts an int as a character). Pushes a number with value n onto the stack. Pushes a light userdata onto ridgway, the stack. Userdata represent C values in Lua. A light userdata represents a pointer. It is how does littering a value (like a number): you do not create it, it has no individual metatable, and it is not collected (as it was never created).
A light userdata is equal to any light userdata with the terry ridgway, same C address. This macro is equivalent to lua_pushlstring , but can be used only when s is a literal string. In these cases, it automatically provides the string length. Pushes the of the severalty act?, string pointed to by s with size len onto terry ridgway, the stack. Lua makes (or reuses) an internal copy of the given string, so the what of the, memory at s can be freed or reused immediately after the function returns. The string can contain embedded zeros. Pushes a nil value onto ridgway, the stack.
Pushes a number with value n onto the stack. Pushes the zero-terminated string pointed to by s onto the stack. Lua makes (or reuses) an internal copy of the given string, so the in an the bird is eternal, memory at s can be freed or reused immediately after the function returns. The string cannot contain embedded zeros; it is assumed to end at the first zero. Pushes the thread represented by terry, L onto the stack. Returns 1 if this thread is the main thread of its state. Pushes a copy of the element at the given valid index onto the stack. Equivalent to lua_pushfstring , except that it receives a va_list instead of a variable number of arguments.
Returns 1 if the two values in acceptable indices index1 and index2 are primitively equal (that is, without calling metamethods). Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the indices are non valid. Similar to lua_gettable , but does a raw access (i.e., without metamethods). Pushes onto the stack the value t[n] , where t is the value at the given valid index. The access is in an ode to the bird song is eternal raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. Similar to terry lua_settable , but does a raw assignment (i.e., without metamethods). Does the equivalent of t[n] = v , where t is the value at the given valid index and v is the value at the top of the stack. This function pops the OF GERSHWIN, value from the stack. Ridgway! The assignment is raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. The reader function used by was the dawes severalty, lua_load . Every time it needs another piece of the chunk, lua_load calls the reader, passing along its data parameter.
The reader must return a pointer to ridgway a block of memory with a new piece of the chunk and set size to the block size. The block must exist until the reader function is called again. To signal the littering, end of the chunk, the ridgway, reader must return NULL or set size to zero. The reader function may return pieces of any size greater than zero. Sets the C function f as the new value of global name . How Does Littering Affect The Environment! It is defined as a macro:
Removes the element at the given valid index, shifting down the elements above this index to terry fill the gap. Cannot be called with a pseudo-index, because a pseudo-index is not an in an the bird song is eternal, actual stack position. Moves the top element into the given position (and pops it), without shifting any element (therefore replacing the value at terry ridgway the given position). Starts and resumes a coroutine in a given thread. To start a coroutine, you first create a new thread (see lua_newthread ); then you push onto its stack the main function plus any arguments; then you call lua_resume , with narg being the number of terry ridgway, arguments. This call returns when the coroutine suspends or finishes its execution. When it returns, the stack contains all values passed to lua_yield , or all values returned by the body function. lua_resume returns LUA_YIELD if the coroutine yields, 0 if the coroutine finishes its execution without errors, or an ridgway, error code in case of errors (see lua_pcall ). In case of errors, the stack is not unwound, so you can use the debug API over it. The error message is on the top of the stack. To restart a coroutine, you put on its stack only the values to be passed as results from a nightingale song is eternal yield , and then call lua_resume . Changes the allocator function of a given state to f with user data ud . Pops a table from the stack and sets it as the new environment for the value at the given index.
If the value at the given index is neither a function nor a thread nor a userdata, lua_setfenv returns 0. Otherwise it returns 1. Does the equivalent to t[k] = v , where t is the value at the given valid index and v is the value at the top of the terry, stack. This function pops the value from the stack. As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the newindex event (see §2.8). Pops a value from the Differences, stack and sets it as the new value of global name . Terry! It is defined as a macro:
Pops a table from the stack and sets it as the new metatable for the value at the given acceptable index. Does the equivalent to t[k] = v , where t is the value at the given valid index, v is the in an ode to a nightingale the bird, value at the top of the terry, stack, and k is the value just below the top. This function pops both the key and the value from the stack. As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the newindex event (see §2.8). Accepts any acceptable index, or 0, and sets the stack top to this index. If the how does the environment, new top is larger than the old one, then the new elements are filled with nil . If index is terry ridgway 0, then all stack elements are removed. Opaque structure that keeps the whole state of how does littering affect, a Lua interpreter. The Lua library is fully reentrant: it has no global variables. All information about a state is kept in this structure. A pointer to this state must be passed as the first argument to every function in the library, except to lua_newstate , which creates a Lua state from scratch.
Returns the status of the thread L . The status can be 0 for ridgway, a normal thread, an error code if the thread finished its execution with an error, or LUA_YIELD if the thread is suspended. Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to a C boolean value (0 or 1). Like all tests in Lua, lua_toboolean returns 1 for any Lua value different from false and terry ridgway, nil ; otherwise it returns 0. It also returns 0 when called with a non-valid index. Terry! (If you want to accept only actual boolean values, use lua_isboolean to Essay about OF GERSHWIN test the value's type.) Converts a value at the given acceptable index to a C function. That value must be a C function; otherwise, returns NULL . Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to the signed integral type lua_Integer . The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to terry a number (see §2.2.1); otherwise, lua_tointeger returns 0. If the number is not an integer, it is truncated in some non-specified way.
Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to a C string. Essay About! If len is not NULL , it also sets *len with the string length. The Lua value must be a string or a number; otherwise, the function returns NULL . If the value is a number, then lua_tolstring also changes the actual value in the stack to a string . Ridgway! (This change confuses lua_next when lua_tolstring is applied to keys during a table traversal.) lua_tolstring returns a fully aligned pointer to a string inside the Lua state. This string always has a zero (' 0 ') after its last character (as in C), but can contain other zeros in its body. Because Lua has garbage collection, there is affect the environment no guarantee that the pointer returned by lua_tolstring will be valid after the corresponding value is removed from the stack. Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to the C type lua_Number (see lua_Number ). The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to a number (see §2.2.1); otherwise, lua_tonumber returns 0. Converts the value at the given acceptable index to a generic C pointer ( void* ). The value can be a userdata, a table, a thread, or a function; otherwise, lua_topointer returns NULL . Terry! Different objects will give different pointers. Dawes! There is no way to convert the pointer back to its original value.
Typically this function is used only for debug information. Equivalent to lua_tolstring with len equal to NULL . Converts the value at the given acceptable index to a Lua thread (represented as lua_State* ). This value must be a thread; otherwise, the terry ridgway, function returns NULL . If the value at the given acceptable index is a full userdata, returns its block address. If the value is a light userdata, returns its pointer. Otherwise, returns NULL . Returns the type of the value in the given acceptable index, or LUA_TNONE for a non-valid index (that is, an index to an empty stack position). The types returned by lua_type are coded by how does littering, the following constants defined in ridgway lua.h : LUA_TNIL , LUA_TNUMBER , LUA_TBOOLEAN , LUA_TSTRING , LUA_TTABLE , LUA_TFUNCTION , LUA_TUSERDATA , LUA_TTHREAD , and LUA_TLIGHTUSERDATA . Returns the name of the type encoded by the value tp , which must be one the values returned by lua_type . The type of the writer function used by terry ridgway, lua_dump . Every time it produces another piece of chunk, lua_dump calls the writer, passing along the buffer to be written ( p ), its size ( sz ), and the data parameter supplied to lua_dump . The writer returns an error code: 0 means no errors; any other value means an error and stops lua_dump from calling the terry, writer again. Exchange values between different threads of the same global state. This function pops n values from the stack from , and pushes them onto the stack to . Yields a coroutine. This function should only battle summary, be called as the terry, return expression of a C function, as follows: When a C function calls lua_yield in that way, the running coroutine suspends its execution, and the call to terry ridgway lua_resume that started this coroutine returns. The parameter nresults is the number of ridgway, values from the stack that are passed as results to lua_resume . Lua has no built-in debugging facilities. Instead, it offers a special interface by means of how does affect, functions and terry, hooks . This interface allows the construction of different kinds of debuggers, profilers, and other tools that need inside information from the interpreter.
A structure used to carry different pieces of information about an a nightingale song is eternal, active function. lua_getstack fills only the private part of terry, this structure, for later use. To fill the other fields of lua_Debug with useful information, call lua_getinfo . The fields of lua_Debug have the following meaning: source : If the battle, function was defined in terry ridgway a string, then source is that string. If the function was defined in a file, then source starts with a ' @ ' followed by the file name. short_src : a printable version of source , to Differences in Facial Essay be used in error messages. linedefined : the ridgway, line number where the definition of the function starts. lastlinedefined : the line number where the definition of the function ends. what : the string Lua if the function is a Lua function, C if it is a C function, main if it is the main part of a chunk, and tail if it was a function that did a tail call. Differences! In the latter case, Lua has no other information about the function. currentline : the current line where the given function is terry ridgway executing. Purpose Of The Severalty! When no line information is available, currentline is ridgway set to -1. name : a reasonable name for the given function. Because functions in Lua are first-class values, they do not have a fixed name: some functions can be the value of how does the environment, multiple global variables, while others can be stored only in a table field. The lua_getinfo function checks how the ridgway, function was called to find a suitable name. If it cannot find a name, then name is what act? set to NULL . namewhat : explains the name field. The value of namewhat can be global , local , method , field , upvalue , or (the empty string), according to terry ridgway how the function was called. (Lua uses the empty string when no other option seems to apply.) nups : the number of OF GERSHWIN, upvalues of the function. Returns the current hook function.
Returns the current hook count. Returns the current hook mask. Returns information about terry ridgway, a specific function or function invocation. To get information about a function invocation, the parameter ar must be a valid activation record that was filled by a previous call to ode to the bird is eternal lua_getstack or given as argument to a hook (see lua_Hook ). To get information about a function you push it onto the stack and start the what string with the character ' '. (In that case, lua_getinfo pops the function in the top of the stack.) For instance, to know in terry which line a function f was defined, you can write the following code: Each character in the string what selects some fields of the structure ar to be filled or a value to Expressiveness Essay be pushed on the stack: ' n ': fills in the field name and namewhat ; ' S ': fills in the fields source , short_src , linedefined , lastlinedefined , and what ; ' l ': fills in the field currentline ; ' u ': fills in terry the field nups ; ' f ': pushes onto the stack the terry ridgway, function that is running at the given level; ' L ': pushes onto the stack a table whose indices are the numbers of the lines that are valid on the function. Terry Ridgway! (A valid line is terry ridgway a line with some associated code, that is, a line where you can put a break point. Non-valid lines include empty lines and comments.) This function returns 0 on error (for instance, an invalid option in terry ridgway what ). Gets information about a local variable of a given activation record. The parameter ar must be a valid activation record that was filled by a previous call to lua_getstack or given as argument to a hook (see lua_Hook ). The index n selects which local variable to in an ode to a nightingale the bird inspect (1 is the first parameter or active local variable, and so on, until the ridgway, last active local variable). lua_getlocal pushes the variable's value onto the stack and returns its name.
Variable names starting with ' ( ' (open parentheses) represent internal variables (loop control variables, temporaries, and C function locals). Returns NULL (and pushes nothing) when the index is greater than the number of active local variables. Get information about the Differences in Facial, interpreter runtime stack. This function fills parts of a lua_Debug structure with an identification of the activation record of the function executing at terry ridgway a given level. Level 0 is the current running function, whereas level n+1 is the function that has called level n . When there are no errors, lua_getstack returns 1; when called with a level greater than the stack depth, it returns 0. Gets information about a closure's upvalue. (For Lua functions, upvalues are the external local variables that the Differences in Facial Expressiveness Essay, function uses, and that are consequently included in its closure.) lua_getupvalue gets the index n of an upvalue, pushes the upvalue's value onto the stack, and returns its name. funcindex points to the closure in ridgway the stack. Of Tippecanoe Summary! (Upvalues have no particular order, as they are active through the whole function. So, they are numbered in an arbitrary order.) Returns NULL (and pushes nothing) when the terry, index is in an ode to the bird greater than the number of terry ridgway, upvalues. For C functions, this function uses the empty string as a name for all upvalues. Type for debugging hook functions. Whenever a hook is called, its ar argument has its field event set to the specific event that triggered the terry ridgway, hook.
Lua identifies these events with the following constants: LUA_HOOKCALL , LUA_HOOKRET , LUA_HOOKTAILRET , LUA_HOOKLINE , and LUA_HOOKCOUNT . Ridgway! Moreover, for line events, the terry ridgway, field currentline is also set. To get the value of any other field in ar , the terry, hook must call lua_getinfo . For return events, event can be LUA_HOOKRET , the normal value, or LUA_HOOKTAILRET . In the latter case, Lua is simulating a return from what dawes act? a function that did a tail call; in this case, it is useless to terry call lua_getinfo . While Lua is running a hook, it disables other calls to hooks. Therefore, if a hook calls back Lua to execute a function or a chunk, this execution occurs without any calls to hooks. Sets the debugging hook function. Argument f is the how does littering affect, hook function. Terry! mask specifies on which events the hook will be called: it is formed by a bitwise or of the constants LUA_MASKCALL , LUA_MASKRET , LUA_MASKLINE , and LUA_MASKCOUNT . Littering Affect The Environment! The count argument is only meaningful when the terry, mask includes LUA_MASKCOUNT . For each event, the Essay, hook is ridgway called as explained below: The call hook: is called when the interpreter calls a function.
The hook is called just after Lua enters the new function, before the function gets its arguments. The return hook: is called when the interpreter returns from a function. The hook is called just before Lua leaves the function. You have no access to the values to be returned by the function. The line hook: is called when the interpreter is about to in an ode to the bird song is eternal start the execution of a new line of code, or when it jumps back in terry the code (even to the same line). (This event only Cultural in Facial Expressiveness, happens while Lua is executing a Lua function.) The count hook: is called after the terry ridgway, interpreter executes every count instructions. (This event only happens while Lua is executing a Lua function.) A hook is of tippecanoe disabled by setting mask to zero. Sets the terry ridgway, value of a local variable of a given activation record. Parameters ar and n are as in lua_getlocal (see lua_getlocal ). THE TIMES! lua_setlocal assigns the terry ridgway, value at the top of the stack to a nightingale the bird the variable and returns its name. It also pops the terry, value from the terry ridgway, stack.
Returns NULL (and pops nothing) when the index is greater than the ridgway, number of active local variables. Sets the value of a closure's upvalue. It assigns the value at the top of the stack to Essay THE TIMES OF GERSHWIN the upvalue and returns its name. It also pops the value from the stack. Parameters funcindex and terry, n are as in the lua_getupvalue (see lua_getupvalue ). Returns NULL (and pops nothing) when the index is greater than the number of terry ridgway, upvalues. The auxiliary library provides several convenient functions to interface C with Lua. While the basic API provides the primitive functions for all interactions between C and terry ridgway, Lua, the auxiliary library provides higher-level functions for some common tasks. All functions from the auxiliary library are defined in was the header file lauxlib.h and have a prefix luaL_ . All functions in the auxiliary library are built on top of the basic API, and so they provide nothing that cannot be done with this API. Several functions in the auxiliary library are used to check C function arguments.
Their names are always luaL_check* or luaL_opt* . All of these functions throw an error if the check is not satisfied. Because the error message is formatted for ridgway, arguments (e.g., bad argument #1 ), you should not use these functions for in an a nightingale the bird is eternal, other stack values. Here we list all functions and types from the auxiliary library in alphabetical order. Adds the character c to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Adds the string pointed to by s with length l to ridgway the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). The string may contain embedded zeros. Adds to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ) a string of length n previously copied to the buffer area (see luaL_prepbuffer ). Adds the zero-terminated string pointed to by s to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). The string may not contain embedded zeros. Adds the value at summary the top of the stack to terry ridgway the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Battle! Pops the value.
This is the only function on string buffers that can (and must) be called with an extra element on the stack, which is the ridgway, value to be added to Cultural in Facial Essay the buffer. Checks whether cond is true. If not, raises an error with the terry ridgway, following message, where func is retrieved from the call stack: Raises an error with the following message, where func is retrieved from the terry ridgway, call stack: This function never returns, but it is an idiom to use it in terry C functions as return luaL_argerror( args ) . Type for a string buffer . A string buffer allows C code to build Lua strings piecemeal. Its pattern of how does littering, use is terry as follows: First you declare a variable b of type luaL_Buffer . Then you initialize it with a call luaL_buffinit(L, b) . Then you add string pieces to in Facial Essay the buffer calling any of the ridgway, luaL_add* functions. You finish by calling luaL_pushresult(b) . This call leaves the final string on the top of the stack. During its normal operation, a string buffer uses a variable number of stack slots. So, while using a buffer, you cannot assume that you know where the top of the stack is. You can use the stack between successive calls to buffer operations as long as that use is terry ridgway balanced; that is, when you call a buffer operation, the stack is at the same level it was immediately after the previous buffer operation. (The only exception to this rule is luaL_addvalue .) After calling luaL_pushresult the stack is back to terry its level when the buffer was initialized, plus the final string on its top.
Initializes a buffer B . Essay THE TIMES OF GERSHWIN! This function does not allocate any space; the buffer must be declared as a variable (see luaL_Buffer ). Calls a metamethod. If the terry ridgway, object at index obj has a metatable and this metatable has a field e , this function calls this field and terry ridgway, passes the object as its only argument. Ridgway! In this case this function returns 1 and pushes onto the stack the value returned by the call. If there is terry ridgway no metatable or no metamethod, this function returns 0 (without pushing any value on the stack). Checks whether the function has an argument of any type (including nil ) at position narg . Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and returns this number cast to ridgway an int . Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and returns this number cast to a lua_Integer . Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and returns this number cast to a long . Checks whether the function argument narg is a string and returns this string; if l is not NULL fills *l with the battle, string's length. This function uses lua_tolstring to get its result, so all conversions and caveats of that function apply here. Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and returns this number.
Checks whether the ridgway, function argument narg is a string and searches for this string in the array lst (which must be NULL-terminated). Returns the index in the array where the ode to, string was found. Raises an error if the ridgway, argument is not a string or if the string cannot be found. If def is not NULL , the function uses def as a default value when there is no argument narg or if this argument is nil . This is a useful function for mapping strings to C enums. (The usual convention in Lua libraries is to use strings instead of numbers to select options.) Grows the stack size to top + sz elements, raising an error if the stack cannot grow to that size. msg is an additional text to go into the error message.
Checks whether the function argument narg is a string and returns this string. This function uses lua_tolstring to get its result, so all conversions and caveats of that function apply here. Checks whether the function argument narg has type t . See lua_type for the encoding of types for t . Checks whether the about, function argument narg is a userdata of the type tname (see luaL_newmetatable ). Loads and runs the given file. It is defined as the ridgway, following macro: It returns 0 if there are no errors or 1 in case of errors.
Loads and runs the given string. It is defined as the following macro: It returns 0 if there are no errors or 1 in case of errors. Raises an error. The error message format is given by fmt plus any extra arguments, following the terry ridgway, same rules of lua_pushfstring . It also adds at the beginning of the message the file name and the line number where the error occurred, if this information is terry ridgway available.
This function never returns, but it is an idiom to use it in how does littering the environment C functions as return luaL_error( args ) . Pushes onto the stack the field e from the metatable of the object at index obj . Terry! If the object does not have a metatable, or if the metatable does not have this field, returns 0 and pushes nothing. Pushes onto the stack the metatable associated with name tname in the registry (see luaL_newmetatable ). Creates a copy of about, string s by ridgway, replacing any occurrence of the string p with the string r . Pushes the resulting string on the stack and returns it. Loads a buffer as a Lua chunk. Essay About OF GERSHWIN! This function uses lua_load to load the chunk in the buffer pointed to terry ridgway by buff with size sz . This function returns the how does littering affect the environment, same results as lua_load . name is the chunk name, used for debug information and error messages. Loads a file as a Lua chunk.
This function uses lua_load to load the chunk in the file named filename . Terry Ridgway! If filename is NULL , then it loads from the ode to a nightingale song, standard input. The first line in ridgway the file is ignored if it starts with a # . This function returns the same results as lua_load , but it has an extra error code LUA_ERRFILE if it cannot open/read the file. As lua_load , this function only loads the chunk; it does not run it. Loads a string as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to load the chunk in the zero-terminated string s . This function returns the terry ridgway, same results as lua_load . Also as lua_load , this function only loads the chunk; it does not run it.
If the registry already has the key tname , returns 0. Otherwise, creates a new table to be used as a metatable for userdata, adds it to terry the registry with key tname , and returns 1. In both cases pushes onto the stack the final value associated with tname in the registry. Creates a new Lua state. It calls lua_newstate with an allocator based on the standard C realloc function and then sets a panic function (see lua_atpanic ) that prints an error message to Cultural Differences the standard error output in case of fatal errors. Returns the new state, or NULL if there is terry a memory allocation error. Opens all standard Lua libraries into the given state. If the function argument narg is a number, returns this number cast to an int . If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Was The Purpose Of The Dawes Severalty Act?! Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument narg is a number, returns this number cast to a lua_Integer . If this argument is absent or is ridgway nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error.
If the function argument narg is a number, returns this number cast to a long . If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument narg is a string, returns this string. If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an terry ridgway, error. If l is not NULL , fills the terry ridgway, position *l with the results's length. If the function argument narg is a number, returns this number. If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the what was the dawes act?, function argument narg is a string, returns this string. If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. Returns an address to a space of size LUAL_BUFFERSIZE where you can copy a string to be added to buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). After copying the string into terry this space you must call luaL_addsize with the size of the string to affect the environment actually add it to terry the buffer. Finishes the what was the purpose, use of buffer B leaving the terry, final string on the top of the stack.
Creates and returns a reference , in the table at index t , for the object at the top of the stack (and pops the object). A reference is Cultural in Facial a unique integer key. As long as you do not manually add integer keys into terry ridgway table t , luaL_ref ensures the uniqueness of the how does littering affect the environment, key it returns. Terry! You can retrieve an object referred by reference r by calling lua_rawgeti(L, t, r) . Function luaL_unref frees a reference and its associated object. If the object at the top of the stack is nil , luaL_ref returns the affect the environment, constant LUA_REFNIL . Terry Ridgway! The constant LUA_NOREF is guaranteed to be different from any reference returned by luaL_ref . Type for arrays of functions to be registered by luaL_register . name is the function name and terry ridgway, func is terry a pointer to the function.
Any array of luaL_Reg must end with an sentinel entry in which both name and func are NULL . Opens a library. When called with libname equal to NULL , it simply registers all functions in about THE TIMES the list l (see luaL_Reg ) into the table on the top of the stack. When called with a non-null libname , luaL_register creates a new table t , sets it as the ridgway, value of the terry ridgway, global variable libname , sets it as the terry ridgway, value of package.loaded[libname] , and registers on it all functions in battle summary the list l . If there is a table in package.loaded[libname] or in variable libname , reuses this table instead of creating a new one. In any case the function leaves the table on the top of the stack. Returns the name of the type of the value at the given index. Generates an error with a message like the following: where location is produced by luaL_where , func is the name of the current function, and rt is the type name of the terry, actual argument. Releases reference ref from the table at index t (see luaL_ref ). The Environment! The entry is removed from the terry ridgway, table, so that the referred object can be collected. The reference ref is also freed to be used again. Pushes onto the stack a string identifying the current position of the control at level lvl in the call stack.
Typically this string has the following format: Level 0 is the running function, level 1 is the function that called the running function, etc. This function is affect the environment used to build a prefix for error messages. The standard Lua libraries provide useful functions that are implemented directly through the C API. Some of these functions provide essential services to the language (e.g., type and getmetatable ); others provide access to outside services (e.g., I/O); and others could be implemented in Lua itself, but are quite useful or have critical performance requirements that deserve an terry, implementation in C (e.g., table.sort ).
All libraries are implemented through the official C API and are provided as separate C modules. Currently, Lua has the following standard libraries: basic library, which includes the coroutine sub-library; package library; string manipulation; table manipulation; mathematical functions (sin, log, etc.); input and output; operating system facilities; debug facilities. Except for the basic and package libraries, each library provides all its functions as fields of a global table or as methods of its objects. To have access to what these libraries, the C host program should call the luaL_openlibs function, which opens all standard libraries. Alternatively, it can open them individually by calling luaopen_base (for the basic library), luaopen_package (for the package library), luaopen_string (for the string library), luaopen_table (for the table library), luaopen_math (for the mathematical library), luaopen_io (for the ridgway, I/O library), luaopen_os (for the Operating System library), and what was the of the dawes severalty, luaopen_debug (for the debug library). Terry! These functions are declared in lualib.h and battle summary, should not be called directly: you must call them like any other Lua C function, e.g., by terry, using lua_call . The basic library provides some core functions to Lua. If you do not include this library in your application, you should check carefully whether you need to provide implementations for Essay, some of its facilities. This function is ridgway a generic interface to in Facial Essay the garbage collector. It performs different functions according to terry ridgway its first argument, opt : collect: performs a full garbage-collection cycle. What Was The Purpose Dawes Act?! This is the default option. Terry Ridgway! stop: stops the garbage collector. restart: restarts the garbage collector. count: returns the total memory in use by Lua (in Kbytes). step: performs a garbage-collection step. Battle! The step size is controlled by arg (larger values mean more steps) in a non-specified way.
If you want to control the step size you must experimentally tune the value of terry, arg . THE TIMES! Returns true if the step finished a collection cycle. Terry Ridgway! setpause: sets arg as the THE TIMES OF GERSHWIN, new value for the pause of the collector (see §2.10). Returns the previous value for terry, pause . setstepmul: sets arg as the new value for terry ridgway, the step multiplier of the terry, collector (see §2.10). Returns the previous value for step . Usually, error adds some information about the error position at the beginning of the message. The level argument specifies how to how does the environment get the error position. With level 1 (the default), the error position is where the error function was called.
Level 2 points the error to where the terry, function that called error was called; and so on. Passing a level 0 avoids the addition of error position information to Essay the message. If object does not have a metatable, returns nil . Otherwise, if the object's metatable has a __metatable field, returns the associated value. Otherwise, returns the metatable of the given object. Returns three values: an iterator function, the table t , and 0, so that the construction.
will iterate over the pairs ( 1,t ), ( 2,t ), ···, up to the first integer key absent from the table. Loads a chunk using function func to get its pieces. Each call to func must return a string that concatenates with previous results. A return of an empty string, nil , or no value signals the end of the chunk. If there are no errors, returns the compiled chunk as a function; otherwise, returns nil plus the error message. The environment of the returned function is the ridgway, global environment. chunkname is used as the chunk name for error messages and debug information. How Does Affect! When absent, it defaults to terry ridgway =(load) . Similar to load , but gets the chunk from file filename or from the standard input, if no file name is given. Similar to load , but gets the chunk from the in an ode to song is eternal, given string.
To load and terry, run a given string, use the idiom. When absent, chunkname defaults to the given string. Allows a program to traverse all fields of a table. Its first argument is a table and its second argument is an index in this table. next returns the next index of the table and its associated value. Terry Ridgway! When called with nil as its second argument, next returns an initial index and its associated value. Terry Ridgway! When called with the last index, or with nil in an empty table, next returns nil . If the second argument is in Facial Expressiveness Essay absent, then it is interpreted as nil . In particular, you can use next(t) to check whether a table is empty. The order in which the indices are enumerated is not specified, even for numeric indices . (To traverse a table in numeric order, use a numerical for or the ipairs function.) The behavior of next is terry ridgway undefined if, during the traversal, you assign any value to a non-existent field in the table. You may however modify existing fields. Essay About OF GERSHWIN! In particular, you may clear existing fields. Returns three values: the next function, the table t , and nil , so that the construction.
will iterate over all keyvalue pairs of table t . See function next for the caveats of modifying the table during its traversal. Calls function f with the given arguments in protected mode . This means that any error inside f is not propagated; instead, pcall catches the error and returns a status code. Its first result is the status code (a boolean), which is true if the call succeeds without errors. In such case, pcall also returns all results from the call, after this first result. In case of terry ridgway, any error, pcall returns false plus the error message. This function returns table . If index is a number, returns all arguments after argument number index . Otherwise, index must be the string # , and was the purpose dawes, select returns the total number of extra arguments it received. Sets the environment to be used by the given function. Ridgway! f can be a Lua function or a number that specifies the function at that stack level: Level 1 is the how does the environment, function calling setfenv . Terry Ridgway! setfenv returns the given function. As a special case, when f is 0 setfenv changes the environment of the running thread. Terry Ridgway! In this case, setfenv returns no values. Sets the metatable for the given table. (You cannot change the metatable of other types from Lua, only from C.) If metatable is nil , removes the ridgway, metatable of the given table.
If the original metatable has a __metatable field, raises an error. This function returns table . An optional argument specifies the base to interpret the numeral. The base may be any integer between 2 and 36, inclusive. In bases above 10, the letter ' A ' (in either upper or lower case) represents 10, ' B ' represents 11, and so forth, with ' Z ' representing 35. In base 10 (the default), the ode to the bird is eternal, number can have a decimal part, as well as an terry ridgway, optional exponent part (see §2.1). In other bases, only unsigned integers are accepted. If the metatable of e has a __tostring field, then tostring calls the littering affect the environment, corresponding value with e as argument, and uses the result of the terry, call as its result.
except that the about OF GERSHWIN, above code can be written only for a fixed number of elements. By default, i is terry ridgway 1 and j is the length of the list, as defined by the length operator (see §2.5.5). This function is similar to pcall , except that you can set a new error handler. xpcall calls function f in protected mode, using err as the error handler. Any error inside f is of tippecanoe summary not propagated; instead, xpcall catches the error, calls the err function with the original error object, and returns a status code. Its first result is the status code (a boolean), which is true if the call succeeds without errors. In this case, xpcall also returns all results from the call, after this first result. In case of any error, xpcall returns false plus the ridgway, result from err . The operations related to coroutines comprise a sub-library of the basic library and battle of tippecanoe, come inside the table coroutine . See §2.11 for a general description of ridgway, coroutines. Creates a new coroutine, with body f . f must be a Lua function.
Returns this new coroutine, an object with type thread . Starts or continues the execution of summary, coroutine co . The first time you resume a coroutine, it starts running its body. The values val1 , ··· are passed as the arguments to the body function. If the coroutine has yielded, resume restarts it; the values val1 , ··· are passed as the results from the ridgway, yield. If the coroutine runs without any errors, resume returns true plus any values passed to dawes yield (if the coroutine yields) or any values returned by the body function (if the terry ridgway, coroutine terminates). THE TIMES! If there is any error, resume returns false plus the error message. Returns the running coroutine, or nil when called by the main thread. Returns the status of coroutine co , as a string: running , if the coroutine is ridgway running (that is, it called status ); suspended , if the coroutine is suspended in a call to yield , or if it has not started running yet; normal if the coroutine is active but not running (that is, it has resumed another coroutine); and dead if the coroutine has finished its body function, or if it has stopped with an error. Creates a new coroutine, with body f . f must be a Lua function. Returns a function that resumes the coroutine each time it is called. Any arguments passed to what severalty act? the function behave as the extra arguments to terry resume . Returns the same values returned by resume , except the first boolean. In case of error, propagates the error.
Suspends the execution of the calling coroutine. Was The Severalty! The coroutine cannot be running a C function, a metamethod, or an iterator. Any arguments to terry ridgway yield are passed as extra results to resume . The package library provides basic facilities for loading and building modules in Lua. It exports two of its functions directly in the global environment: require and terry ridgway, module . Everything else is exported in a table package . Creates a module. If there is a table in package.loaded[name] , this table is the module. Otherwise, if there is a global table t with the terry ridgway, given name, this table is the module. Otherwise creates a new table t and sets it as the value of the global name and the value of package.loaded[name] . This function also initializes t._NAME with the given name, t._M with the Cultural in Facial Expressiveness Essay, module ( t itself), and t._PACKAGE with the package name (the full module name minus last component; see below). Terry Ridgway! Finally, module sets t as the new environment of the current function and the new value of package.loaded[name] , so that require returns t . If name is terry ridgway a compound name (that is, one with components separated by dots), module creates (or reuses, if they already exist) tables for each component.
For instance, if name is a.b.c , then module stores the ridgway, module table in field c of field b of Essay about OF GERSHWIN, global a . This function can receive optional options after the module name, where each option is a function to be applied over the module. Loads the given module. The function starts by looking into the package.loaded table to determine whether modname is already loaded. If it is, then require returns the value stored at package.loaded[modname] . Otherwise, it tries to find a loader for ridgway, the module. To find a loader, require is guided by what dawes, the package.loaders array.
By changing this array, we can change how require looks for a module. The following explanation is based on the default configuration for package.loaders . First require queries package.preload[modname] . If it has a value, this value (which should be a function) is the terry, loader. Otherwise require searches for a Lua loader using the path stored in package.path . If that also fails, it searches for a C loader using the path stored in package.cpath . If that also fails, it tries an affect, all-in-one loader (see package.loaders ). Once a loader is found, require calls the loader with a single argument, modname . If the loader returns any value, require assigns the returned value to package.loaded[modname] . If the loader returns no value and has not assigned any value to package.loaded[modname] , then require assigns true to terry this entry. In any case, require returns the final value of ode to a nightingale the bird is eternal, package.loaded[modname] . If there is any error loading or running the ridgway, module, or if it cannot find any loader for the module, then require signals an error. The path used by require to was the dawes severalty search for a C loader. Lua initializes the C path package.cpath in the same way it initializes the Lua path package.path , using the environment variable LUA_CPATH or a default path defined in luaconf.h . A table used by require to control which modules are already loaded. Terry! When you require a module modname and package.loaded[modname] is littering the environment not false, require simply returns the value stored there. A table used by require to control how to load modules. Each entry in this table is ridgway a searcher function . When looking for a module, require calls each of these searchers in ascending order, with the how does littering, module name (the argument given to ridgway require ) as its sole parameter. The function can return another function (the module loader ) or a string explaining why it did not find that module (or nil if it has nothing to say).
Lua initializes this table with four functions. The first searcher simply looks for in an a nightingale, a loader in the package.preload table. The second searcher looks for terry, a loader as a Lua library, using the path stored at package.path . A path is a sequence of templates separated by semicolons. For each template, the ode to a nightingale, searcher will change each interrogation mark in the template by filename , which is the module name with each dot replaced by a directory separator (such as / in Unix); then it will try to open the resulting file name. So, for instance, if the Lua path is the ridgway, string. the search for a Lua file for module foo will try to terry ridgway open the terry, files ./foo.lua , ./foo.lc , and /usr/local/foo/init.lua , in that order. The third searcher looks for a loader as a C library, using the path given by the variable package.cpath . Terry Ridgway! For instance, if the C path is the string. the searcher for terry ridgway, module foo will try to open the files ./foo.so , ./foo.dll , and /usr/local/foo/init.so , in that order. Once it finds a C library, this searcher first uses a dynamic link facility to link the application with the library. Then it tries to littering the environment find a C function inside the library to be used as the loader.
The name of this C function is the terry, string luaopen_ concatenated with a copy of the module name where each dot is replaced by an underscore. How Does Littering! Moreover, if the module name has a hyphen, its prefix up to (and including) the first hyphen is removed. For instance, if the ridgway, module name is in Facial a.v1-b.c , the function name will be luaopen_b_c . The fourth searcher tries an all-in-one loader . Terry Ridgway! It searches the C path for a library for the root name of the given module. Was The Purpose Of The Severalty Act?! For instance, when requiring a.b.c , it will search for a C library for a . If found, it looks into it for an open function for ridgway, the submodule; in our example, that would be luaopen_a_b_c . Essay About OF GERSHWIN! With this facility, a package can pack several C submodules into one single library, with each submodule keeping its original open function. Dynamically links the host program with the C library libname . Inside this library, looks for a function funcname and returns this function as a C function. (So, funcname must follow the protocol (see lua_CFunction )). This is a low-level function. It completely bypasses the package and module system. Unlike require , it does not perform any path searching and does not automatically adds extensions. libname must be the complete file name of the terry ridgway, C library, including if necessary a path and extension. Essay About THE TIMES OF GERSHWIN! funcname must be the exact name exported by the C library (which may depend on the C compiler and linker used). This function is not supported by ANSI C. As such, it is only available on some platforms (Windows, Linux, Mac OS X, Solaris, BSD, plus other Unix systems that support the dlfcn standard). The path used by ridgway, require to search for a Lua loader.
At start-up, Lua initializes this variable with the value of the environment variable LUA_PATH or with a default path defined in Expressiveness luaconf.h , if the environment variable is not defined. Any ;; in the value of the environment variable is replaced by the default path. A table to terry ridgway store loaders for Cultural Differences in Facial, specific modules (see require ). Sets a metatable for module with its __index field referring to the global environment, so that this module inherits values from the global environment. To be used as an option to terry ridgway function module . This library provides generic functions for string manipulation, such as finding and how does, extracting substrings, and terry ridgway, pattern matching. When indexing a string in Lua, the first character is at position 1 (not at 0, as in C). Indices are allowed to be negative and are interpreted as indexing backwards, from the Cultural, end of the terry ridgway, string. How Does Littering The Environment! Thus, the last character is at position -1, and so on. The string library provides all its functions inside the table string . It also sets a metatable for terry, strings where the __index field points to Essay the string table. Therefore, you can use the string functions in object-oriented style. For instance, string.byte(s, i) can be written as s:byte(i) . The string library assumes one-byte character encodings.
Note that numerical codes are not necessarily portable across platforms. Note that numerical codes are not necessarily portable across platforms. Returns a string containing a binary representation of the ridgway, given function, so that a later loadstring on this string returns a copy of the Differences, function. Ridgway! function must be a Lua function without upvalues. string.find (s, pattern [, init [, plain]]) If the pattern has captures, then in a successful match the captured values are also returned, after the two indices. will produce the string: The options c , d , E , e , f , g , G , i , o , u , X , and x all expect a number as argument, whereas q and s expect a string.
This function does not accept string values containing embedded zeros, except as arguments to the q option. As an example, the following loop. will iterate over all the Differences in Facial, words from string s , printing one per terry ridgway, line. Was The Purpose Dawes Act?! The next example collects all pairs key=value from the ridgway, given string into a table: For this function, a ' ^ ' at the start of in an the bird is eternal, a pattern does not work as an anchor, as this would prevent the iteration. If repl is a string, then its value is used for replacement. The character % works as an escape character: any sequence in repl of the form % n , with n between 1 and 9, stands for the value of the n -th captured substring (see below). Terry Ridgway! The sequence %0 stands for the whole match.
The sequence %% stands for a single % . If repl is a table, then the ode to a nightingale the bird is eternal, table is queried for terry, every match, using the battle of tippecanoe summary, first capture as the key; if the terry, pattern specifies no captures, then the whole match is used as the key. If repl is a function, then this function is called every time a match occurs, with all captured substrings passed as arguments, in order; if the pattern specifies no captures, then the whole match is passed as a sole argument. If the ode to the bird, value returned by the table query or by the function call is a string or a number, then it is used as the ridgway, replacement string; otherwise, if it is false or nil , then there is no replacement (that is, the original match is kept in the string). Here are some examples: A character class is used to what was the of the represent a set of characters. The following combinations are allowed in describing a character class: x : (where x is terry not one of the magic characters ^$()%.*+-? ) represents the character x itself. . : (a dot) represents all characters. %a : represents all letters. %c : represents all control characters. %d : represents all digits. %l : represents all lowercase letters. %p : represents all punctuation characters. %s : represents all space characters. %u : represents all uppercase letters. %w : represents all alphanumeric characters. About THE TIMES! %x : represents all hexadecimal digits. %z : represents the character with representation 0. % x : (where x is any non-alphanumeric character) represents the terry ridgway, character x . Battle Summary! This is the standard way to escape the magic characters. Any punctuation character (even the non magic) can be preceded by a ' % ' when used to terry ridgway represent itself in a pattern. [ set ] : represents the class which is the union of all characters in terry ridgway set . A range of characters can be specified by separating the end characters of the range with a ' - '. All classes % x described above can also be used as components in ridgway set . All other characters in set represent themselves. For example, [%w_] (or [_%w] ) represents all alphanumeric characters plus the underscore, [0-7] represents the octal digits, and [0-7%l%-] represents the octal digits plus the lowercase letters plus the what was the of the severalty act?, ' - ' character.
The interaction between ranges and classes is not defined. Therefore, patterns like [%a-z] or [a-%%] have no meaning. Terry Ridgway! [^ set ] : represents the complement of of the dawes severalty, set , where set is interpreted as above. For all classes represented by terry, single letters ( %a , %c , etc.), the corresponding uppercase letter represents the song, complement of the class. For instance, %S represents all non-space characters. The definitions of letter, space, and other character groups depend on the current locale. In particular, the class [a-z] may not be equivalent to %l . A pattern item can be a single character class, which matches any single character in the class; a single character class followed by ' * ', which matches 0 or more repetitions of characters in terry the class. These repetition items will always match the longest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' + ', which matches 1 or more repetitions of characters in the class. These repetition items will always match the longest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' - ', which also matches 0 or more repetitions of characters in the class. Unlike ' * ', these repetition items will always match the shortest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' ? ', which matches 0 or 1 occurrence of a character in the class; % n , for n between 1 and 9; such item matches a substring equal to battle the n -th captured string (see below); %b xy , where x and ridgway, y are two distinct characters; such item matches strings that start with x , end with y , and where the x and y are balanced . This means that, if one reads the string from left to right, counting +1 for an x and -1 for a y , the ending y is the was the dawes severalty, first y where the count reaches 0. For instance, the terry, item %b() matches expressions with balanced parentheses. A pattern is in an ode to song is eternal a sequence of pattern items. Terry! A ' ^ ' at about THE TIMES OF GERSHWIN the beginning of a pattern anchors the match at the beginning of the subject string.
A ' $ ' at terry the end of how does the environment, a pattern anchors the match at the end of the subject string. At other positions, ' ^ ' and ' $ ' have no special meaning and represent themselves. A pattern can contain sub-patterns enclosed in parentheses; they describe captures . When a match succeeds, the substrings of the subject string that match captures are stored ( captured ) for future use. Captures are numbered according to their left parentheses. For instance, in the pattern (a*(.)%w(%s*)) , the part of the string matching a*(.)%w(%s*) is stored as the first capture (and therefore has number 1); the character matching . Ridgway! is what was the of the severalty act? captured with number 2, and ridgway, the part matching %s* has number 3. As a special case, the empty capture () captures the current string position (a number). For instance, if we apply the pattern ()aa() on the string flaaap , there will be two captures: 3 and 5.
A pattern cannot contain embedded zeros. Use %z instead. This library provides generic functions for table manipulation. It provides all its functions inside the table table . Most functions in the table library assume that the table represents an Differences Essay, array or a list. For these functions, when we talk about the length of a table we mean the result of the length operator. Inserts element value at position pos in table , shifting up other elements to open space, if necessary. The default value for terry, pos is the environment n+1 , where n is the length of the table (see §2.5.5), so that a call table.insert(t,x) inserts x at the end of table t . Returns the largest positive numerical index of the given table, or zero if the table has no positive numerical indices. Ridgway! (To do its job this function does a linear traversal of the whole table.) Removes from table the element at position pos , shifting down other elements to close the space, if necessary. Returns the value of the removed element. The default value for pos is n , where n is the length of the table, so that a call table.remove(t) removes the battle of tippecanoe, last element of table t . The sort algorithm is terry ridgway not stable; that is, elements considered equal by the given order may have their relative positions changed by the sort.
This library is an how does, interface to the standard C math library. It provides all its functions inside the table math . Returns the absolute value of x . Returns the arc cosine of x (in radians). Returns the arc sine of x (in radians). Returns the arc tangent of x (in radians). Returns the arc tangent of y/x (in radians), but uses the signs of both parameters to find the quadrant of the result. (It also handles correctly the case of x being zero.) Returns the smallest integer larger than or equal to x . Returns the terry ridgway, cosine of terry ridgway, x (assumed to be in radians).
Returns the hyperbolic cosine of ridgway, x . Returns the angle x (given in radians) in degrees. Returns the value e x . Returns the largest integer smaller than or equal to x . Returns the terry ridgway, remainder of the division of x by y that rounds the quotient towards zero. Returns m and e such that x = m2 e , e is an ridgway, integer and the absolute value of m is in the range [0.5, 1) (or zero when x is zero). The value HUGE_VAL , a value larger than or equal to any other numerical value. Returns m2 e ( e should be an integer). Returns the natural logarithm of x . Returns the base-10 logarithm of x . Returns the maximum value among its arguments. Returns the OF GERSHWIN, minimum value among its arguments. Returns two numbers, the terry ridgway, integral part of x and the fractional part of how does littering, x . Returns x y . (You can also use the expression x^y to compute this value.) Returns the angle x (given in degrees) in radians. This function is an interface to the simple pseudo-random generator function rand provided by ANSI C. (No guarantees can be given for its statistical properties.) When called without arguments, returns a uniform pseudo-random real number in ridgway the range [0,1) . When called with an integer number m , math.random returns a uniform pseudo-random integer in the range [1, m] . When called with two integer numbers m and n , math.random returns a uniform pseudo-random integer in Essay about THE TIMES OF GERSHWIN the range [m, n] . Sets x as the seed for ridgway, the pseudo-random generator: equal seeds produce equal sequences of numbers.
Returns the sine of x (assumed to be in radians). Returns the Essay about THE TIMES OF GERSHWIN, hyperbolic sine of x . Returns the square root of x . (You can also use the expression x^0.5 to compute this value.) Returns the tangent of x (assumed to terry ridgway be in radians). Returns the what of the dawes severalty, hyperbolic tangent of x . The I/O library provides two different styles for file manipulation. The first one uses implicit file descriptors; that is, there are operations to set a default input file and a default output file, and all input/output operations are over these default files. The second style uses explicit file descriptors.
When using implicit file descriptors, all operations are supplied by terry ridgway, table io . When using explicit file descriptors, the operation io.open returns a file descriptor and then all operations are supplied as methods of the file descriptor. The table io also provides three predefined file descriptors with their usual meanings from C: io.stdin , io.stdout , and io.stderr . The I/O library never closes these files. Unless otherwise stated, all I/O functions return nil on battle of tippecanoe summary, failure (plus an error message as a second result and a system-dependent error code as a third result) and some value different from nil on success. Equivalent to file:close() . Without a file , closes the default output file. Equivalent to file:flush over the default output file. When called with a file name, it opens the named file (in text mode), and sets its handle as the terry ridgway, default input file. When called with a file handle, it simply sets this file handle as the default input file. When called without parameters, it returns the current default input file.
In case of errors this function raises the error, instead of returning an error code. Opens the given file name in read mode and returns an iterator function that, each time it is called, returns a new line from the how does littering affect, file. Therefore, the construction. will iterate over all lines of the file. When the terry, iterator function detects the terry ridgway, end of file, it returns nil (to finish the loop) and automatically closes the file.
The call io.lines() (with no file name) is equivalent to io.input():lines() ; that is, it iterates over terry ridgway the lines of the default input file. In this case it does not close the file when the loop ends. This function opens a file, in the mode specified in what purpose of the dawes severalty act? the string mode . It returns a new file handle, or, in ridgway case of errors, nil plus an error message. The mode string can be any of the following: r: read mode (the default); w: write mode; a: append mode; r+: update mode, all previous data is preserved; w+: update mode, all previous data is erased; a+: append update mode, previous data is preserved, writing is only allowed at the end of file. The mode string can also have a ' b ' at the end, which is needed in a nightingale the bird is eternal some systems to open the file in binary mode. This string is exactly what is terry used in the standard C function fopen . Similar to io.input , but operates over the default output file. Starts program prog in Cultural in Facial a separated process and returns a file handle that you can use to read data from this program (if mode is r , the terry, default) or to write data to this program (if mode is w ). This function is system dependent and is not available on all platforms. Equivalent to io.input():read . Returns a handle for a temporary file.
This file is Essay about opened in terry ridgway update mode and it is automatically removed when the program ends. Checks whether obj is a valid file handle. Returns the string file if obj is an terry ridgway, open file handle, closed file if obj is a closed file handle, or nil if obj is not a file handle. Equivalent to io.output():write . Closes file . Note that files are automatically closed when their handles are garbage collected, but that takes an unpredictable amount of time to happen. Saves any written data to file . Returns an iterator function that, each time it is called, returns a new line from the file. Therefore, the construction. will iterate over all lines of the file. (Unlike io.lines , this function does not close the file when the loop ends.) Reads the file file , according to ridgway the given formats, which specify what to read.
For each format, the function returns a string (or a number) with the characters read, or nil if it cannot read data with the specified format. When called without formats, it uses a default format that reads the entire next line (see below). The available formats are *n: reads a number; this is the only format that returns a number instead of a string. *a: reads the Essay about OF GERSHWIN, whole file, starting at the current position. On end of file, it returns the ridgway, empty string. *l: reads the next line (skipping the end of littering affect, line), returning nil on end of ridgway, file. This is the default format. number : reads a string with up to what of the dawes severalty act? this number of terry, characters, returning nil on end of file. If number is zero, it reads nothing and Differences in Facial Expressiveness Essay, returns an empty string, or nil on terry, end of how does littering affect, file. Sets and gets the file position, measured from the ridgway, beginning of the of tippecanoe summary, file, to the position given by offset plus a base specified by the string whence , as follows: set: base is position 0 (beginning of the file); cur: base is current position; end: base is end of file; In case of terry, success, function seek returns the final file position, measured in bytes from the Essay THE TIMES, beginning of the file. If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error. The default value for whence is terry ridgway cur , and for offset is 0. Therefore, the call file:seek() returns the in an ode to the bird, current file position, without changing it; the ridgway, call file:seek(set) sets the position to the beginning of the file (and returns 0); and the call file:seek(end) sets the position to battle of tippecanoe the end of the ridgway, file, and THE TIMES, returns its size.
Sets the buffering mode for an output file. There are three available modes: no: no buffering; the result of any output operation appears immediately. Terry! full: full buffering; output operation is performed only when the buffer is full (or when you explicitly flush the file (see io.flush )). Littering The Environment! line: line buffering; output is buffered until a newline is output or there is any input from terry ridgway some special files (such as a terminal device). For the last two cases, size specifies the size of the buffer, in how does bytes. Terry! The default is an appropriate size. Writes the how does the environment, value of each of terry, its arguments to the file . The arguments must be strings or numbers. Differences In Facial Essay! To write other values, use tostring or string.format before write . This library is terry ridgway implemented through table os . Returns an approximation of the amount in seconds of CPU time used by the program. Returns a string or a table containing date and time, formatted according to the given string format . If the Cultural in Facial Expressiveness Essay, time argument is present, this is the time to be formatted (see the os.time function for a description of this value). Terry! Otherwise, date formats the current time. If format starts with ' ! ', then the a nightingale the bird song, date is formatted in Coordinated Universal Time. After this optional character, if format is the terry, string *t , then date returns a table with the about THE TIMES OF GERSHWIN, following fields: year (four digits), month (1--12), day (1--31), hour (0--23), min (0--59), sec (0--61), wday (weekday, Sunday is 1), yday (day of the year), and isdst (daylight saving flag, a boolean). If format is ridgway not *t , then date returns the Cultural in Facial Essay, date as a string, formatted according to the same rules as the C function strftime . When called without arguments, date returns a reasonable date and time representation that depends on the host system and on the current locale (that is, os.date() is equivalent to os.date(%c) ).
Returns the number of ridgway, seconds from time t1 to Differences in Facial Expressiveness time t2 . In POSIX, Windows, and some other systems, this value is exactly t2 - t1 . This function is terry equivalent to the C function system . How Does Littering! It passes command to be executed by an operating system shell. It returns a status code, which is system-dependent. If command is absent, then it returns nonzero if a shell is available and zero otherwise. Calls the C function exit , with an terry ridgway, optional code , to terminate the host program. The default value for code is the how does littering, success code. Returns the value of the process environment variable varname , or nil if the variable is not defined. Deletes the file or directory with the given name. Directories must be empty to be removed. If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the terry, error.
Renames file or directory named oldname to newname . If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error. Sets the current locale of the program. locale is a string specifying a locale; category is an littering affect the environment, optional string describing which category to terry change: all , collate , ctype , monetary , numeric , or time ; the of tippecanoe summary, default category is all . The function returns the name of the terry ridgway, new locale, or nil if the request cannot be honored. If locale is the empty string, the battle summary, current locale is set to an implementation-defined native locale. If locale is the string C , the current locale is set to the standard C locale. When called with nil as the terry ridgway, first argument, this function only returns the name of the about OF GERSHWIN, current locale for the given category. Returns the terry, current time when called without arguments, or a time representing the date and time specified by the given table. This table must have fields year , month , and day , and may have fields hour , min , sec , and isdst (for a description of these fields, see the Differences, os.date function). The returned value is a number, whose meaning depends on your system. Ridgway! In POSIX, Windows, and some other systems, this number counts the number of about OF GERSHWIN, seconds since some given start time (the epoch). In other systems, the meaning is not specified, and ridgway, the number returned by time can be used only as an argument to date and difftime . Returns a string with a file name that can be used for a nightingale song, a temporary file.
The file must be explicitly opened before its use and explicitly removed when no longer needed. On some systems (POSIX), this function also creates a file with that name, to avoid security risks. (Someone else might create the file with wrong permissions in terry the time between getting the name and creating the file.) You still have to open the file to use it and to remove it (even if you do not use it). When possible, you may prefer to use io.tmpfile , which automatically removes the file when the program ends. This library provides the functionality of the debug interface to Lua programs. You should exert care when using this library. The Bird Is Eternal! The functions provided here should be used exclusively for debugging and similar tasks, such as profiling.
Please resist the temptation to terry use them as a usual programming tool: they can be very slow. Moreover, several of these functions violate some assumptions about Lua code (e.g., that variables local to a function cannot be accessed from outside or that userdata metatables cannot be changed by Lua code) and therefore can compromise otherwise secure code. All functions in this library are provided inside the debug table. Was The Dawes Severalty Act?! All functions that operate over a thread have an optional first argument which is the thread to ridgway operate over. The default is always the battle of tippecanoe summary, current thread. Enters an interactive mode with the ridgway, user, running each string that the how does the environment, user enters. Using simple commands and other debug facilities, the user can inspect global and local variables, change their values, evaluate expressions, and so on. Ridgway! A line containing only the word cont finishes this function, so that the caller continues its execution.
Note that commands for debug.debug are not lexically nested within any function, and so have no direct access to local variables. Returns the current hook settings of the thread, as three values: the current hook function, the current hook mask, and Essay THE TIMES, the current hook count (as set by the debug.sethook function). debug.getinfo ([thread,] function [, what]) Returns a table with information about a function. Ridgway! You can give the function directly, or you can give a number as the value of function , which means the function running at level function of the call stack of the given thread: level 0 is the current function ( getinfo itself); level 1 is the function that called getinfo ; and so on. If function is a number larger than the number of active functions, then getinfo returns nil . The returned table can contain all the fields returned by lua_getinfo , with the string what describing which fields to a nightingale fill in. The default for what is to get all information available, except the terry, table of valid lines. About THE TIMES! If present, the option ' f ' adds a field named func with the function itself. If present, the option ' L ' adds a field named activelines with the table of valid lines. For instance, the expression debug.getinfo(1,n).name returns a table with a name for terry ridgway, the current function, if a reasonable name can be found, and the expression debug.getinfo(print) returns a table with all available information about the print function. This function returns the name and the value of the local variable with index local of the function at level level of the stack. (The first parameter or local variable has index 1, and so on, until the last active local variable.) The function returns nil if there is no local variable with the given index, and raises an error when called with a level out of range. (You can call debug.getinfo to check whether the level is battle valid.)
Variable names starting with ' ( ' (open parentheses) represent internal variables (loop control variables, temporaries, and C function locals). Returns the terry ridgway, metatable of the given object or nil if it does not have a metatable. Returns the registry table (see §3.5). This function returns the name and the value of the upvalue with index up of the function func . Terry Ridgway! The function returns nil if there is no upvalue with the given index. Sets the environment of the terry, given object to the given table . Returns object . debug.sethook ([thread,] hook, mask [, count])
Sets the given function as a hook. The string mask and the number count describe when the hook will be called. The string mask may have the following characters, with the given meaning: c : the hook is called every time Lua calls a function; r : the hook is battle of tippecanoe summary called every time Lua returns from a function; l : the hook is called every time Lua enters a new line of code. With a count different from terry ridgway zero, the battle of tippecanoe summary, hook is called after every count instructions. When called without arguments, debug.sethook turns off the hook. When the terry, hook is called, its first parameter is a string describing the event that has triggered its call: call , return (or tail return , when simulating a return from a tail call), line , and count . For line events, the hook also gets the new line number as its second parameter.
Inside a hook, you can call getinfo with level 2 to battle summary get more information about the running function (level 0 is the getinfo function, and level 1 is the hook function), unless the event is tail return . In this case, Lua is ridgway only simulating the return, and a call to getinfo will return invalid data. debug.setlocal ([thread,] level, local, value) This function assigns the value value to the local variable with index local of the THE TIMES OF GERSHWIN, function at level level of the stack. The function returns nil if there is no local variable with the given index, and raises an error when called with a level out of range. (You can call getinfo to check whether the level is valid.) Otherwise, it returns the name of the terry, local variable. Sets the metatable for the given object to the given table (which can be nil ). This function assigns the value value to the upvalue with index up of the function func . The function returns nil if there is summary no upvalue with the given index. Terry! Otherwise, it returns the name of the upvalue. debug.traceback ([thread,] [message [, level]]) Returns a string with a traceback of the call stack. An optional message string is appended at the beginning of the traceback. An optional level number tells at which level to start the Expressiveness Essay, traceback (default is terry ridgway 1, the function calling traceback ).
Although Lua has been designed as an terry ridgway, extension language, to be embedded in a host C program, it is also frequently used as a stand-alone language. An interpreter for Lua as a stand-alone language, called simply lua , is provided with the standard distribution. The stand-alone interpreter includes all standard libraries, including the debug library. Its usage is: The options are: -e stat : executes string stat ; -l mod : requires mod ; -i : enters interactive mode after running script ; -v : prints version information; -- : stops handling options; - : executes stdin as a file and stops handling options. After handling its options, lua runs the given script , passing to it the ridgway, given args as string arguments.
When called without arguments, lua behaves as lua -v -i when the standard input ( stdin ) is a terminal, and as lua - otherwise. Before running any argument, the interpreter checks for an environment variable LUA_INIT . If its format is @ filename , then lua executes the file. Otherwise, lua executes the ode to a nightingale is eternal, string itself. All options are handled in order, except -i . For instance, an invocation like. will first set a to 1, then print the value of a (which is ' 1 '), and terry ridgway, finally run the file script.lua with no arguments. (Here $ is the shell prompt. Terry Ridgway! Your prompt may be different.) Before starting to run the script, lua collects all arguments in the command line in ridgway a global table called arg . The script name is stored at index 0, the first argument after the terry ridgway, script name goes to index 1, and so on.
Any arguments before the script name (that is, the interpreter name plus the ridgway, options) go to negative indices. For instance, in the call. the interpreter first runs the file a.lua , then creates a table. and finally runs the file b.lua . The script is called with arg , arg , ··· as arguments; it can also access these arguments with the vararg expression ' . '. In interactive mode, if you write an incomplete statement, the interpreter waits for its completion by issuing a different prompt. If the global variable _PROMPT contains a string, then its value is used as the prompt. Similarly, if the global variable _PROMPT2 contains a string, its value is used as the was the of the dawes, secondary prompt (issued during incomplete statements). Terry Ridgway! Therefore, both prompts can be changed directly on littering affect the environment, the command line or in any Lua programs by assigning to terry ridgway _PROMPT . See the next example: (The outer pair of quotes is for the shell, the inner pair is for the environment, Lua.) Note the use of terry ridgway, -i to the bird is eternal enter interactive mode; otherwise, the terry, program would just end silently right after the assignment to _PROMPT . To allow the use of Lua as a script interpreter in Unix systems, the stand-alone interpreter skips the first line of a chunk if it starts with # . Therefore, Lua scripts can be made into executable programs by using chmod +x and the #! form, as in. (Of course, the location of the Lua interpreter may be different in your machine. If lua is in terry ridgway your PATH , then.
is a more portable solution.) 7 Incompatibilities with the Previous Version. Here we list the incompatibilities that you may find when moving a program from Lua 5.0 to Lua 5.1. You can avoid most of the incompatibilities compiling Lua with appropriate options (see file luaconf.h ). However, all these compatibility options will be removed in terry ridgway the next version of Lua. The vararg system changed from the pseudo-argument arg with a table with the extra arguments to the vararg expression. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_VARARG in luaconf.h .) There was a subtle change in the scope of the implicit variables of the for statement and for the repeat statement.
The long string/long comment syntax ( [[ string ]] ) does not allow nesting. Littering Affect! You can use the terry, new syntax ( [=[ string ]=] ) in these cases. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_LSTR in Differences Expressiveness Essay luaconf.h .) Function string.gfind was renamed string.gmatch . (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_GFIND in luaconf.h .) When string.gsub is called with a function as its third argument, whenever this function returns nil or false the replacement string is the whole match, instead of the empty string. Function table.setn was deprecated. Function table.getn corresponds to the new length operator ( # ); use the operator instead of the function. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_GETN in luaconf.h .) Function loadlib was renamed package.loadlib . Terry! (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_LOADLIB in luaconf.h .) Function math.mod was renamed math.fmod . (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_MOD in luaconf.h .) Functions table.foreach and table.foreachi are deprecated. You can use a for loop with pairs or ipairs instead. What Purpose Dawes Act?! There were substantial changes in function require due to the new module system. Terry! However, the new behavior is mostly compatible with the old, but require gets the path from package.path instead of from LUA_PATH . Function collectgarbage has different arguments. Function gcinfo is deprecated; use collectgarbage(count) instead. The luaopen_* functions (to open libraries) cannot be called directly, like a regular C function.
They must be called through Lua, like a Lua function. Battle! Function lua_open was replaced by lua_newstate to allow the user to set a memory-allocation function. You can use luaL_newstate from the standard library to create a state with a standard allocation function (based on realloc ). Functions luaL_getn and luaL_setn (from the auxiliary library) are deprecated. Use lua_objlen instead of terry ridgway, luaL_getn and nothing instead of luaL_setn . Function luaL_openlib was replaced by luaL_register . Function luaL_checkudata now throws an error when the how does, given value is not a userdata of the expected type. Terry! (In Lua 5.0 it returned NULL .) Here is the terry ridgway, complete syntax of terry, Lua in extended BNF. (It does not describe operator precedences.)
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american son essay What is the True Meaning of American? What is the true meaning of being an American? Millions of people migrate into the United States of terry ridgway, American in order to achieve their dream and earn the name of an American. People leave their old home to of tippecanoe summary start a new one in the United States of American. Even people that are already technically Americans try to achieve their American dream by any means necessary.
In What is an American?, de Crevecouer states What then is the American, this new man? He is either an European, or the ridgway descendant of an European, hence that strange mixture of of tippecanoe, blood, which you will find in no other country. I could point out to terry ridgway you a family whose grandfather was an englishman, whose wife was Dutch, whose son married a french woman, and whose present four sons have now four wives of Differences Expressiveness Essay, different nations. He is an American ( de Crevecouer 223). This explains that not all Americans are suppose to be native to the United States of America in order to be considered an terry ridgway, American. And that those who are not native make great sacrifices to complete their trip to America. A true American is Expressiveness anyone that does not really have to be native to America but has the right reasons to live in the United States, wants to reach their own American Dream, has sacrificed a lot to become a true American, and has a deep desire to to achieve the title American. Many people come to America for terry ridgway their own reasons, mostly for a greater and better life. People come to live in America from an American Dream, which they define it has having material things like a great career, a huge home, and being successful in life. Cultural Differences? But in reality all that is needed to reach one's selves American Dream is a person's dreams in life.
Henry Davis Thoreau once said in his novel Walden ,however mean your life is, meet it and terry live it; do not shun it and call it hard times (Thoreau 306). This shows that a person does not need material things to reach his or her dream, all that that a person really needs is what they already have. This means its all about the way a person thinks that determines if they will reach their dream. A second example why many individuals come is because, here individuals of all nations are melted into a new race of men, whose labors and posterity will one day cause great change in the world. ( de Crevecouer 223) . This shows that everyone is what was the of the equal in terry the United States. America is now a melting pot of Cultural Differences in Facial Expressiveness Essay, cultures so that everyone can be equal. If everyone is equal in one country then everyone will be able to succeed in life. Refugees arrive from every location of the world to terry ridgway America in order to reach their American Dream. For example, in the play A Raisin in the Sun , by Lorraine Hansberry, Asagai is a student in America from Nigeria and when he finds out the the Younger family is Differences in Facial Essay expecting a lot from the money that they are going to receive he states, then isn’t there something wrong in a house—in a world—where all dreams, good or bad, must depend on the death of a man? (Hansberry 80). This shows that the Younger family is putting all their hopes for future fortune into the money that they are going to receive from the life insurance of the desist father.
They feel that this is the only way that they can reach their American Dream. Terry? Another example is that everyone has different dreams and they will reach their dreams at what was the purpose of the dawes severalty act?, different times and ways. Terry Ridgway? just like Thoreau once stated If a man does not keep pace with his companions, perhaps it is because he hears a different drummer. Let him step to the music which he hears, however measured or far away (Thoreau 264). This shows that different people will reach their own dream at different paces. Its not how long it takes to reach their dream but how they reach their dream. Different dreams take different amount of times to reach, but all that matters is that they reach their dream.
Only through hard work and dedication can a person finally reach their American Dream no matter what it is. The United States is filled with many types of song, Americans that do not necessarily have to be from the United States of America. For example, in the novel, A Raisin in ridgway the Sun, Beneatha is in an ode to song asking Asagai many questions about Africa because she was curious and she replies, Mr. Asagai – I want very much to talk with you. About Africa. You see, Mr. Asagai, I am looking for my identity! (Hansberry 99).
Asagai is an ridgway, American but he is not native from America. Therefore people would think that he is not a true American, when in how does affect fact he really is ridgway a true American because he reached his dream of being educated in how does the environment the United States. Beneatha asked Asagai several questions about ridgway, his life because she wants to also find her true American from within. Furthermore, Walt Whitman in the poem I Hear America Singing he stated each singing what belongs to him or her and to none else (Whitman 313). This shows that different people have different hopes and dreams.
There are many types of people in in an a nightingale the bird song is eternal America and they all have different dreams. Terry? America is the battle of tippecanoe summary only place where different people can be different yet still be equal as Americans. There are many different types of Americans, but all have of ridgway, them have an universal dream; to be an American. Cultural Differences Expressiveness Essay? Many people that come from foreign location sacrifice many things in order to ridgway become an American. for example, Beneatha from A raisin in terry ridgway the Sun believes that people are forced to terry lose their cultural background to become an American , because she says that an how does littering, [assimilationist] means someone who is willing to give up his own culture and terry submerge himself completely in the dominant, and in this case oppressive culture! (Hansberry 95). This shows that she believes that immigrants are forced to lose their culture and of tippecanoe embrace the American way of terry ridgway, life.
Beneatha feels that people cannot resist the urge to how does the environment become assimilated and sacrifice their culture to live in America. A second example is from the Gettysburg Address. Abraham Lincoln stated in his speech that . we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain, that this nation under God shall have a new birth freedom, and that government of the people, by the people, for the people shall not perish from the earth (Lincoln). This shows that many Americans have sacrificed their very lives in terry order to become a true American. America is going to affect the environment change as more Americans give their lives for America but it will also change so that Americans do not have to terry give up their lives to protect America. There are many reasons why immigrants want to immigrate to America.
For example, in de Crevecoeur's writing of What is was the purpose of the dawes An American?, he says that a man's country is now that which gives him land, bread, protection, and terry consequence (de Crevecoeur 224). This shows that the how does littering affect the environment citizens should not be the ones protecting the terry country at all times but the country should be protecting and providing for the citizens at all times. Home is a place that protects and feeds a citizen, not a place where the citizen is what was the of the dawes severalty obligated to protect his country. Another example is in the novel Into The Wild , by terry ridgway Jon Krakauer, Chris McCandless went venturing into the wilderness to find himself and be a true American. At the end of his journey and shortly before he died, he exclaimed I HAVE HAD A HAPPY LIFE AND THANK THE LORD. GOODBYE AND MAY GOD BLESS ALL! (Krakauer 199).
This shows that he felt that he had reach his dream of finding his true self when his end was near. McCandless felt that his life was complete and that his dream was full-filled. Everyone that lives in the Unites States will feel like their lives have been completed if they finally become true Americans. Essay OF GERSHWIN? The title of American belongs to a person who has the right reasons to live in the United States but not necessarily native from terry there, who wants a better life and has sacrificed a lot to become an American and has a desire to become an the environment, American. The main reason people come to the Unites States is because they want an overall better life and terry ridgway want to in Facial Essay full-fill their niche in ridgway life. In order to be a true American does not mean that a person has to be born there but just live there. Americans cannot be limited by their origin so anyone can become.
And with sacrifice earning the title of American will just make it that much sweeter at the end. But to earn the title the person will need deep desire because it might be a long road to earning it. Throughout time, in American history to this day it is was the purpose of the act? guaranteed that people will succeed because generations of prosperity and terry ridgway growth, the American dream has become an American expectation (Sandler). What is the true meaning of being an American? Millions of people migrate into the United States of American in order to affect achieve their dream and earn the name of an American.
People leave their old home to ridgway start a new one in the United States of of tippecanoe summary, American. Even people that are already technically Americans try to achieve their American dream by any means necessary. In What is an American?, de Crevecouer states What then is the American, this new man? He is either an European, or the descendant of an European, hence that strange mixture of blood, which you will find in no other country. I could point out to you a family whose grandfather was an ridgway, englishman, whose wife was Dutch, whose son married a french woman, and terry ridgway whose present four sons have now four wives of terry ridgway, different nations. He is an American ( de Crevecouer 223). This explains that not all Americans are suppose to be native to the United States of America in about THE TIMES OF GERSHWIN order to terry be considered an American. And that those who are not native make great sacrifices to complete their trip to America. A true American is anyone that does not really have to be native to America but has the right reasons to live in the United States, wants to reach their own American Dream, has sacrificed a lot to become a true American, and THE TIMES has a deep desire to to achieve the title American. Ridgway? Many people come to America for their own reasons, mostly for a greater and better life.
People come to live in America from an THE TIMES, American Dream, which they define it has having material things like a great career, a huge home, and being successful in life. But in terry ridgway reality all that is needed to reach one's selves American Dream is a person's dreams in life. Henry Davis Thoreau once said in his novel Walden ,however mean your life is, meet it and live it; do not shun it and call it hard times (Thoreau 306). This shows that a person does not need material things to reach his or her dream, all that that a person really needs is what they already have. This means its all about the way a person thinks that determines if they will reach their dream. A second example why many individuals come is because, here individuals of all nations are melted into a new race of about THE TIMES, men, whose labors and posterity will one day cause great change in the world. Terry? ( de Crevecouer 223) . This shows that everyone is equal in the United States.
America is Cultural Differences in Facial now a melting pot of cultures so that everyone can be equal. If everyone is equal in one country then everyone will be able to terry ridgway succeed in life. Refugees arrive from terry ridgway every location of the world to America in ridgway order to reach their American Dream. Battle? For example, in the play A Raisin in terry the Sun , by Lorraine Hansberry, Asagai is a student in America from Nigeria and when he finds out the the Younger family is of tippecanoe summary expecting a lot from the money that they are going to receive he states, then isn’t there something wrong in a house—in a world—where all dreams, good or bad, must depend on the death of ridgway, a man? (Hansberry 80). This shows that the Younger family is putting all their hopes for future fortune into a nightingale the money that they are going to receive from the life insurance of the ridgway desist father. They feel that this is the only way that they can reach their American Dream. Another example is that everyone has different dreams and they will reach their dreams at different times and ways. just like Thoreau once stated If a man does not keep pace with his companions, perhaps it is because he hears a different drummer. Let him step to the music which he hears, however measured or far away (Thoreau 264). This shows that different people will reach their own dream at different paces.
Its not how long it takes to reach their dream but how they reach their dream. Of Tippecanoe Summary? Different dreams take different amount of times to reach, but all that matters is terry ridgway that they reach their dream. Only through hard work and dedication can a person finally reach their American Dream no matter what it is. The United States is filled with many types of Americans that do not necessarily have to be from the United States of littering affect, America. For example, in the novel, A Raisin in ridgway the Sun, Beneatha is asking Asagai many questions about Africa because she was curious and she replies, Mr.
Asagai – I want very much to talk with you. About Africa. You see, Mr. Asagai, I am looking for in an ode to is eternal my identity! (Hansberry 99). Asagai is an terry ridgway, American but he is the bird song not native from ridgway America.
Therefore people would think that he is not a true American, when in fact he really is a true American because he reached his dream of being educated in the United States. Beneatha asked Asagai several questions about his life because she wants to also find her true American from within. Furthermore, Walt Whitman in the poem I Hear America Singing he stated each singing what belongs to him or her and to none else (Whitman 313). Terry Ridgway? This shows that different people have different hopes and dreams. There are many types of people in terry America and they all have different dreams. America is the only place where different people can be different yet still be equal as Americans. There are many different types of Americans, but all have of them have an Cultural Expressiveness, universal dream; to be an American. Many people that come from terry ridgway foreign location sacrifice many things in order to become an what was the purpose dawes act?, American. for example, Beneatha from A raisin in the Sun believes that people are forced to ridgway lose their cultural background to become an American , because she says that an ode to is eternal, [assimilationist] means someone who is terry ridgway willing to give up his own culture and submerge himself completely in the dominant, and in this case oppressive culture! (Hansberry 95). This shows that she believes that immigrants are forced to lose their culture and embrace the American way of life. Beneatha feels that people cannot resist the urge to become assimilated and what was the purpose of the sacrifice their culture to live in terry ridgway America. A second example is from the Gettysburg Address.
Abraham Lincoln stated in his speech that . we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain, that this nation under God shall have a new birth freedom, and purpose of the dawes severalty act? that government of the people, by the people, for ridgway the people shall not perish from the battle summary earth (Lincoln). This shows that many Americans have sacrificed their very lives in order to terry ridgway become a true American. America is going to change as more Americans give their lives for in an ode to song is eternal America but it will also change so that Americans do not have to give up their lives to protect America. There are many reasons why immigrants want to immigrate to America. For example, in terry de Crevecoeur's writing of What is in an ode to the bird song is eternal An American?, he says that a man's country is now that which gives him land, bread, protection, and consequence (de Crevecoeur 224). This shows that the citizens should not be the ones protecting the country at all times but the ridgway country should be protecting and providing for the citizens at all times. Home is a place that protects and feeds a citizen, not a place where the citizen is obligated to protect his country. Another example is in the novel Into The Wild , by Jon Krakauer, Chris McCandless went venturing into the wilderness to find himself and be a true American. At the in an is eternal end of terry, his journey and shortly before he died, he exclaimed I HAVE HAD A HAPPY LIFE AND THANK THE LORD. GOODBYE AND MAY GOD BLESS ALL! (Krakauer 199). This shows that he felt that he had reach his dream of finding his true self when his end was near.
McCandless felt that his life was complete and that his dream was full-filled. Everyone that lives in the Unites States will feel like their lives have been completed if they finally become true Americans. The title of American belongs to a person who has the right reasons to live in the United States but not necessarily native from there, who wants a better life and has sacrificed a lot to become an American and has a desire to become an American. The main reason people come to the Unites States is because they want an overall better life and want to full-fill their niche in life. In order to in an ode to song be a true American does not mean that a person has to terry be born there but just live there. Americans cannot be limited by their origin so anyone can become.
And with sacrifice earning the title of American will just make it that much sweeter at the end. But to earn the title the person will need deep desire because it might be a long road to how does littering affect earning it. Throughout time, in American history to this day it is guaranteed that people will succeed because generations of prosperity and growth, the American dream has become an American expectation (Sandler). deCrevecouer, Michel-Guillaume Jean. What Is an American? The Language of Literature: American Literature Eds. Arthur N. Applebee, Andrea B. Terry? Bermudez, Sheridan Blau, et al.
Evanston, Illinois: McDougal Littell. 1997. 224-225. Print. Your term paper requires you to (1) define what it is to was the purpose of the severalty be an terry, American beyond the legal definitions. What dreams and aspirations are universal for most Americans? What do we all have in common? (2) How do you see yourself fit into this definition?
What are your dreams? What goals do you have? Do you want to simplify life and be free like Thoreau or McCandless? Or do you want business success like Walter Younger in A Raisin in the Sun ? You must use at least ten citations from at least four sources from works we have read in class, one article from a periodical, newspaper or magazine, plus one more source of your choosing. Use MLA formatting. Dictionaries, encyclopedia (including Wikipedia), and unidentifiable/authorless web sites are not allowed as sources. Battle Of Tippecanoe Summary? Publish your papers on your web site. What is the terry True Meaning of American? What is the true meaning of terry ridgway, being an American? Millions of people migrate into terry the United States of American in order to achieve their dream and earn the name of an American. People leave their old home to terry ridgway start a new one in the United States of American.
Even people that are already technically Americans try to achieve their American dream by any means necessary. In What is an American?, de Crevecouer states What then is the American, this new man? He is either an European, or the descendant of an European, hence that strange mixture of ridgway, blood, which you will find in no other country. I could point out to you a family whose grandfather was an englishman, whose wife was Dutch, whose son married a french woman, and whose present four sons have now four wives of different nations. He is an American ( de Crevecouer 223). Cultural Differences Expressiveness Essay? This explains that not all Americans are suppose to be native to the United States of America in order to be considered an American. And that those who are not native make great sacrifices to complete their trip to America. Terry Ridgway? A true American is anyone that does not really have to be native to America but has the right reasons to live in the United States, wants to reach their own American Dream, has sacrificed a lot to become a true American, and has a deep desire to to achieve the song is eternal title American. Many people come to America for their own reasons, mostly for a better life.
People come to America to ridgway live the American Dream, which they define it has having material things like a great career, a huge home, and a nightingale is eternal being successful in life. Terry Ridgway? But in reality all that is needed to reach the American Dream is Essay yourself and your dreams. Henry Davis Thoreau once said in Walden ,however mean your life is, meet it and live it; do not shun it and ridgway call it hard times (Thoreau 306). This shows that a person does not need material things to reach their dream, all that they really need is what they already have. This means its all about the way a person thinks that determines if they will reach their dream. A second example why many individuals come is because, here individuals of all nations are melted into a new race of men, whose labors and posterity will one day cause great change in the world. ( de Crevecouer 223) . A Nightingale The Bird Is Eternal? This shows that everyone is equal in terry the United States.
The United States is a melting pot of cultures so that everyone can be equal. If everyone is was the of the severalty equal in one country then everyone will be able to succeed in life. Refugees come from every location to America in order to ridgway reach their American Dream. For example, in Cultural in Facial Expressiveness Essay the novel A Raisin in the Sun , by Lorraine Hansberry, Asagai is ridgway a student in America from Nigeria and when he finds out the the Younger family is of the dawes expecting a lot from the money that they are going to ridgway receive he states, then isn’t there something wrong in terry ridgway a house—in a world—where all dreams, good or bad, must depend on the death of ridgway, a man? (Hansberry 80). This shows that the Younger family is putting all their future fortune into the money that they are going to receive. They feel that this is the only way that they can reach their American Dream. Another example is a nightingale the bird song is eternal that everyone has different dreams and they will reach their dreams at different times and ways. Ridgway? just like Thoreau once stated If a man does not keep pace with his companions, perhaps it is in an a nightingale is eternal because he hears a different drummer. Let him step to the music which he hears, however measured or far away (Thoreau 264). This shows that different people will reach their own dream at different paces.
Its not how long it takes to terry ridgway reach their dream but how they reach their dream. Different dreams take different amount of battle of tippecanoe summary, times to terry ridgway reach, but all that matters is that they reach their dream. Only through hard work and dedication can a person finally reach their American Dream no mater what it is. Battle? The United States is filled with many types of Americans that do not necessarily have to be from the United States of terry, America. For example in the novel A Raisin in the Sun, Beneatha is asking Asagai many questions about Africa because she was curious and she tells him Mr. Of Tippecanoe Summary? Asagai – I want very much to talk with you. About Africa. You see, Mr. Asagai, I am looking for my identity! (Hansberry 99). Asagai is an American but he is not native from America. Beneatha is asking him several questions about his life because she wants to also find her true American from terry within.
Furthermore, Walt Whitman in the poem I Hear America Singing he stated each singing what belongs to him or her and to none else. (Whitman 313). This shows that different people have different hopes and dreams. There are many types of people in THE TIMES America and they all have dreams. America is the place where different people can be different yet still be equal as Americans. Terry? There are many different types of Americans, but all have of them have an universal dream; to terry ridgway be an American. Many people that come from foreign location sacrifice many things in order to become an American. for example, Beneatha from A raisin in the Sun believes that people are forced to lose their cultural background to become an American , because she says that an ridgway, [assimilationist] means someone who is willing to give up his own culture and submerge himself completely in the dominant, and in this case oppressive culture! (Hansberry 95).
This shows that she believes that immigrants are forced to lose their culture and embrace the American way of life. Beneatha feels that people cannot resist the urge to become assimilated and sacrifice their culture to terry ridgway live in America. A second example is from the ridgway Gettysburg Address. Terry Ridgway? Abraham Lincoln stated in his speech that . we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain, that this nation under God shall have a new birth freedom, and ridgway that government of the people, by the people, for littering affect the environment the people shall not perish from the terry ridgway earth (Lincoln). This shows that many Americans have sacrificed their very lives in order to become a true American. Essay? America is going to change as more Americans give their lives for terry America but America will also change in Cultural Differences Expressiveness order that not as many Americans have to terry give their lives. There are many reasons why immigrants want ti immigrate to America. For example, in de Crevecoeur's writing, What is An American? he says that a man's country is about THE TIMES now that which gives him land, bread, protection, and consequence (de Crevecoeur 224). This shows that the citizens should not be the ones protecting the terry country at all time but the ode to a nightingale the bird song country.
Home is a place that protects and feeds you not the terry other way around. Another example is in a nightingale the bird is eternal the novel Into The Wild , by Jon Krakauer, Chris McCandless went venturing into the wilderness to find himself and ridgway be a true American. At the end of his journey and shortly before he died, he exclaimed I HAVE HAD A HAPPY LIFE AND THANK THE LORD. GOODBYE AND MAY GOD BLESS ALL! (Krakauer 199). This shows that he felt that he had reach his dream of finding his true self. McCandless felt that his life was complete and that his dream was full-filled.
Everyone that lives in the Unites States will feel like their lives have been completed if they finally become true Americans. The title of American belongs to a person who has the right reasons to live in the United States but not necessarily native from there, who wants a better life and has sacrificed a lot to become an purpose, American and has a desire to ridgway become an American. The main reason people come to the Unites States is because they want an overall better life. In An The Bird Song Is Eternal? In order to be a true American does not mean that a person has to be born there but just live there. Americans cannot be limited by their origin so anyone can become. And with sacrifice earning the title of terry, American will just make it that much sweeter at the end. But to earn the how does affect title the person will need deep desire because it might be a long road to earning it. Throughout time, in American history to this day it is guaranteed that people will succeed because generations of prosperity and growth, the American dream has become an American expectation (Sandler). deCrevecouer, Michel-Guillaume Jean.
What Is an American? The Language of Literature: American Literature Eds. Terry Ridgway? Arthur N. Applebee, Andrea B. About THE TIMES OF GERSHWIN? Bermudez, Sheridan Blau, et al. Evanston, Illinois: McDougal Littell. 1997. 224-225. Terry Ridgway? Print.
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collaborative essay In 1995, I was commissioned by the Pew Partnership for Civic Change to study how collaboration was being used in the United States to build and strengthen community. While there are many forms of collaboration, my research focused on one type in particular—the kind carried out by individuals, groups and organizations in terry ridgway, the public sphere. This form of collaboration can be described as a process of how does littering shared decision-making in which all the parties with a stake in a problem constructively explore their differences and develop a joint strategy for action. This essay appears in 'On Collaboration' — a collection edited by Marie Bak Mortensen and Judith Nesbitt (London: Tate, 2012). My report on ridgway the subject (from which the terry ridgway following essay has been adapted) generated a surprising amount of terry attention when it appeared. It was widely cited in Differences Expressiveness, books and publications and reprinted in several monographs. After concluding the terry study, I went on to observe and work with collaborative teams across America as well as study community leaders who practice collaboration as part of their community development work. I found that collaboration can be a powerful alternative to conventional mechanisms for effecting change, such as coalitions, task forces, and commissions. Traditional groups and organizations tend to in an a nightingale song be structured vertically. Terry! Decisions are made at the top and battle summary people derive their influence and terry authority from their positions within the about THE TIMES hierarchy.
This is terry ridgway especially true in how does affect, professional organizations where leadership is centralized, the work mission-driven, processes guided by procedures and statutes, and internal communication mostly confined to departments, workgroups, and committees. Collaborative groups, by contrast, are structured horizontally. Leadership, to the extent that it exists at all, is broadly distributed. Job titles and professional affiliations fade into the background and people derive their influence from having their ears to the ground, from ridgway, being well-connected in what purpose dawes severalty, the community, and from being engaged in a multiplicity of projects. Ridgway! Membership usually spans silos and divisions in the community, processes are guided by norms of trust and reciprocity, and communication is more personal, more conversational, more exploratory than in formal settings. For this reason, collaborative efforts tend to be loosely structured, highly adaptive, and inherently creative. By creating spaces where connections are made, ideas are cross-fertilized, and collective knowledge is developed, collaborative teams generate rich opportunities for innovation. When the right people are brought together in about OF GERSHWIN, constructive ways and with the appropriate information, they are able to create powerful visions and robust strategies for change. While collaboration is getting a lot of attention today, especially in terry ridgway, the fields of management theory and leadership studies, there is relatively little substantive research on the subject. There is, however, a growing body of literature championing its benefits. Affect! In the terry following pages, I review some of the principal sources in song, order to better understand: What is collaboration?
How does it differ from other models of cooperation? What are the prerequisites and dynamics of effective collaboration? What makes an effective collaborative leader? What are some of the chief dangers and obstacles to successful collaboration? And how do we build more collaborative communities? As its Latin roots com and terry laborare suggest, collaboration reduced to its simplest definition means to work together.
The search for a more comprehensive definition leads to affect a myriad of possibilities each having something to offer and none being entirely satisfactory on terry ridgway its own. What Was The Purpose Of The! These range from the academic (a process of joint decision making among key stakeholders of a problem domain about the future of that domain) to the esoteric (an interactive process having a shared transmutational purpose). One of the more durable and widely-cited definitions comes from Barbara Gray's 1989 book, Collaborating: Finding Common Ground for Multiparty Problems . Gray describes collaboration as a process through which parties who see different aspects of a problem can constructively explore their differences and search for ridgway solutions that go beyond their own limited vision of what is possible. In Collaborative Leadership , David Chrislip and Carl Larson define the process as a mutually beneficial relationship between two or more parties who work toward common goals by Expressiveness Essay sharing responsibility, authority, and accountability for achieving results. Collaboration appeals to terry people from across the political spectrum, not because it offers everything to everyone—as some of the advocacy literature on the subject seems to purpose of the dawes severalty act? suggest—but because it deals with a process, as distinct from a program, agenda, or outcome.
Collaboration requires that we look not only at the outcomes of our efforts, whatever they happen to be, but also at the process by which we arrive at those outcomes. Collaboration might be used to ridgway resolve a neighborhood or environmental dispute. It could be a springboard for economic development in THE TIMES OF GERSHWIN, a community or region. Or it could be used to promote greater civic participation and involvement. Generally speaking, the process works best when. The problems are ill-defined, or people disagree on terry ridgway how the problems are defined Different groups or organizations with a vested interest depend on each other in some way. Those with a stake in a problem have yet to be identified or organized Some stakeholders have more power or resources than others Those with a vested interest have different levels of expertise and access to information about the issue. The problems are often characterized by technical complexity and scientific uncertainty Differing perspectives on the problems lead to conflict or disagreement among the stakeholders Incremental or unilateral efforts to address with the issue have been ineffective Existing processes for addressing the problems have proved unsuccessful. Collaborative endeavors take many forms.
Some common varieties include: public-private partnerships (sometimes referred to Cultural Differences in Facial Expressiveness Essay as social partnerships)—ad hoc alliances between otherwise independent organizations that span both the public and the private sectors; future commissions , also known as search conferences, in which citizens and community leaders analyze trends, develop alternative scenarios of the future, and establish recommendations and ridgway goals for the community; interagency collaborations aimed at littering affect, improving social services to children, families, and other members of a community; online networks designed to link various civic, educational, business, and governmental institutions within a community or region; school-community partnerships designed to ridgway foster greater collaboration between secondary schools and key community institutions; networks and coalitions —loosely structured alliances among groups, organizations, and Essay THE TIMES citizens that share a commitment to terry a particular issue or place; and terry ridgway regional collaboratives where local governments work together to promote economic development and service delivery. COLLABORATION VS. OTHER MODELS OF COOPERATION. Collaborative partnerships can be broadly grouped under two headings: those aimed at resolving conflicts and those designed to develop and advance a shared vision for the future. In both cases, the process is aimed at carefully defining and, if need be, redefining the issues involved before moving on to solutions. Collaboration focuses on identifying a common purpose and working toward joint decisions. This distinguishes it from other forms of cooperation that may involve shared interests but are not based on a collectively-articulated goal or vision. We cannot even begin to agree on ridgway how we should act until we have a common definition of the the bird song is eternal problem, David Mathews writes in terry ridgway, Politics for terry ridgway People , one that reflects an understanding of our own interests, the interests of others, and how the two diverge and converge. There are obvious similarities between cooperation and collaboration, but the former involves preestablished interests while the latter involves collectively-defined goals. In What It Takes , an oft-cited 1991 monograph on terry interagency collaboration, Atelia Melaville and Martin Blank point out that a collaborative strategy is called for . where the of tippecanoe need and intent is to change fundamentally the way services are designed and delivered.
Cooperation, by contrast, merely involves coordinating existing services. Banding together to work for common goals is not a new idea in politics. The literature is full of examples of how community organizations—religious groups, trade unions, nonprofit groups, small businesses, civic alliances—form cooperative ventures, community interest groups, neighborhood task forces, and political coalitions. But these efforts are rarely collaborative in ridgway, the strict sense. The goal is to join forces to advance a cause, which is different from a nightingale the bird song, collaborating to address a collective problem or develop a joint vision for the future. THE PREREQUISITES FOR COLLABORATION.
For collaboration to be effective, it must be democratic and inclusive. Hierarchies of any kind get in terry, the way of sound decision-making, just as excluding some individuals or groups with a stake in the issue can derail the process. It also requires the involvement of battle a wide range of community leaders, such as mayors, city council members, nonprofit directors and members of the local school board. In a series of case studies of successful collaboratives, David Chrislip and Carl Larson point out ridgway, that each one involved many participants from several sectors—for example, government, business, and community groups—as opposed to few participants predominantly from how does affect the environment, one sector. The level of participation required, however, is partly a function of what kind of collaboration is being sought. Clearly, some forms of collaboration—such as interagency partnerships—require only that the relevant stakeholders be included. Chrislip and Larson emphasize that the support of high-level, visible leaders brought credibility to the effort and was an essential aspect of the success of the endeavor. According to Barbara Gray, collaboration can only be meaningful if the parties involved are interdependent in terry, some way. Collaboration establishes a give and take among the stakeholders that is designed to produce solutions that none of them working independently could achieve, she says. In this way, they all depend on each other to produce mutually beneficial solutions. Some questions to ask before embarking on a collaborative venture include:
What are the structural relationships between the in an ode to a nightingale is eternal parties and the possible power issues inherent in the collaborative arrangement? Is there a clear understanding among all the parties of the respective goals of the terry other participants? What form of leadership is required to facilitate the process? Does the project have some form of integrating structure, such as a cross-section of steering committees, to facilitate and coordinate decision-making and implementation? Will the project be more effective with a neutral, third-party mediator?
Should the media be involved? Does the project have enough time, money, and staff support? The process of collaboration is terry ridgway rarely simple and straight-forward. Terry Ridgway! It typically moves through several distinct phases, some of which can be time-consuming and fraught with challenges. Generally speaking, the ode to a nightingale the bird is eternal process begins with an analysis of the situation and a diagnosis of the key issues involved. It moves on terry to a definition of the fundamental mission or desired outcome. Of The Dawes Severalty! The participants then articulate a common vision and terry ridgway work out terry ridgway, a plan and a timetable for meeting their goals. Terry! It most cases, the process concludes with an assessment of the Essay about outcomes and a review of lessons learned.
Barbara Gray describes it as a three-phase process. The first phase, which she calls the prenegotiation or problem-setting phase, is often the terry most difficult. Six issues need to summary be addressed at this stage: 1) the parties must arrive at a shared definition of the problem, including how it relates to the interdependence of the various stakeholders; 2) the parties must make a commitment to collaborate; 3) other stakeholders need to be identified whose involvement may be necessary for the success of the endeavor; 4) the parties have to acknowledge and accept the legitimacy of the other participants; 5) the parties must decide what type of convener or leader can bring the parties together; and 6) the parties must determine what resources are needed for the collaboration to terry proceed. During the second phase, the parties identify the what was the dawes severalty interests that brought them to the table, determine how they differ from the interests of others, set directions and establish shared goals. Gray calls this the direction-setting phase. It is characterized by six essential steps: 1) establishing ground rules; 2) setting the ridgway agenda; 3) organizing subgroups, especially if the number of terry ridgway issues to be discussed is large or the number of stakeholders exceeds a dozen or so people; 4) undertaking a joint information search to establish and consider the essential facts of the issue involved; 5) exploring the pros and cons of ridgway various alternatives; and 6) reaching agreement and settling for a course of what was the action.
The final step of the collaborative process is the implementation phase during which 1) participating groups or organizations deal with their constituencies; 2) parties garner the support of those who will be charged with implementing the agreement; 3) structures for implementation are established; and finally 4) the agreement is monitored and ridgway compliance is ensured. Collaborative ventures obviously vary a great deal and not all of them can or want to follow this general framework. A Nightingale The Bird! Much will depend on the nature of the endeavor, the number of people or parties involved, the time-frame, and the resources at hand. The growing interest in collaboration can be seen as part of a bumpy transition away from top-down authority structures toward a new way of coordinating activities and making decisions. At their best, collaborative leaders assume the role of discussion facilitator rather than decision-maker. They put aside whatever authority, expertise, position, or influence they may have in the outside world in order to foster openness, dialogue, and deliberation within the group. The collaborative leader is one whose primary goal is to convene, energize, facilitate and sustain the process over time. This form of leadership has been variously defined as transformative, facilitative, or servant leadership. In his classic 1978 book Leadership , James MacGregor Burns described transforming leadership as a process in terry ridgway, which one or more persons engage with each other in such a way that leaders and followers raise one another to higher levels of motivation and morality.
The key to this type of terry ridgway leadership, he said, is the terry discovery of ode to song is eternal shared purpose and the interplay between motives and values. James Svara, in his book Facilitative Leadership in Local Government , expanded on this notion, saying that collaborative leaders stress empathetic communication, think in 'win-win' terms rather than seeing their interests in conflict with those of others, and use synergism to make the whole greater than the terry ridgway sum of the parts. A number of theorists stress that one reason collaboration works as well as it does is ode to the bird is eternal that it empowers participants and creates a sense of ownership and buy-in within the group. Ridgway! When decisions are reached, they are the products group's own efforts. The process may be difficult and time-consuming, but it elicits more solid and enduring support than decisions made by a single person or a select few. Collaborative leaders understand this intuitively. Cultural Expressiveness! They move the process along by sharing inspiring visions, focusing on results, strengthening relationships, being open and inclusive, bringing out the best in terry ridgway, others, and in Facial Expressiveness celebrating achievement. Collaborative leadership is not a specific set of terry ridgway activities.
It means playing whatever role is necessary to bring about real change and lasting impact in what of the act?, the community. It means being a catalyst, a spark plug, and channeling people's energies toward a common goal. For all its benefits, collaboration is not always the best course of action. The process is fraught with dangers and inherent limitations. Terry Ridgway! It is notoriously time-consuming and is not suitable for problems that require quick and decisive action, for example. Power inequalities among the battle of tippecanoe summary parties often thwart the process. The norms of consensus and joint decision-making sometimes require that the ridgway common good take precedence over the interests of a few. It can break down in groups that are too large. And the process is meaningless when participants lack the power to implement final decisions. The literature is full of examples of poorly executed collaborations that failed to yield substantive results, ran out of funding, failed to battle garner enough interest or support from the terry ridgway leadership of the community, or stalled because of of tippecanoe irreconcilable differences between stakeholders.
As Barbara Gray points out, many well-intentioned efforts to involve the public in government decisions, for example, are exercises in frustration and often exacerbate rather than improve the situation because careful attention to the process of managing differences is neglected. Some of the circumstances under which it is best not to collaborate include: 1) when one party has unchallenged power to influence the ridgway final outcome; 2) when the conflict is rooted in deep-seated ideological differences; 3) when power is unevenly distributed; 4) when constitutional issues are involved or legal precedents are sought; and of tippecanoe summary when a legitimate convener cannot be found. But when groups are aware of the limitations of the process and are able to work around them, they can do great things. Consciously or not, many of us subscribe to outmoded theories of change handed down from traditional leadership theory. We believe that influence occurs as a direct result of ridgway force exerted from one person to another. Battle Of Tippecanoe! We engage in complex planning processes in the hope of producing predictable results. And we continually search for terry ridgway better methods of Cultural Essay objectively perceiving and measuring the world. This approach is reflected in the predominant approach to change-making: organizing committees and task forces, creating new programs, establishing stricter regulations or more oversight, and, perhaps especially, hiring or electing better leaders.
But the realities of public life today are dynamic and complex and terry ridgway no longer lend themselves to mechanistic solutions. In An A Nightingale Song Is Eternal! They require rigorously multidimensional approaches that are participatory, iterative, flexible, and open-ended. In my research on collaboration, I have interviewed many practitioners who told me that they found their way to collaboration only after years of frustration with conventional problem-solving approaches and ridgway a gnawing sense that there must be a better way. They stressed that traditional mechanisms for bringing about change are often exasperating, time-consuming, and ineffective. In a time of widespread frustration with politics-as-usual, collaboration represents a more promising way forward. What Was The Dawes Severalty! What has moved so many people to take on terry ridgway this hard work of collaboration, write Daniel Kemmis and Matthew McKinney in Collaboration and the Ecology of Democracy , has been the how does widespread perception that, in all too many cases, the existing governing framework was proving itself incapable of getting the job done. To put it bluntly, the problems that people expected the government to terry ridgway solve were not getting solved. Building collaborative communities means finding new and better ways to work together. We need to create spaces where people can find each other, share ideas, and discover common ground. We need settings where people can receive support and be acknowledged as public actors.
And we need contexts in which people can begin to imagine and act from a new sense of possibility. This essay appears in On Collaboration , a collection edited by Marie Bak Mortensen and Judith Nesbitt. Differences In Facial Expressiveness Essay! On Collaboration brings together several general essays on collaboration along with case studies of numerous collaborative art initiatives carried out in the U.K. under the auspices of Tate. (London: Tate, December 2012). Copyright 2017 by Scott London. All rights reserved.