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Formation of Imagined Communities Essay -- Sociology, Social

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LEEWS (Law Essay Exam Writing/Preparation Science/System) changes the game! A proven effective (true) science of preparing for Formation of Imagined Communities Essay and executing the “A” essay exam, LEEWS is applicable to in black bar as well as law school exams. Unique, proven systems are put in place for (systematically!) identifying issues [No more haphazard spotting!], presenting analysis in concise paragraphs (roughly one per issue), briefing cases in 2-4 lines(!!), taking far fewer class notes, and compiling condensed, effective, 30-50 page course outlines. And much more. A law student learns—finally—to learn/think as a reasonable facsimile of a [practicing] lawyer.

I briefed, outlined my notes, reviewed the Formation of Imagined, law, but still felt totally unprepared for upcoming exams. Quotes? This program was exactly what I needed €” the tools to confidently tackle exams in a methodical way. — Jan Court, Univ Texas '00. Just knowing you have a plan €” i.e., the steps €” keeps you from of Imagined Communities Essay worrying about panic. €” Rob Goldbaum, U. Chicago '92. 3 Sample Law Essay Exams From the LEEWS Primer (with Model Responses) [And an example of LEEWS' effectiveness in practice.] 1 Actual Civil Procedure Exam With Model Response (written by a LEEWS grad) and Professor Comments. The entire grade (!!) in most law school courses will depend upon performance on a final exam, most if not all of which is essay in nature. (You are basically asked to identify and of Cyberbullying analyze so-called issues generated in a hypothetical [made up] and Communities usually complex fact pattern, much as a lawyer might.) Most exams are 3-4 hours in length, and either closed or open book. The former means you bring nothing into the exam with you (save the code in a course based on a code of rules [e.g., IRS Code in taxation, Federal Rules of Civil Procedure in civil procedure]). Normally open book allows you to bring in class notes, textbook, outlines, whatever, which tends to reassure students. However, open book is northern, misleading, as there is typically little time to refer to aids.

Open or closed book, the law you need to of Imagined Essay know should be in your head. Some professors offer take home exams, which may have 8-24 hour time limits, and limits as to how much you can write or type. Northern Decision? Grading is invariably anonymous to protect professors and students alike. Formation Of Imagined? Unlike college and decision graduate school, class participation, acquaintance with the of Imagined Communities, professor, even midsemester (as opposed to midyear) midterms generally have no bearing on law school grades. Ask professors themselves, or upperclass students about the securities decision, grading policies and practices of of Imagined Communities Essay, individual professors. There follow three examples of essay hypotheticals selected from woman in black quotes among the eight in the appendix of the LEEWS Primer.

Following are models of the LEEWS approach to breaking fact patterns down into of Imagined Essay, units corresponding to relevant issues [Planning Phase], as well as fully developed written responses corresponding to our format of concise paragraphs, roughly one per issue [Writing Phase]. The law needed to address each hypo is in black, provided, as the subjects may as yet be unfamiliar to you. You may want to attempt a response before looking at the models. Formation Communities Essay? Standard exam writing advice posits that you follow IRAC. Teachers? I.e., identify the Issue, state the applicable Rule, Analyze, Conclude. (Sounds great, until you realize you don't know what an issue is, much less how to identify all issues lurking in the fact pattern; you don't know how to analyze as a lawyer; and of Imagined Communities Essay you don't know how to present analysis concisely.) Whether you are familiar with the three subjects tested or no, all essay exercises are predictable in nature. A typically complex and confusing fact pattern is followed by question(s)/instruction(s) that in effect require you to identify or spot the of us gov, legal issues that would be of interest to a judge or lawyer.

You must then resolve those issues, bringing to bear relevant law and the analytic dialectic between law and facts known as lawyerlike thinking. Should you find yourself thinking, as you review the model responses, I don't think I can ever do that, unless you have a knack for taking such exams (possessed by Communities, only a small handful of students -- 5-7%, even at Harvard), you are probably correct. Which is why so few law students manage even a single A on final exams. But rest assured that anyone with reasonable intelligence and diligence can produce such responses consistently. Showing you how is about and Its Struggles, what LEEWS is all about -- for any exam in any subject, no matter the question(s)/instruction(s) posed by the professor.

Civil Procedure Hypothetical (60 min.) Coris Becker, an Formation of Imagined Communities Essay occasional tennis player, fell while descending steps at the Only For Us Racquet Club in Long Island City, Queens County, New York. As she explained to her husband moments later by of Cyberbullying, phone: Not the most graceful move in the world, Morris. I got so mad, I smashed Mommy's new titanium Stroker. Be a dear and bring home din-din. I'm going to Formation of Imagined Communities be in securities the hot tub for Formation Communities hours. As she limped out to on Women’s Groups In The Twentieth-Century her Lexus, Coris ran into the club owner, Jett Setter.

He grinned and remarked, I saw that spill, Coris. Not the most graceful move in the world. At which point Coris determined to sue Setter personally, as well as the club. Although a resident of Queens County, Coris, joined by her mother, Doris, a resident of Manhattan, New York County, brought suit against Formation Essay, Only For Us Racquet Club, Inc. (OFU, Inc.) and Jett Setter personally in New York County, seeking damages for Coris' injury and the destruction of the tennis racquet. Thereupon followed, inter alia , the following events and motions: 1 €” OFU, Inc. and Setter moved for in black a change of Formation Communities, venue to Queens County. 2 €” Attempts to serve Setter personally at his club were twice unsuccessful, so a copy of the summons and complaint was affixed to the door of 3 branches of us gov, his home.

Another was mailed to him. [So-called nail and mail service.] 3 €” Although the complaint affixed to his door separated from the summons and blew away, and the mailed copy never arrived, Setter, by his attorney, appeared in the action, answered the Formation of Imagined Essay, complaint, interposed affirmative defenses, and otherwise defended against in black, the action. Only later during an Formation of Imagined appeal did he assert lack of personal jurisdiction as a defense. 4 €” OFU, Inc. On Women’s In The Twentieth-Century? served notice of the deposition of of Imagined Communities Essay, a person who, while standing in the next phone booth, had overheard Coris' conversation with her husband. Coris moved for a protective order forbidding disclosure of anything overheard as a privileged conversation. 5 €” OFU, Inc. requested an admission from Doris that Coris has a tendency to negligent behavior. Doris ignored it. 6 €” Following a directed verdict during trial dismissing her cause of action for destruction of the racquet, Doris immediately instituted a claim for damages on the same ground in small claims court, Manhattan. You are a law clerk to, where appropriate, both trial and appellate judges assigned to this case. Essay Idealism? Prepare a memorandum of law respecting the issues raised in the above. Majority state law applies.

RELEVANT LEGAL PRINCIPLES FOR CIVIL PROCEDURE HYPO. (Such legal knowledge should be in your head as well as your course outline. Note: The law provided herein may or may not be currently accurate.) Discovery (scope of) €” Generally, all information not otherwise privileged that is relevant to the subject matter of the action is discoverable, whether or not the Formation of Imagined Essay, material would be admissible as proof. Communications between spouses €” A confidential communication between husband and wife is privileged against disclosure by teachers, either spouse or by a third person (e.g., an eavesdropper).

Personal Jurisdiction €” Generally, in order to determine the rights and duties of parties to an action, and to bind the parties personally to its determinations, a court must have in personam jurisdiction over said parties. Said jurisdiction will be had, inter alia, where a defendant is present in the state where an action is of Imagined, brought, and personally served with process. Where personal service on woman, a defendant cannot be effected through due diligence, a plaintiff is of Imagined Communities, entitled to substitute such service by affixing a copy of the summons and Essay on Women’s Groups In The complaint to the door or other conspicuous place at the defendant's last known address, and also mailing a copy of same by regular mail to said address (so-called nail and mail). Of Imagined? A court has held that three attempts at in hand service at a defendant's place of business, without attempting to serve the northern securities decision, defendant at Communities Essay, home or leave the summons and complaint with a person of suitable age and discretion at the place of business does not satisfy the requirements of due diligence. Waiver of €” Where a defendant appears, answers the complaint, interposes defenses, and at no time during or after trial moves to dismiss based on, nor claims lack of personal jurisdiction, the defense will be deemed waived on in black quotes, appeal. Requests for admission €” A request for admission imposes a duty on the party served to acknowledge the existence of facts that are not in doubt and that should not be necessary to Formation of Imagined Essay prove at trial. Essay And Its Struggles To Exist? The party served normally has 30 days to Formation of Imagined Essay respond.

Failure to in black quotes timely respond results in Communities Essay the matter being deemed admitted. Inter alia , it is permissible to request that a party admit to a legal conclusion (e.g., that an employee was acting with authority, or that the party was traveling against traffic on a one-way street). Factors? However, it is not proper to request an admission to an abstract statement of law (e.g., that allowing a minor without a license to drive is negligent, per se). Res Judicata €” Doctrine that for Essay reasons of economy, prevention of harassment, and avoidance of inconsistent judicial rulings (policy!), the relitigation of northern securities decision, claims and issues is generally prohibited. Claim preclusion €” Doctrine whereby a final judgment on the merits of a claim or cause of action precludes reassertion of that claim or cause of action in a subsequent suit. Venue €” Refers to the proper place for of Imagined Communities trial of a lawsuit. The purpose of venue rules is to prevent a plaintiff from forcing a defendant to about and Its Struggles to Exist trial where it would be burdensome for Formation of Imagined him to appear and defend (policy!). Unless compelling reasons exist to direct otherwise, a transitory action (meaning that the teachers, transaction which is the subject of the action could have happened anywhere) should be tried in Formation of Imagined Communities Essay the county where the action arose. MODEL RESPONSE TO CIVIL PROCEDURE HYPOTHETICAL.

(1/4 - 1/3 of allotted time divided into 10-15 minute intervals) Preliminary Overview €” Six distinct events/motions. Perform Steps One, Two, and Three (The Blender) on each is my initial perspective on woman in black quotes, how to proceed. [Always the Steps, always the Steps €” a constant way of of Imagined Communities, thinking.] Step One €” [Conflict pairings and party objective(s) for each of the six events/motions.] The conflict pairings for all six are either Coris and/or Doris versus OFU, Inc. and/or Jett Setter. [The consistent overall objectives are to obtain damages on one side and to woman in black quotes avoid liability on the other.

However, given that this is a civil procedure exam, the objectives that count for purposes of generating premises are intermediate in nature. Formation Essay? In the larger (intermediate) sense they are to keep the litigation going versus termination on a procedural ground. More immediate to the six events/motions:] 1 = Change venue to Queens County vs. keep it in Manhattan County. 2 = Establish personal jurisdiction vs. not. 3 = Have lack of personal jurisdiction defense ruled moot vs. exists and In The Twentieth-Century viable.

4 = Preclude disclosure of overheard conversation vs. have it ruled discoverable. 5 = Have fact admitted vs. not admitted. 6 = Have claim heard in small claims court vs. dismissed. [My view at this point is that each event/motion will generate no more than one or two premises, and Formation will be relatively straightforward of analysis. Therefore, the time to be allotted each will be roughly the same. As it would interrupt continuity of train of thought and be time wasting to continue applying the Steps to all six, from this point on I shall work on on The, each question to completion before going on to the next .]

Step Two €” [Consider each pairing, party, and objective. Cull facts (and course outline) for relevant premises.] 1 = Venue of of Imagined Communities Essay, transitory action is overriding , (i.e., governs the Essay and Its, determination, no matter which party's perspective/objective is considered. See definition of Step Two and footnote, page 104.) 2 = Nail and mail service vs. due diligence rule. [Complete analysis/discussion of No.2 (7-8 minutes??), then on Formation Communities, to No.3; . . Gov? . No.4; . . . 5; . . . 6.] 3 = Rule re lack of personal jurisdiction and grounds for waiver thereof overrides. 4 = Rule re discovery of Formation Communities, spousal communication overrides.

5 = Requests for admission, and failure to respond thereto overrides. 6 = Res judicata rules override. Step Three €” [Consider each premise to note missing elements or real issues.] [Since there appear to be but one or two premises to be considered for each event/motion, and since I am working on each exclusive of the factors, others, Step Three is Formation of Imagined Communities, unnecessary as an 3 branches of us gov independent exercise. Formation Communities? It is part and parcel of Essay Groups Twentieth-Century, inspecting the law giving rise to the premise under consideration to determine whether it is necessary to state all of the law to Formation of Imagined begin the first paragraph of analysis, or whether one or more elements can be focused on as pivotal.] Preview of a logical sequence for discussion €” No overlap of about and Its Struggles, discussion apparent. No reason apparent not to proceed in the chronology given. [When question(s)/instruction(s) offer a labeling format, you of course normally use it. The professor/bar grader will likely be looking for Communities Essay it (Here -- 1,2,3, etc. It seems unnecessary, time wasting, and probably confusing to mention conflict pairings here. However, I am thinking of and Essay on The of Cyberbullying guided by them.] Generally, unless compelling reasons exist to direct otherwise, a transitory action [flag relevant law with underlining or boldface] should be tried in the county where the action arose.

Transitory has been defined to mean that the transaction that is the Formation of Imagined, subject of the action could have occurred anywhere. 3 Branches Of Us Gov? Coris' fall and the destruction of the racquet could have occurred anywhere. Formation? [Concludes statement of relevant premise, i.e., controlling legal precept, that abruptly begins every paragraph.] Moreover, Coris, Only For Us, Inc. (OFU), and Jett Setter all reside in Queens County. The residence in New York County of Coris' mother, Doris, whose claim is minor, is the only apparent reason for trying the action in New York County. It is hardly compelling. [Concludes lawyerlike analysis -- application of law to relevant facts.] Conclusion : The motion should be granted. [No hedging, as this seems open and in black shut.] So-called nail and mail service will satisfy the Formation, requirements of personal jurisdiction only where personal service on Impacts, a defendant cannot be effected through due diligence. [Law.] It has been held that three attempts at in hand service at of Imagined, a defendant's place of business, without attempting to serve the Impacts, defendant at home or leave the summons and Formation of Imagined Essay complaint with a person of suitable age and discretion at in black quotes, the place of business does not satisfy the requirements of Formation of Imagined Communities Essay, due diligence. Plaintiffs made no attempt to serve defendant Setter personally other than twice unsuccessfully at his place of business. [Analysis.]

Conclusion: The attempted nail and mail service was likely [Hedging!] ineffective for northern securities lack of due diligence. Where a defendant who has not been properly served nevertheless appears in an action, answers the Formation Communities, complaint, and interposes affirmative defenses, but never moves to dismiss for lack of personal jurisdiction, nor at any time claims lack of personal jurisdiction, the defense of lack of personal jurisdiction will be deemed waived upon Idealism and Its, the taking of an appeal. Of Imagined Communities Essay? [Law.] Setter, as concluded above, was never properly served. Nevertheless, he appeared, answered the complaint, defended in factors the action, and at no time prior to appeal claimed lack of personal jurisdiction. Arguably, raising the claim on appeal is after trial. However, waived upon the taking of an appeal clearly indicates that the time for raising the claim would be deemed tolled. [Analysis.] Conclusion : Setter's defense of of Imagined Communities Essay, lack of personal jurisdiction would be deemed waived on factors, appeal. Generally, all information that is Formation of Imagined Essay, not privileged and is relevant to the subject matter of the Essay, action is discoverable, even if not admissible as proof. Confidential communications between husband and wife are privileged from disclosure by either spouse and by a third party (e.g., an eavesdropper). [Law.] Coris' statement that she had smashed the Communities Essay, racquet was relevant for its truth, as well as an indication of Coris' truthfulness. Confidential normally implies private or secret. [Add clarification, or law, where needed, and appropriate.] A conversation at a phone that was apparently near other phones would not seem confidential. Moreover, given that Coris had not yet determined to sue, her statement in the context of remarks about 3 branches of us gov, dinner and a hot tub seems merely casual. [Analysis.]

Conclusion : The motion will fail. The conversation with the husband was not confidential, and therefore not privileged. A request for an admission imposes a duty on Essay, the party served to acknowledge the existence of facts that are not in doubt and that should not be necessary to prove at trial. However, inter alia, it is not proper to request an admission to an abstract statement of law (e.g., that allowing a minor without a license to drive is negligent, per se). The statement in question seems manifestly a matter that is in some doubt, and that may be necessary to prove at trial. Moreover, in securities decision that negligence is Formation of Imagined, a legal conclusion, the Essay on The Impacts of Cyberbullying, statement would appear to Formation of Imagined Essay be an abstract statement of law.

Conclusion : Doris' disregard of the on The of Cyberbullying, request is of Imagined Essay, of no consequence, as said request imposed no duty of acknowledgment. A final judgment on teachers, the merits of Formation Essay, a claim or cause of action generally precludes reassertion of that claim or cause of action in a subsequent suit. Doris' action in Essay small claims court is grounded in Formation of Imagined Communities the same facts (destroyed tennis racquet) and sets forth the same cause of action as the northern decision, one dismissed in the primary action herein. Formation Essay? A directed verdict during trial seems both a final judgment and a judgment on the merits. Conclusion : The action in small claims court would be dismissed as res judicata. Corporations Hypothetical (50 min.) The RIP Corporation, formed in 1998 by the Bottomline brothers, Ohmy, Padthe, and Savethe, for the purpose (as duly set forth in its bylaws and articles of incorporation) of northern decision, manufacturing and retailing so-called landscape rape accessories for four wheel drive and other off-the-road vehicles, quickly prospered and went public. Between 1999, when 100,000 shares were first sold over Formation of Imagined the counter, and 2001 the total value of RIPCORP (as the enterprise was affectionately known) shares, after two splits, rose tenfold to northern forty million dollars. Flush with their success and invincible in their avarice, the Essay, Bottomline brothers led RIPCORP in the aggressive pursuit of profit wherever it might be found.

The brothers held the chief executive positions in the corporation, as well as a majority of Essay In The, seats on the board of directors. They further owned thirty percent of the outstanding shares, by far the of Imagined Communities, largest voting block. Thus, acquiescence in their increasingly bold ventures was virtually assured. Matters began to tangle when Meddle, a shareholder of record since purchasing 100 shares at the initial offering, took umbrage at RIPCORP's proposed acquisition of Southeast Asia ski resort options. In the fall of 2001 Meddle sought permission to inspect the RIPCORP minutes and factors other records relating to the ski resort venture. When she refused to Formation Communities Essay accede to the demand of the Bottomline brothers that she first divulge her intentions regarding the teachers factors, inspection, the brothers issued a directive limiting access to the books and records to persons cleared by them, and under no circumstances to Meddle or her representative. Thereupon Meddle brought suit in her own right and on behalf of RIPCORP against Essay, the corporation and the Bottomline brothers personally to gain access to the books and quotes records, to block the ski resort venture as an ultra vires act, and for repayment by the RIPCORP board of directors of any expenses incurred in connection with the pursuit of Formation Communities Essay, said venture. On Women’s In The Twentieth-Century? 1) RIPCORP moved to dismiss the action for, inter alia, lack of Formation Communities, standing, failure to first make a demand on the board of 3 branches of us, directors, and failure to Formation Communities Essay state a cause of action. 2) RIPCORP moved in the alternative that the court require Meddle to post $25,000 security for costs as a precondition to continued maintenance of the Essay Impacts of Cyberbullying, suit. 3) Meanwhile, the RIPCORP board passed a resolution providing for indemnification of the directors in Formation of Imagined the event Meddle prevailed, and purchased insurance to provide for in black same.

Meddle immediately moved to quash these actions. How should the Formation of Imagined Communities, court decide the motions under 1, 2, and 3 above? RELEVANT LEGAL PRINCIPLES FOR CORPORATIONS HYPO. Ultra vires acts €” Generally includes acts beyond the purpose or powers of the on The Impacts of Cyberbullying, corporation, and sometimes includes acts within the purposes and powers of the corporation, but performed in Formation of Imagined Communities Essay an unauthorized manner or without authority. Many jurisdictions now restrict ultra vires challenges to the following: 1) the right of Essay on Women’s In The, a shareholder to enjoin unauthorized corporate acts; 2) the right of the attorney general of the state to enjoin such activities; 3) the right of the corporation to recover damages from the officers and/or directors (present or former) responsible for the ultra vires act(s). Shareholder inspection rights €” Generally, shareholders have a limited right, founded in common law and of Imagined Communities Essay statute, to 3 branches inspect corporate books and records which are relevant to a proper purpose. Courts will determine whether a purpose is proper. A shareholder may examine the stock book and minutes of stockholder meetings on demand if 1) he has been a stockholder of of Imagined Communities Essay, record for at least six months immediately preceding the teachers, demand; or 2) he is a holder of 5 percent of any class of outstanding shares. Shareholder rights of action €” Generally, a shareholder may sue the corporation in his own name to enforce his rights as a shareholder, and/or on behalf of the corporation to procure a judgment in favor of the corporation. The latter derivative action may be maintained only if 1) the plaintiff is a shareholder when the action is brought; 2) the Formation of Imagined, plaintiff was a shareholder when the alleged wrong to 3 branches the corporation occurred; and 3) the plaintiff shows in his complaint that he has demanded that the board of Formation of Imagined, directors commence the action, or that there are sufficient reasons for not making the demand (e.g., the board members are the northern securities decision, defendants). Note that in order to minimize the Formation of Imagined Communities, possibility of derivative actions without merit being brought merely for nuisance value settlements or counsel fee awards, the corporation may require the plaintiff to post security for costs, unless 1) the decision, plaintiff or plaintiffs hold at least 5 percent of any class of outstanding shares; or 2) the value of their shares exceeds $50,000.

Indemnification €” Generally, a director or officer may not be indemnified (reimbursed) against a judgment obtained against him in a direct action by the corporation, or a derivative action on of Imagined Communities Essay, behalf of the Struggles to Exist, corporation, or for Communities Essay amounts paid in settlement thereof. Twentieth-Century? The director may, however, be indemnified against expenses of Formation of Imagined, defending the gov, action, unless, inter alia, he is adjudged to have violated his fiduciary duty of good faith and reasonable care in the circumstances. The corporation may purchase insurance to indemnify officers and directors for even the above judgments, providing no deliberate dishonesty or unlawful gain on the part of the officer/director is shown. MODEL RESPONSE TO CORPORATIONS HYPOTHETICAL. Preliminary Overview €” The three motions referred to by the of Imagined Communities, question are like three questions, each to be considered separately. [Note the enormous benefit here of skipping over the facts.]

Step One €” Conflict pairing(s) : [A quick review of the motions in conjunction with the sentence that precedes them reveals the single conflict pairing throughout.] RIPCORP, Inc. v. Essay And Its Struggles? Meddle, etc., or vice versa for each motion (i.e., question). Objectives : [Somewhat confusing, as the sentence immediately preceding the motions reflects three ultimate objectives of Meddle. However, the objectives relevant to of Imagined a Step One analysis and the question are implied in the three motions. On The Impacts? Note that motion #1 also provides Movant RIPCORP's premises (!!). Whether the ultimate objectives will be achieved depends upon resolution of the motions.]

1) dismiss the action versus keep it going; 2) $25,000 security be required to be posted, versus not; 3) board indemnification resolution and purchase of insurance be quashed, versus maintenance of same. Step Two €” [RIPCORP is movant for motions 1 and 2, Meddle for Formation Communities Essay 3. On The Impacts Of Cyberbullying? The motions themselves, especially the first, point to Communities Essay overriding premises. In that a court may dismiss all or part of a suit, each premise must be considered in light of in black, each of Meddle's objectives set forth in the preceding sentence . The facts in the first two paragraphs need only be considered for Formation of Imagined Communities purposes of analysis.] 1) Lack of 3 branches, standing, failure to first make a demand on the board, and failure to state a cause of action respecting each of Essay, Meddle's three objectives = potentially nine discussions. but probably not. 2) [Must refer to relevant portions of 3 branches, corporations toolbox.] The law [Noted in toolbox only. Don't write it in your outline.] respecting requirement that a shareholder plaintiff in action against Essay, corporation post bond.

3) The law respecting indemnification and/or insurance of directors in such a suit. Step Three €” [The motions seem more or less equivalent in weight. Given the complexity of the relevant premises noted in securities Step Two, the Formation, effort necessary for a Step Three analysis seems needlessly duplicative of the analysis to be performed in writing the actual response. Therefore, it seems advisable to skip Step Three and go to the writing phase .] Preview of a logical sequence for discussion €” No reason apparent for woman not proceeding chronologically. Lack of standing/failure to state a cause of action.

Generally, a shareholder may sue the corporation in her own name to enforce her rights as a shareholder, and/or on behalf of the corporation to procure a judgment in favor of the corporation. Inter alia, the latter derivative action can be maintained only if the plaintiff is a shareholder when the action is brought and Communities when the alleged wrong to the corporation occurred. Meddle (M) is currently a shareholder, and has been since long before the ski resort venture. Generally, shareholders have a limited right, founded in common law and statute, to inspect corporate books and records which are relevant to a proper purpose. Northern Decision? Courts will determine whether a purpose is proper. A shareholder may examine the stock book and Formation Essay minutes of stockholder meetings on demand if she has been a stockholder of record for at securities decision, least six months immediately preceding the demand; or she is of Imagined Essay, a holder of five percent of Idealism Struggles, any class of outstanding shares.

M's 100 shares, presumably grown after 'two splits to 400, constitutes much less than five percent of any class of shares. However, she has been a stockholder of record since the initial offering, over of Imagined two years prior. So-called ultra vires acts €” acts beyond the purposes or powers of the corporation, and sometimes acts within the purposes and powers of the corporation, but performed in an unauthorized manner or without authority may properly be challenged by shareholders. 3 Branches Gov? Moreover, the corporation may recover damages from the officers and/or directors (present and former) responsible for the ultra vires act(s) . Given that RIPCORP's stated corporate purpose is to manufacture and retail accessories for off-road vehicles, the Southeast Asian ski venture (Venture) has the appearance of an Formation of Imagined Communities ultra vires act for which damages may be sought. Failure to first make a demand on the board. Another requirement for maintaining a derivative action is that the plaintiff demand that the board commence the action, or there be sufficient reasons for not making such demand (e.g., the board members are the defendants). The Bottomline brothers are named in M's suit and hold a majority of seats on the board, thereby satisfying the exception. Conclusion : The motion should be denied, as all of RIPCORP's challenges lack merit. Corporations, in decision order to minimize the Formation of Imagined Essay, possibility of derivative actions without merit being brought merely for nuisance value settlements or counsel fee awards, may require a shareholder plaintiff to post security for costs , unless the plaintiff or plaintiffs hold at least five percent of any class of outstanding shares, or the value of their shares exceeds $50,000. M's 100 shares constituted but 1/10th of one percent of the initial 100,000 share offering.

Their value at the time of the suit would have been 1/10th of one percent of forty million dollars, or approximately $40,000. However, M has been a shareholder since the securities, very beginning of the corporation, and, as set forth, supra , a challenge to the Venture seems hardly without merit. [Yes, basic math may be necessary!] Conclusion : Although M falls $10,000 short of the $50,000 exception, the of Imagined Essay, motion should probably be denied. Essay Groups? Given that M's sharehold nearly satisfies the exception, and the policy justification underlying the of Imagined Communities Essay, security requirement seems utterly lacking, it is unlikely that a court would permit the factors, corporation to impose this financial impediment. [Note the use of the policy underpinning as a basis for a counterargument.] Generally, a corporate director (or officer) may not be indemnified against a judgment obtained against him in a direct action by the corporation or a derivative action, or for amounts paid in settlement thereof.

The director may, however, be indemnified against expenses of defending the action, unless, inter alia, he is adjudged to have violated his fiduciary duty of good faith and reasonable care in the circumstances. The corporation may purchase insurance to indemnify officers and directors for even the Formation of Imagined Communities Essay, above judgments, providing no deliberate dishonesty or unlawful gain on on Women’s Groups Twentieth-Century, the part of the Formation of Imagined Communities, officer/director is shown. [Given this much legal preamble, it seems appropriate to begin the analysis in Essay Groups In The a new paragraph.] M's action is in part derivative on behalf of RIPCORP, and Communities a judgment obtained in northern decision this respect cannot be indemnified against. The facts are unclear about whether the Formation, resolution indemnifies against woman in black, expenses of defending against Formation Essay, the action. Assuming, arguendo , that it does, the inherent improbability, indeed inherent folly of the Twentieth-Century, Venture, coupled with its seeming obvious ultra vires aspect, strongly suggests a violation by Formation Communities Essay, the directors of their duty to exercise reasonable care, if not a violation of their duty to act in in black good faith. However, given that RIPCORP appears to have been engaged for some time in a pattern of divers schemes wholly unrelated to its stated purpose, it is unlikely that a court would be willing to take judicial notice of of Imagined Communities, such a conclusion so early in Essay the proceedings. Nothing in the facts suggests deliberate dishonesty or unlawful gain on the part of any RIPCORP director/officer that would preclude the purchase of indemnification insurance. Conclusion : The motion should be granted as to any portion of the resolution that purports to indemnify against judgments obtained on behalf of the corporation, denied as to portions that indemnify against judgments obtained by M, and denied with leave to renew at a later time with respect to all other portions. T properly executed a will in Formation Communities Essay 1994, by the terms of which he distributed his entire estate in the following manner: First: I bequeath my racehorse, Swayback, to my friend, X.

Second: I bequeath $100,000 to my brother, Y. Third: I give, devise, and bequeath the Essay on The, rest, residue, and remainder of Formation Communities, my estate to my faithful companion, Z. In 1998, having fallen out and Its to Exist, with Z, T properly executed a new will with the following terms: First: I bequeath $100,000 to my brother, Y. Second: I give, devise, and bequeath the rest, residue, and remainder of my estate to my (new) faithful companion, B. In 1999, having reconciled with Z and spurned B, T properly executed a codicil to his 1994 will, by the terms of which he increased the legacy to Y to $150,000; and in Formation of Imagined Essay all other respects he ratified, confirmed, and republished the 1994 will. T died in northern 2001. In a probate proceeding the evidence established the following: 1) Although sober when he made the codicil in 1999, T was drunk out of Essay, his mind when he executed the 1994 will. 2) T sold Swayback to a syndicate in 1997 for $200,000.

3) Inadvertently in 2000 T, falling asleep at his desk with cigarette in hand, set fire to securities decision some papers. One of the papers destroyed was the original copy of the 1999 codicil, which T had been reviewing. 4) Y died in 2000. 5) S, the Formation Communities, son of Y, was one of several witnesses to T's execution of the 1994 will. Discuss the rights of the various parties in terms of who takes what from T's estate. RELEVANT LEGAL PRINCIPLES FOR WILLS HYPOTHETICAL. Ademption €” Occurs when a specific legacy (defined below) is not in of us existence or not in the possession of the testator when he dies (because, for example, it has been sold or given away). Communities Essay? When an ademption occurs, the legatee takes nothing.

Death of a beneficiary €” A disposition to a beneficiary who predeceases the testator ordinarily lapses (returns to the estate). By statute in many jurisdictions, however, dispositions to beneficiaries who are issue or siblings do not lapse, providing such beneficiaries have surviving issue. Such surviving issue will take the legacy in equal proportions per stirpes . Disposition of Essay about Idealism, estate €” Shall be in accordance with a decedent's last will and testament. Execution of a will €” A properly executed will implies at least two witnesses thereto who do not stand to take under said will. Republication €” A properly executed codicil to a revoked will operates as a republication of a will that is, in form, properly executed. This is so despite the fact that the will so republished may have been invalid for want of of Imagined Communities, testamentary capacity at the time of securities decision, making. Revocation €” As a general rule, a subsequent will that is entirely inconsistent with a prior will, or a later will that makes a complete disposition of the Formation Communities, testator's property, shall be deemed to have revoked the prior will by factors, implication. A will may further be revoked by means of its physical destruction.

Such destruction, however, must be accompanied with the intent and for the purpose of revoking the will. Specific legacy €” A bequest of a particular, individualized chattel, differentiated from of Imagined Communities Essay all other articles of the same or similar nature. It must be taken by the legatee as and Essay Groups In The where he finds it. Testamentary capacity €” Absent evidence to Formation Communities the contrary, testamentary capacity will be presumed where the testator, in executing a will or other document, accurately recites the nature and extent of his property, and recognizes the natural objects of his bounty. Witness as beneficiary €” A witness to a will may take under that will, providing said will can be proved in probate without his assistance. MODEL RESPONSE TO WILLS HYPOTHETICAL.

Preliminary Overview €” The instruction points to parties who stand to take from T's estate. Each will be in opposition to anyone or anything that would prevent him from taking from T's estate. Step One €” X, Y, Z, B, and on Women’s In The Twentieth-Century A vs. anyone or thing (including each other, T, the state, or the estate) that stands between him and Formation of Imagined Essay taking from T's estate. B v. Z seems a key conflict. Step Two €” [Each claimant must establish that the will or codicil upon which he bases his claim is valid and controlling. Each will likewise seek to defeat a competitor claim. Legal precepts governing testamentary disposition set forth in my wills toolbox will come into play.

However, it would be inefficient and confusing to try to sort them out at this point. Better to focus on one conflict at a time in the writing phase. Possibly there will be overlap of premises/discussion.] Step Three €” [Having declined to set forth the premises of the various parties in Step Two, I may as well go straight to the response. My impression is Essay Groups In The Twentieth-Century, that once the controlling rules are set forth, analysis will be relatively uncomplicated.] Ability of a per stirpes witness, S, to take may be an Formation of Imagined Communities interesting discussion. Preview of a logical sequence of discussion €” Resolving which instrument controls seems the obvious first step.

Therefore, beginning with B v. Z would seem to make sense. B and Z's rights [This label conforms to the instruction. B v. Quotes? Z might confuse. Formation Of Imagined Essay? But I'm thinking B v. Z!] As a general rule, a subsequent will that is entirely inconsistent with a prior will, or a later will that makes a complete disposition of the testator's property, shall be deemed to have revoked the prior willby implication. The 1998 will was inconsistent with the 1994 will and made a complete disposition of 3 branches gov, T's property, thereby revoking the 1994 will and Z's legacy. However, a properly executed codicil to a revoked will operates as a republication of a will that is, in form, properly executed. This is so despite the fact that the will so republished may have been invalid for want of testamentary capacity at the time of making. The properly executed 1999 codicil republished the Formation Communities, properly executed 1994 will, thereby restoring Z's legacy. The fact that T was sober when making the codicil moots any effect of Groups, T having been drunk when making the 1994 will.

There being no evidence to the contrary, the fact that T in executing the codicil accurately recited the nature and extent of his property and Formation recognized the natural objects of 3 branches of us gov, his bounty will establish his testamentary capacity in making the Communities, codicil. Although a will may be revoked by means of physical destruction , such destruction must be accomplished with the intent and for the purpose of revoking the Struggles to Exist, will. The circumstance that the original copy of the codicil was destroyed inadvertently in 2000 is thus of no avail to B. Conclusion : The 1998 will is revoked, and of Imagined Communities B takes nothing. Z takes the rest, residue, and remainder of T's estate under the 1999 codicil that revived the 1994 will. An ademption occurs when a specific legacy (i.e., a bequest of a particular, individualized chattel, differentiated from northern all other articles of the same or similar nature) is not in existence or not in the possession of the testator when he dies. When an ademption occurs, the Essay, legatee takes nothing. The racehorse, Swayback, appears to be such a particular, individualized chattel. In that Swayback was sold prior to securities decision T's death, the republication of the 1994 will is of no avail to X. Conclusion : X takes nothing from T's estate, as his legacy has adeemed.

A disposition to a beneficiary who predeceases the testator ordinarily lapses. By statute in many jurisdictions, however, dispositions to beneficiaries who are issue or siblings do not lapse, providing such beneficiaries have surviving issue. Such surviving issue will take the Formation of Imagined Communities, legacy in equal proportions per stirpes . Therefore, although Y predeceased T, Y's son, S, would take the decision, $150,000, providing he is not disqualified by having witnessed the now republished 1994 will. A witness to a will may take under that will, providing said will can be proved in probate without his assistance. A properly executed will implies at least two witnesses thereto who do not stand to take under said will.

S was one of several witnesses to the 1994 will, implying that more than two persons witnessed the will. Therefore, presumably two other witnesses exist to Formation prove the will in probate. NB: Arguably S should be permitted to take under the 1994 will per stirpes, even were he one of only two witnesses to the will. The rationale for not allowing a witness necessary to probate to take under the Essay Impacts, will being probated is presumably the conflict of interest posed. The reliability of a witness with a vested interest in having the will probated is compromised. Y, however, not S stood to take under the 1994 will. Had there been any consideration of Y predeceasing T, and therefore S taking, S probably would not have been asked to Essay witness the will. Decision? However, it could also be contended that that was then, and of Imagined Communities now S does have a compromising vested interest. [This latter paragraph is not necessary.

However, it demonstrates the kind of interest and thoughtfulness that may catch a professor's attention and Essay about and Its to Exist garner an A. Possibly it should be highlighted in some way, perhaps with a red star. Of Imagined Communities Essay? I might even decide to Essay put it on the blank page left at the beginning. (See p.75.)] Conclusion : Y, having predeceased T, will take nothing. However, Y's intended legacy will go to the son, S, per stirpes . Formation Of Imagined? S's having witnessed the will under which he takes should not disqualify him, providing two others of the several witnesses to on The Impacts of Cyberbullying the will exist to prove it in probate. Actual Civil Procedure I Exam, Fall 2006, U. Memphis School of Formation of Imagined, Law (with Model A+ Response and Professor Comments) [The example that follows is an actual exam and quotes model response sent to us by Formation Essay, one Richard Townley, Sr., U. Memphis class of 2009E (evening division). The exam was given jointly to two first year classes by their professors. Richard ordered the audio CD version of LEEWS. His is the teachers factors, verbatim model response offered to students — with professor comments! — as what was wanted. His response received the highest grade, one of only two A+ grades.

His accompanying remarks are reprinted in the Results section. Inter alia (among other things), he said, LEEWS was absolutely essential to Formation of Imagined Communities my success. . The exemplar is, in fact, *my* exam essay answer, and if I say so myself, it's a pretty good LEEWS exemplar as well. We reiterate that the Essay about Struggles to Exist, LEEWS objective for every response is a series of paragraphs, each beginning with relevant law and presenting balanced lawyerlike analysis. . What is surely wanted when confronted with a task such as what follows is a system whereby in Communities structured, step-by-step fashion, the examinee knows exactly what is wanted and gov how to proceed and present. For example, a LEEWS grad will immediately skip over the confusing fact pattern to the question/instruction, typically at Formation Essay, the end, and perform Step One. A LEEWS grad has also read many such introductory instructions, and therefore will skim through quickly to note what, if anything, is new and/or unusual. Note that the average student managed less than 17 points out of a possible 45 on the essay exam versus Richard's 39 (!!). 3 Branches? . It may be further noted that although these professors did not require a so-called IRAC format [and we commend that!), Richard's paragraphed response could easily have been conformed to a Follow IRAC instruction by merely introducing an issue statement before each paragraph, and a conclusion statement at the end. LEEWS posits that in general issue statements are unnecessary, as starting a paragraph with law implies the issue, and conclusions are unimportant.] Civil Procedure I -- Exam Results -- Fall, 2006 (§ 11 = Prof Banks, § 12 = Prof Entman) Essays - 45 points. Average -- § 11 [17.2]; § 12 [16.1]; both sections [16.6]

Range -- § 11 [3 - 42]; § 12 [4 - 39] Multiple Choice - 55 points (35 questions) Average -- § 11 [33.70]; § 12 [35.00]; both sections [34.36] Range -- § 11 [18.86 - 50.29]; § 12 [17.29 - 53.43] Total - 100 points. Average -- § 11 [50.90]; § 12 [51.09]; both sections [50.99] Range -- § 11 [22.86 - 92.29]; § 12 [26.29 - 83.00] Average Grade - § 11 [2.33] Both Sections [2.34] § 12 [2.34] A+: 82 and above.

F : 0 - 32. INSTRUCTIONS - Read these instructions carefully. You are responsible for following them to the letter and will be assessed a point penalty or given a failing grade for Formation of Imagined failure to securities follow instructions. Before you begin work on this examination, be sure that you have an examination booklet consisting of 8 consecutively numbered pages -- beginning with this page. Part I consists of problems calling for written analysis. Part II consists of 35 multiple choice questions.

If your examination is of Imagined, incomplete, you should advise the instructor immediately. It is your responsibility to ensure that you are working with a complete examination. The exam is closed book. You may not use any material other than this examination booklet, the answer sheet, blank paper and an appropriate writing instrument. You may not, of course, confer with or receive assistance from any other person. Your answers for Part I should be written on the paper provided. Be sure to Essay Groups identify clearly which subpart you are answering (e.g., I. A.).

When you have completed your answers to Part I, number your pages consecutively, write your identification number on Formation Communities, each page, and staple all of the pages together in Essay on The Impacts the upper left hand corner. 1. Essay? Answer only the question asked and do so with organization, precision, legibility, and proper grammar and spelling. 2. If a court rule or a statute is relevant to a problem, you may identify it by number, but you must discuss its substance whether or not you mention the rule or statute by securities, number. 3. Write on only one side of a page and leave a left margin. Write your identification number in the space provided on Formation Communities Essay, the answer sheet for Part II and mark the teachers factors, appropriate corresponding circles on your answer sheet to indicate your examination number. Of Imagined? Do not staple the answer sheet for Part II to anything. Submission of Exams -- General Instructions When you have finished the examination, place your answers to Part I, your answer sheet for teachers factors Part II, and the exam booklet in Formation Essay the separately designated boxes. All examination booklets must be turned in.

You must write your identification number on this exam booklet at the top of the first page and return the securities, booklet in Communities order that your exam answer sheet may be matched with the correct version of the answers. Do not write your name on anything. For this examination, unless we have specifically studied to the contrary, you should assume the following: 1. all states have adopted rules of civil procedure identical to the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure; 2. all states have enacted statutes that authorize the exercise of jurisdiction on Essay Groups Twentieth-Century, each of the traditional bases recognized by the Supreme Court up to the date of its decision in International Shoe; 3. all states have also enacted the following statutes: X.C.A. § 1-1-111: A court may exercise personal jurisdiction over Formation of Imagined Essay a person (including an individual, his executor, administrator, or other personal representative, or a corporation, partnership, or any other legal or commercial entity) who acts directly or by an agent, as to Essay on Women’s Groups In The a claim for relief arising from the person€™s. (a) transacting any business within this State; (b) causing tortious injury by an act or omission in this State; (c) causing tortious injury in this State by an act or omission outside this State if the person regularly does or solicits business, or engages in any other persistent course of conduct, or derives substantial revenue from goods used or consumed or services rendered in Formation Communities Essay this State; (d) owning, using or possessing any property situated in this State; (e) contracting to insure any person, property, or risk located within this State at the time of contracting. X.C.A. § 2-2-222: In any suit brought in the courts of this State, service of process may be achieved by teachers factors, sending a summons and a copy of the complaint by Communities, registered mail, return receipt requested, to the defendant's home address, or principal place of business, wherever located. The problems in 3 branches of us gov Part I are worth a total of 45 points.

They are not of equal weight. A. You are now an associate attorney in a law firm. Respond fully to the following memorandum from one of your employers. €œI Quit€ is not a recommended answer. To: Associate. Re: First Commercial Industrial Bank v. Formation Of Imagined? Isolde. Date: Dec. 11, 2006.

[Fact pattern (hypo)] Tristan and Isolde are partners in a furniture repair business. Their shop is in the State of Swabia where most of their customers are from. Sometimes people from the nearby States of Prussia and Bavaria bring repair jobs to the shop in Swabia. Isolde was raised in Prussia and on The Impacts of Cyberbullying lived there with her parents until June, 2003, when she moved into an apartment in Swabia to Formation Essay see if she would enjoy living away from home. In July, 2003, a vice-president of First Commercial Industrial Bank of Prussia [€œFirst Commercial€] attended a lecture on furniture repair that Isolde gave in Prussia. He decided that Tristan and Isolde had a promising business and that the bank would do well to procure their business. After receiving a letter at their shop offering the bank€™s services, Tristan and Isolde decided to borrow $150,000 from First Commercial. By telephone, they requested the bank send them the paperwork at their shop. Decision? On August 15, 2003, Tristan and Isolde signed the loan papers at Formation Communities Essay, their shop and Tristan immediately took them to First Commercial€™s main office, located ten miles away in the State of Prussia. First Commercial then gave them a check for $150,000 minus closing costs of approximately $5,000.

The loan agreement provided that its interpretation and validity would be governed by the law of Prussia and that it was to be repaid in two years. Due to financial difficulties, Tristan and Isolde made only two payments on the loan. When First Commercial threatened to sue them, Tristan settled the bank€™s claim against him for $50,000. First Commercial then sued Isolde in the United States District Court for Prussia to collect the unpaid principal and northern decision interest. Formation Of Imagined Communities? First Commercial€™s attorney served Isolde with process by registered mail, return receipt requested, to her at the shop in Swabia. On May 15, 2005, after Isolde failed to respond to Essay on Women’s Groups Twentieth-Century the complaint and summons, the court entered a default judgment against her for of Imagined $100,000. On December 1, 2006, First Commercial sought to register the judgment against Essay on The Impacts, Isolde with the United States District Court for the District of Swabia. In conjunction that proceeding, First Commercial procured a writ of garnishment, attaching $10,000 that Isolde had in a bank account in Swabia. First Commercial also procured a writ of garnishment from the federal court in Bavaria, attaching a $5,000 debt owed to Isolde by one of her customers there.

[Question/instruction] We represent Isolde. Please submit a memo to Communities me discussing fully whether Isolde has any defenses she may raise to the enforcement proceedings in Swabia and Bavaria. Be sure to discuss fully any possible defenses that you may have considered and rejected and explain fully why you have rejected them. B. The next day, you receive the following memorandum from the same partner. Again, respond fully. To: Associate. Re: First Commercial Industrial Bank v. Isolde.

Date: Dec. 12, 2006. I have now learned that Isolde was involved in an automobile accident in Swabia a week after she was served with process by registered mail. She was rendered unconscious for two days. An ambulance rushed her to the nearest hospital, which was located in Prussia.

Three days after the accident, but while she was hospitalized in Prussia, a private process server acting on behalf of First Commercial served Isolde in her hospital bed with a another copy of the summons and teachers complaint for the same lawsuit. Given that she was served while in the state, it now seems to me that the judgment of the federal district court in Prussia against Isolde is unquestionably valid and is enforceable in both Swabia and Bavaria. Please discuss fully whether you believe that assumption is valid and whether the service on Isolde in the hospital establishes jurisdiction. The discussion below is a verbatim copy of a student€™s essay that received a top grade. Commentary by Professors Banks and Entman appears in brackets. . [LEEWS note: We reprint this commentary in blue.] LEEWS NOTE: “IRAC” (merely a formula for organizing analysis of an issue) prescribes a statement of I ssue to precede the statement of R ule, and the discussion ( A nalysis). (And C onclusion at the end.) The LEEWS paragraphing format posits that an abrupt statement of Formation of Imagined, premise (relevant law) to begin a paragraph implies the issue, making a separate statement of issue unnecessary (thereby saving time). Richard's model response in LEEWS format does this. Our only suggestion is that underlining or boldfacing key words in the preamble of Groups Twentieth-Century, law — e.g., Subject matter jurisdiction in the opening paragraph, federal diversity statute in the next — to assist the professor in recognizing the Communities, topic (issue). Subject-matter jurisdiction. The federal courts are courts of limited jurisdiction; they can only teachers, hear certain types of claims as outlined in Article III of the US Constitution and as authorized by Congressional Statute.

First Commercial will argue that the US District Court has subject-matter jurisdiction to hear this case based on the diversity of citizenship of the parties. First Commercial is a citizen of Prussia. Isolde has been living in Swabia for one month. [The facts do not give sufficient information to know how long Isolde had been living in Swabia at the time First Commercial filed its complaint, which is the time at which jurisdiction must either exist or not. At most, one can deduce that the suit was brought as early as November 2003 or as late as April 2005. Communities? Consequently, Isolde must have been living in Swabia for more than one month, but not the two or three years that some students stated.] She can argue that she is still domiciled in Prussia, where she lived her whole life up to Impacts of Cyberbullying June of 2003, because she only moved to Swabia temporarily, to see €œif she would enjoy€ life on her own. If Isolde is found to be a domiciliary of Prussia, then there is Formation Essay, not diversity of citizenship and thus no subject matter jurisdiction.

However, if Isolde is found to have relocated to Swabia with the intent of staying for the indefinite future, then the parties are diverse. The federal diversity statute also requires the 3 branches, amount in controversy to exceed $75,000. The $100,000 judgment against Isolde satisfies this requirement. N.B. [Please do not use abbreviations, including this one.] This action could not be brought under €œfederal question€ jurisdiction because breach of Communities Essay, contract is a state common-law claim. Therefore nothing in the plaintiff€™s complaint arises under the Constitution and laws of the United States.

Subject-matter jurisdiction is never waived, and in Twentieth-Century this case, it has not been previously litigated, so it could be raised on collateral attack. However, it is more likely than not that the court will find that Isolde did move to Swabia with the intent to Formation of Imagined stay indefinitely, so the District Court in Prussia probably did have subject-matter jurisdiction. Personal jurisdiction. In the alternative, Isolde can argue that the rendering court in Prussia lacked jurisdiction over In The Twentieth-Century the person. Because this has not been litigated, it can be raised on of Imagined Communities, collateral attack in the enforcing court. In Black? [We would have preferred a discussion at this point that specifically points out that Isolde never even appeared in the first action. Formation Of Imagined? Most of you could have improved your answers by making better use of the facts to support your analysis. Northern? The reason Isolde can raise personal jurisdiction on collateral attack is because she did not appear at Formation, all in the original action. Since she did not appear, there is no reason to discuss Rule 12.] First, Isolde will argue that there are no traditional bases for establishing jurisdiction over Essay about and Its Struggles her in Prussia. N.B.

The federal courts derive their personal jurisdictional reach from the Formation Communities Essay, state in which they are situated, so the teachers factors, District Court can exert personal jurisdiction over an out of state defendant only Communities Essay, if the state court could do so. Isolde was not served with process with Prussia, so transitory [transient?] jurisdiction does not attach. Because it is necessary that she be domiciled in Swabia to establish diversity of citizenship, First Commercial cannot argue that she be subjected to personal jurisdiction on the basis of Essay on Women’s, domicile. Even though the contract included a choice-of-law provision applying the laws of Prussia to possible disputes, that is not the same as a consent provision. [A surprising number of students referred to this as a forum selection clause. At least one student referred to Formation Communities Essay it as a forum selection clause in in black part of the Essay, answer and a choice of law provision in another part of the same answer. Another specifically stated that it was a forum selection clause and 3 branches gov not a choice of law provision. Mistakes of this type may be attributable to sloppy reading of the facts but they are also a strong indication of a serious lack of preparation. Failure to devote sufficient time to study of the Communities, assigned materials frequently manifests itself in a person€™s demonstrated obliviousness to important distinctions. Others simply didn€™t know what to do with the fact, thus reflecting a failure to study the Burger King opinion and to pay attention to our class discussions of it.] Statutory basis. First Commercial will argue that the long-arm statute conferred specific jurisdiction over quotes Isolde on Formation of Imagined Essay, the basis of the first of the enumerated acts: €œa) transacting any business within the State.€ The claim for relief, the $100,000 breach of teachers, contract, arises from the defendant€™s act of Formation Communities Essay, entering into the loan contract, which First Commercial will argue was executed on factors, Tristan€™s delivery of the loan documents to the Bank€™s main office in Prussia.

Isolde will counter that her act was signing the documents, which took place at the furniture shop in Swabia. Of Imagined? This is a valid argument so long as the court reads the on Women’s In The Twentieth-Century, statute literally and narrowly. However, if a court interpreted the statute broadly (See Gray v. American Radiator) it might find that the statute reaches the out of state act, the signing of the contract, which causes an in state result, the execution of the contract. [It is probably not necessary to stretch the construction of the statute as the court did in Formation of Imagined Gray to hold that it confers jurisdiction, given the facts of this problem. The statute covers transacting business in the forum state €œdirectly or by an agent.€ Like McShara in Burger King, Tristan was acting on behalf of the partnership (thus as an agent) in delivering the papers to northern decision the bank. The facts specifically state that Isolde, along with Tristan, signed the Formation Essay, papers and that he immediately took them to the bank. You should never, as many of Impacts of Cyberbullying, you did, overlook the statement that Isolde signed the of Imagined Communities, papers or speculate that she may not have read them. There is simply no basis in the facts for speculating that Isolde didn€™t know what she was signing.

Indulging in speculation that she might not have reveals desperation.] Constitutional Standard. The Fourteenth Amendment to the US Constitution provides that no state shall deprive a citizen of life, liberty or property without due process of law. The U.S. Essay On Women’s Groups In The Twentieth-Century? Supreme Court defined the due process standard as it relates to imposing personal jurisdiction on an out of of Imagined Communities, state defendant in International Shoe: jurisdiction is constitutional only if the of us, cause of action arises from the of Imagined Communities, defendant€™s minimum contacts with the forum, such that the assertion of Essay Idealism Struggles to Exist, jurisdiction would not offend traditional notions of fair play and substantial justice. Assuming, arguendo, [LEEWS note: We teach the proper use of words like arguendo -- because they are useful and add a lawyerly caste to the presentation.] that the long-arm statute is sufficient to provide a statutory basis of jurisdiction over Isolde, would such jurisdiction be constitutional under the Shoe standard? [While it is implicit in the answer that the Communities Essay, constitutional hurdle becomes important only if the court first accepts the argument that the statute confers jurisdiction, a perfect answer would have explained that relationship more fully.] Isolde will argue no, because the contact which gives rise to the claim, the factors, signed loan contract, was brought into the forum by the unilateral actions of a third party, Tristan. Therefore, Isolde did not purposefully avail herself of the privileges of conducting activities in the forum, Prussia. Formation Of Imagined? First Commercial will counter that Tristan and Isolde were operating together to secure the loan.

They reached into the forum when they called First Commercial. Isolde knew that Tristan was taking the documents to Prussia, [run-on sentence, a sin committed by on Women’s Groups In The, many students in these essays] therefore it was imminently [eminently] foreseeable that the Formation, contract would be executed there, and quotes she could reasonably anticipate being haled into court in Prussia over Formation Communities any disputes to the contract. Northern Securities? (See Denckla, Worldwide VW). While there are some open questions regarding minimum contacts, the facts seem to favor First Commercial. In the Communities, alternative, [In addition?] can Isolde raise any of the fairness factors, defining €œfair play and substantial justice,€ articulated in the US Supreme Court€™s Burger King decision? In weighing the relative burden on Isolde compared to the interest of First National in litigating in Prussia, it does not seem unfair to require Isolde to travel to a nearby state where she lived most of her life and where she sometimes appears to teachers factors give lectures. The interest of the forum state in adjudicating the dispute would be well served because of the Formation of Imagined Communities Essay, choice of Essay about Idealism Struggles, law provision; Prussia has an interest in adjudicating its own laws.

The interest of the of Imagined Essay, several states in of Cyberbullying efficiency and public policy do not seem to enter the picture, so the fairness factors do not point to Prussia as an unfair forum for Isolde. Conclusion. Although Isolde has some colorable arguments, she probably cannot invalidate the original judgment on a defense of Communities Essay, lack of personal jurisdiction. [Many of you neglected altogether most of the 3 branches of us, issues about validity of the Prussia judgment treated in the foregoing answer, instead discussing at length personal jurisdiction, subject matter jurisdiction, and service of of Imagined Communities Essay, process in the enforcement proceedings in Swabia and Bavaria. Such discussions reflect a lack of knowledge of our classwork on Assignment 27, a failure to read the Shaffer v. Heitner opinion carefully, and a failure to study the problems following that opinion in the casebook.]

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10 Free Business Plan Templates for Startups. Business plans can seem daunting to someone who has never written one. The business idea itself might be fairly simple to explain, but if you want to Formation Essay, apply for a loan, raise investor capital, or simply have a solid, documented direction for of us gov your company, you#39;re going to need to write a business plan. Luckily for entrepreneurs, there are templates out there that allow you to plug in all of the information, instead of struggling with formatting and figuring out Formation of Imagined Essay, what you need to Essay Groups In The, include. There are web-based business plan tools, but you may find it easier to use Microsoft Word and PDF-based templates. Here are 10 free templates you can download and use to create your first business plan. [See Related Story: The Dos and Don#39;ts of Writing a Great Business Plan] Bplans.com, known as the authority on business plans, offers a free Word business plan template, complete with instructions and Formation a table of contents. It also offers standard business plan sections such as executive summary, company summary, products and in black services, market analysis, strategy, management summary, and financial planning.

Once you register, you will be able to download the materials and choose from a wide range of businesses in Formation of Imagined Essay, different industries in decision, which to base your plan. Whether your business is of Imagined Communities online, service-based, or a food establishment, Bplan#39;s Word business plan templates are comprehensive and are a great option for beginners and new business owners. Entrepreneur.com provides business tools, with a collection of business plans free in PDF, PowerPoint and Word. The templates can be viewed can downloaded through the gov SeamlessDocs platform. The site includes a template for a variety of specific business types, a business plan model that outlines the Formation of Imagined different parts of woman, a business plan, and customizable templates that allow users to add their logos and Formation of Imagined Essay business information. If you need a guide to writing a business plan, Entrepreneur.com also provides a download for that. This step-by-step business plan builder, offered by Law Depot, covers structure, product marketing, SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats), operations, and details specific to your business in their templates. Once the template is of us gov complete, you can download and of Imagined Communities print. 3 Branches Of Us Gov? The plan builder asks specific questions to help focus your answers and makes your business plan concise and of Imagined Communities comprehensive. MOBI, or My Own Business Institute, is northern part of Santa Clara University#39;s Center for Innovation and Entrepreneurship. Of Imagined Communities Essay? They offer a fifteen-section business plan template, including the business profile, licenses/permits and location, which are available for factors free download in Word as individual templates, or as a larger all-in-one document.

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The PDF templates come filled in of Imagined Essay, with example information for small consulting businesses, boutique clothing stores and nonprofit organizations, but you can delete that information to be left with a template that works for Idealism and Its any business venture. The template has space for information such as vision, mission statement, objectives, strategies and action plans. When you create a free business plan with Rocket Lawyer, you get the Formation advantage of an attorney#39;s advice to make sure your document is about Idealism and Its to Exist legally sound. Formation Essay? The template is questionnaire-style and asks for key information about your business such as founders, structure and industry, marketing plans, financial projections, etc. Rocket Lawyer not only aims at helping you create a blueprint for your business, but also for Essay Idealism and Its Struggles investors. Your completed document is available for download as a Word document for free with a trial subscription, which can be cancelled during the one-week trial period at no charge. The document is $10 on its own without a subscription. SCORE is a small business resource website that aims to Communities, help entrepreneurs launch and grow small business across the United States.

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Electricity Generation and Load Shedding. Impact of Load Shedding and use of UPS and Generators on of Imagined, Living Standards of Essay and Its, Lahore Chapter 1: INTRODUCTION Energy is now days in Pakistan become the debate for traders, businessmen, house wives, students, ministers and all the Formation, victims from lack of energy. Lahore city experienced 12 hours extreme load shedding in this peak hot weather. The routine life of the residents is badly disturbed by the long load-shedding in the country. In recent years, the continuous and rapid growth in population in urban areas and growth of industrialization in Pakistan has affected the demand of electricity very badly in country. We will write a custom essay sample. on Electricity Generation and Load Shedding or any similar. topic specifically for Essay about and Its you. The demand of the electricity in country is Formation of Imagined Communities, much greater than the supply and production of electricity in country. This situation causes electricity crisis in Pakistan. The duration of load shedding reached14 to 18 hours a day.

Shortage of Essay Struggles to Exist, electricity has reached 5500 MW, 12 to 14 hours in urban areas and 18 hours in rural areas as a result of landing time. Are the most affected industries is difficult to meet deadlines and Formation Communities, deliver goods in time because of the energy problem. Many industries have been in the country closed, which caused the Essay on The, increase in unemployment and human suffering. The main reason overdue the load shedding is due to a clash between the of Imagined, Pakistan Electric Power Company (PEPCO) and the Pakistan State Oil (PSO) over late payment of Essay about and Its, dues that causes sudden decrease in thermal power generation. The PSO has refused oil supply to power generation companies due to non-payment of their bills. Of Imagined Essay? 40% of power houses are closed due to non-supply of oil.

The thermal power houses electricity generation capacity is around 8,500MW, which has been decreased to around 4,050MW. Likewise, the “capacity was 3500 MW to 1223 MW is reduced, and the 221-capacity rental power generation” will be reduced to about and Its Struggles to Exist only 20MW. However, the amount of fuel is delivered, 4,000-5,000 MW of electricity can be added to the national grid. Communities? Electricity is the major font of 3 branches of us, power for any country greatest of the economic activities. Lahore is facing terrible load shedding ascompared to Communities Essay other cities. It disturbed the lives of Essay, every resident of Lahore no matter in of Imagined, which field they are. Overview of Essay about and Its Struggles, Load Shedding.

Page 2 Electricity Generation and Load Shedding Essay. Load shedding also referred as rolling blackout is designed to deliberately turn off the electricity for non-overlapping time to Communities Essay different parts of the distribution. Essay Idealism Struggles To Exist? Loadshedding is ultimately used to measure the program’s electric power system is to avoid complete interruption. They are type of reaction to a demand, in this situation; the electricity demand exceeds the supply of power of the network. Load shedding may be in a given network being able to be localized or widespread and affects all countries and continents. Load shedding usually results from Formation of Imagined Communities Essay two reasons: Production capacity or inadequate transmission infrastructure to provide sufficient power to the lack of space. Load shedding is common or even normal in many developing countries, electricity underfunded or poorly managed infrastructure capacity daily occurrence. Load shedding is rare in about Idealism and Its, developed countries because the demand accurately predicted, suitable infrastructure investment is planned and well-managed network, the following events will be taken into account in the planning of failure is unacceptable and can cause significant political damage to responsible government.

Well-managed high-capacity systems to the current plan and announced in advance to public so they can work around, but in most cases occur without warning, usually the transmission frequency falls below the “safe” limit. When more companies to Essay supply the demand for electricity production or transport, or installed capacity has more than you can deliver, companies, electricity available to Essay Impacts his clients to resort to controlling. This act is called load shedding. Load shedding can also be known as Demand Side Management or Load Management. Load shedding frequently takes place when the total electric power in many places charge a lot of users who will be able to Formation of Imagined use the energy available in the local exchange or a national network of stations that can be reached is at. This situation is common in many developing countries.

As soon as more than a certain percentage of the total power required – typically 98 percent – the maximum available power can be generated, the distribution of parts of the network would not be excluded. Such interruptions are known as “Load shedding. ” If you do not have to create landing equipment overload switches automatically shut down the entire plant alternators (generators), to protect the very serious damage. Such damage would be very expensive and take a long time to resolve. So, in fact, the plants 24/7 to Essay on The Impacts of Cyberbullying keep running in these conditions, there is load shedding regular distribution network in certain parts of the “power users” usually applied at different times during the week. For example, parts of the network, providing home and of Imagined Communities, small business office can be obtained in two or three hours of power a day time or other, every day, while important places – such as hospitals, large factories, and, in general, as an institution may acquire power almost 24/7. Load shedding is usually occurred in teachers factors, large industrial, commercial and municipal use activities, there is no constant electricity use (usually by automated instrumentation), and some pre-electric charge or electrical device to stop the use of the threshold is closer to the top. There are two reasons, both economically motivated. Energy companies’ license their small clients requested a piece of equipment in your home or business, and one or both telephone and radio equipment will turn off the electric company will install a device based on the signals. Devices are electric heaters.

Energy companies provide discounts to customers. Of Imagined Communities Essay? Then, the about Idealism and Its, power company is seeing demand for of Imagined Communities Essay capacity is coming from, and sends a signal to disconnect all these devices. This is called an electric shock. Overview of Ups. UPS stands for teachers factors uninterruptible power supply and, at the same time is an electrical equipment and backup power source flow shield sensitive equipment, or loss of, or damage problems. (Uninterruptible Power Supply) A device that provides battery backup when power fails or drops to Communities Essay an unacceptable voltage level. Small UPS systems provide power for a few minutes, enough to power the securities, computer in an organized manner, and larger systems have enough battery for several hours. Datacenters critical, UPS systems are used only for a few minutes until the Communities, electric generator. UPS systems can be set, the file server disruption of orderly shutdown alarm has occurred, and on the battery. Firstly, the low demand for this type of uninterruptible power supply only comes from a group that is engineering. Woman Quotes? Around 1950, the Essay, first uninterrupted service “no-break provision” was designed as a pay and stock. In Black? Often, the two motors, direct current and alternating current method.

No-break power to the battery charger to power the system back immediately, and a rectifier to convert AC to DC were distributed. DC current DC motor can power the AC power generated by the generator. In the case of loss of power, the battery will be used in DC motors. Germanium rectifiers in the 1960s the emergence of smaller and more efficient, but there is no-break power soon began to fall from the static uninterruptible power supply thyristors allow a better understanding of the concept behind. It combines a rectifier and Formation Essay, charger, and the battery and the inverter can be split between the power inputs, eliminating the need for moving chess pieces as a whole will be easier. This single change to to Exist the UPS equipment smaller, quieter, more efficient, reliable and easy to maintain equipment. However, these initial advantages, though the system rotates the rotary and static systems will continue to grow together in the best case, for example, in high load circumstances. Over the years, the Formation, system will continue for more simplified and made ?? more reliable. Sealed lead-acid batteries combination resulted in UPS equipment is to be a computer room, and not before, remote machinery room. Although the offset of the first computers to use UPS equipment and communication technology re-engineering will become a part of.

Case of an automated production line of the factory production control when the 3 branches of us gov, machine requires high power quality. UPS, not only the power of the production line to ensure it is Formation Communities, not broken, but there is no interference between the machines is not. Teachers? To a lesser extent, UPS equipment is of Imagined, so small; it can access a computer system, and no more than unit. There are many products, UPS, desktop form-factor of the teachers, order placed unobtrusively on your computer, or leave them. Increasing the Formation Communities, quality of the sales force “offline” uninterruptible power supply was more popular in 1980 and 1990, although only about and Its provide very basic surge protection. Offline systems draws power directly from the power source of raw materials and only uses UPS system during power outages and the “on-line” system of continuous power, the power failure / shortage or is Formation of Imagined Communities, not. Offline UPS, of course, is easy to manufacture, and, therefore, smaller and cheaper, but they are not suitable for areas with poor power quality, UPS is more to factors replace the battery, the battery will be returned as quickly. Off-line UPS is Communities Essay, only for Essay on The customers who are really only a battery back-up is recommended. Types of UPS:

Different approaches and designs are used in UPS systems, each with different characteristics set. The common design approaches are: * Standby * Line Interactive * Standby on-line hybrid * Standby-Ferro * Double Conversion On-Line * Delta Conversion On-Line * The Standby UPS Standby UPS is the type most commonly used in PC reservation. Transfer to filter the AC input selection is set as the of Imagined Communities Essay, primary energy source and battery / inverter primary source fails to be a source of renewal. In this case, the key to move the battery to charge transfer / inverter backup power source to work. Investors only when the power fails, hence the name “standby”. On The Impacts Of Cyberbullying? * The Line Interactive UPS Line Interactive UPS, is for of Imagined small business and departmental Web servers is to design the Idealism and Its to Exist, most commonly used. In this design, the of Imagined Communities Essay, power converter (inverter), the battery is always connected to the UPS output. At the time of the reverse of the inverter, the input is a normal plug in the battery. * Standby On-Line Hybrid Standby On-Line Hybrid topology is a lot more use UPS 10kVA labeled “line. ” A DC-DC converter from the teachers factors, battery, AC power failure is detected on the system, just as the of Imagined Communities, standby UPS. Charger is small, as a standby UPS.

Combined DC capacitors in 3 branches of us gov, UPS for Formation Essay AC power failure during the time of any transfer. This design is sometimes equipped with bypass switch failure or overload in a separate transfer. * The Standby-Ferro UPS Standby-Ferro UPS 15kVA 3-district was once the dominant form of UPS. Teachers? This design specific transformer saturation, the three windings (power connections) will depend. The main way to access the power, the of Imagined Communities Essay, transfer switch, through a transformation, and by means of output. In the event of power failure, the transfer switch is opened, the on Women’s Groups, inverter output to the load.

The Double Conversion On-Line UPS This is the most common type of UPS above 10kVA. On-Line double conversion UPS block diagram, the standby mode is the same, except that the power of the inverter main road. Essay? * The Delta Conversion On-Line UPS This UPS design, including a double conversion on-line design and 5kVA available from a range of Essay on The Impacts, 1 MW to resolve deficiencies, is a new technology. Like Double Conversion On-Line design, the Delta Conversion On-Line UPS inverter voltage is always in charge. However, the additional Delta Converter also supports output power of the Formation of Imagined, inverter. AC failure, or behavior disorders of identical design of the exhibition under the terms of a double conversion On-Line.

Although UPS sources are generally cheap, small and convenient, they are not suitable for all applications. Teachers? Their common disadvantage is of Imagined, a relatively short runtime. 3 Branches Of Us Gov? That’s why most data sheets state it at half load. For small consumer-grade units half load run time is typically 13-20 minutes. Note that this characteristic is not linear. At full load you may get only 1/3 of half-load life. Prices of UCP: Over 40 local UPS brands. There are more than 40 markets, locally produced and unregistered UPS brands.

Fuji, Microtech, Digi Tech, Easy Tech, Soft Tech, Star Tech, PowerOn Line, Galaxy, United, would install Power, PANA Tech, Pak Power, Mega Tech, Power Tech, Auto Tech, Fantom, Sun, Super Power Among they are, Offline, Unitex, Uni Power, Power Plus, Auto care, Peace, Toyo, Pro Line, Royal, Toshiba, Nokia, Auto Volt, Auto Power and Laser. Stack of new brands and trademarks are only available on the market. Best-selling brands of UPS are Micro Tech, Auto Care, Power Plus and Laser. UPSs are manufactured in over a dozen areas in the city, including Hall road, Hafeez center, Regal Chowk, Shahalaami, Abid Market and local markets. Communities? It takes 5-10 hours to recharge batteries.

195 Amp wet batteries to fully recharge the standard time is 10 hours. Essay About Idealism And Its? The duration of the charge amplifier 145 and 140 Amp wet batteries, six hours 120 Amp wet battery charge lasts for four hours. The 80W of power consumed by the fan to be the same as that for Communities Essay 24 hours, and at least part of the increase in the electricity bill of 250 PRs. More batteries charged, more is the electricity bills. There are many batteries available in market to attach with ups.

They are AGS, Exide, Osaka, Phoenix, Atlas, and Volta. * UPS with built-in dry batteries range from Rs 7,000 to Rs 117,000. * UPS 500 VA that can run 1 PC costs Rs 7,000. * UPS 1,000 VA that can run 3 PCs costs Rs 12,500. * UPS 1,500 VA UPS that can run 4 PCs costs Rs 25,800. * UPS 2,200 VA that can run 5 to in black quotes 6 PCs costs Rs 35,900. * UPS 3,300 VA that can run 8 to 9 PCs costs Rs 45,500. * UPS 4,000 VA that can run 12 to 13 PCs costs Rs 80,400. * UPS 5,000 VA that can run 15 to of Imagined Essay 16 PCs costs Rs 96,000. * UPS 6,000 VA that can run 18 to 20 PCs costs Rs 117,000. The back-up duration for these UPSs is between 10 and in black quotes, 15 minutes. Of Imagined Essay? * UPSs without built-in batteries and quotes, built-in voltage stabilizers and which need wet batteries range from Rs 7,500 to Rs 17,200. Formation? The wet batteries price range from decision Rs 5,500 and Rs 9,500. * UPS with 50 0VA with 120 Ampere battery price Rs 7,500 + Rs 8,500 = Rs 16,000. * UPS with 1,500 VA with 195 Amp battery price Rs 17,200 + 13,200 = Rs 30,400. * UPSs with built-in voltage stabilizers which need wet batteries price from Rs 14,000 to Rs 115,400. * 500 Watts UPS will manage 2 Fans and 4 energy savers. RS 8,000 * 700 Watts UPS will manage 3 Fans and 6 energy savers. Communities Essay? RS 9,500 Anything greater than 700 Watts will use 2 or more Batteries depending on necessities. * 1000 Watts UPS will manage 5 Fans and 8 energy savers. RS 14000 * 1500 Watts UPS will manage 7 Fans and 10 energy savers. RS 18000 * 2000 Watts UPS will manage 10 Fans and 16 energy savers. RS 24000 Advantages and teachers factors, Disadvantages of Ups: * The electricity supply drives uninterrupted, it do not require much power.

Its backup will depend on of Imagined, the battery, as many amperes a battery that much backup will provide. Idealism Struggles To Exist? The disadvantages it takes many and long charging time, and in case of long power outages, so it stops working. Excessive load reduces the duration of the backup entry. Reflected in the 60% to 90%. Overview of Electric Generator This device can supply electricity to your home during power outages are casually referred to as a home generator.

Switching to an electric generator is a machine that converts mechanical energy to electrical energy. Mechanical energy can be used from different sources. Mechanical steam engine, the power turbine, internal combustion engine or turbine to drive the generator can generate power. Other sources of power, perhaps the wheel or hand crank. Electric generator to of Imagined Communities Essay convert mechanical energy into electrical energy to work. In general, currently used generators use gasoline, diesel, water, natural gas, wind, and a wide range of other fuels. Compliance with the basic law of physics, it is not really creative to generate energy, simply transfer mechanical energy from one type of electric.

The first generator began building in 1830, physicist and chemist Michael Faraday discovered electromagnetic generator as the principle behind it. This is the principle of Faraday’s law. When the magnetic field perpendicular to the electric conductor, conductor end will create a potential difference. This is the first electromagnetic generator, called the Faraday disk to detect. This type of of us, generator uses a copper disk. The disc rotates between horseshoe magnet site. Faraday disk produced a small amount of current and direct current (DC) voltage. However, this oscillator suffered some drawbacks. Formation Essay? Design is not effective, because of the different magnetic regions.

Regions that are not affected by the magnetic field generator produce a desperate counter current flow normal flow. The flow of power from the relay output lines of Essay on The, this battle will be reduced. Causes, as well as complete loss of heating copper disc. Later this disadvantage of the use of magnets arranged around the perimeter of Formation of Imagined Communities, a systematic reduction in on Women’s Groups, disc. Thus, the effect of maintaining a stable current flow direction has not been a problem. Not until 1866, Werner Siemens to Communities Essay enhance the northern securities, creative process is not a way to more sustainable use of magnets. Dynamo was the first turbine power generating industry. This generator uses the principle of electromagnetic activity, DC mechanical switch. Dynamo by the collector. Hipolito Pixi was built in 1832 in the first dynamo ever.

This generator consists of stationary machines. This machine rotating magnetic field coil. A small machines, or more permanent magnet position to a constant magnetic field generator can provide. Of Imagined Communities Essay? Larger machines, the gov, field magnet coils. Generator uses electromagnetic induction processing power. This machine urge electrical load to the external circuit.

It does not, however, generate electricity or number. These aspects are now in Formation Communities Essay, their wire windings. Essay Groups In The Twentieth-Century? Generator to pump water to the flow of water is similar to, but not to Formation of Imagined Communities make your own water. Home owners buy a portable generator in case of power failure. These devices are often powered by human power, and batteries to store electricity. Factors? Electromagnetic generators were discovered before, people use the electrostatic generator. This type of generator is very high voltage and low-current production. In other words, effective, less power to generate electricity produces large-scale corporations have ever used. Generator, today, when broken down into basic components, all the Formation Communities, engine alternator, fuel system, and teachers, cooling / exhaust system.

You can find different types of of Imagined Communities Essay, generators. It sounds like the northern securities decision, car, is not it? The main drivers of an of Imagined Communities electric generator, alternator and of Cyberbullying, electric motor to drive the Communities, car, charge the battery into mechanical energy is Groups, converted to Formation of Imagined work as a power-lights, radio, air-conditioning, seat warmers, and almost everything else. Teachers Factors? Alternator is the main component of Formation of Imagined Communities, any generator. A generator, simply, the engine is mechanical energy.

Do not take anything from the engine, still doing its job very well. The main generator is a component of the magnetic field setting, using different methods will work. Magnetic field, a voltage difference, and this, in turn, produce alternating current, or AC produced. Generator is used in a wide range of situations. Factory used to provide extra juice for your plants, and many homes and on Women’s Groups, businesses use them to make a backup in emergency situations.

Hydroelectric dams and mills are a type of generator, nature, water and wind into Formation electric energy without using fossil fuels for northern securities turning forces. Different types of generators have been around for hundreds of years. Electro-static and exhaust-gas generators were invented at the beginning of 1600-1700, and the foundations of the electrical experiments. Generator will be, without a doubt, part of the industry for many years to come will be a great. Someone to figure out how to take advantage of the Communities Essay, lightning. Teachers? Basically generators are of two types, a standby generator provides backup power in the home and Formation of Imagined Communities, official place, and is installed outside the home or office building. Essay Idealism And Its To Exist? And the second is portable generator is used in places where electricity is not available. These generators are sufficient to run domestic devices like refrigerators, televisions and furnace.

Types of Generators: Residential Standby Generators: These types generators are typically run by gas or diesel and is used to supply power to homes to Formation power critical items such as fans, lights and refrigerators in case of on The Impacts, a load shedding in their area. Of Imagined Communities? * Commercial Standby Generators: These types generators are identical to residential generators, but are used on a much bigger scale. Residential generators run at 6,000 watts whereas commercial generators run at of us 30,000 watts. Commercial generators are used to power standby systems in of Imagined, commercial institutions. * Portable Generators: These generators are usually the smallest types of generators (up to 30,000 watts) and are perfect for outdoor uses such as to power an entertaining vehicle. * Solar Generators: These generators are also known as solar panels and are most commonly found on houses roofs. Light on solar panels turn into energy to operate high watt equipment i. e. heaters, air conditioners When you need to decide what to produce, how much square footage the power you need to take into Essay Groups account how much power you need, and how you want to transport the generator on location. Formation Of Imagined Communities? Prices of Generators: Mostly generators are used to decision overcome the power disaster in Pakistan. Of Imagined Essay? Different generators for sale are available in market of Pakistan in a large amounts and it is much easy to get. * Gas Generators in Pakistan: Gas generators are generally used at home as they are cheap in woman in black, price as compared to others and easy to operate. The prices of of Imagined Essay, gas generators in Pakistan are: * 3 KVA Gas generator in Karachi for Rs. Essay Idealism Struggles? 28, 900 * 5 KVA Honda Gas Generator, Karachi, Rs. 115, 000 * 2 KVA Gas Generator with Cylinder, Karachi, at Rs.

22, 000 * 2 KVA Gas Generator in Lahore for Rs. 2,000 * 37. 5 KVA Gas generator in Rawalpindi for Formation of Imagined Rs. 430,000 * Petrol Generator in Pakistan: Petrol generators are used in shops and in industrial areas. They usually operate longer than Gas generators. The prices for northern securities decision Petrol generators in Essay, Pakistan are: * 3 KVA Petrol gas generator in Karachi, Rs. 25, 000 * 5 KVA Denyo Petrol generator in of us gov, Karachi, Rs. 75, 000 * Petrol Power Generator 5. 5 KVA with 45A Exide Battery in Lahore,Rs. Communities? 30, 000 * 3. 0 KVA Inhell petrol Generator in Islamabad, Rs. 25,000 * Petrol Generator Astra 5. On The Impacts Of Cyberbullying? 5 KVA in Communities Essay, Islamabad, for Rs. 2, 500 * 3. 5 KVA Astra petrol gas generator in Impacts of Cyberbullying, Islamabad, Rs.

26, 500 * Diesel Generators in Pakistan: Diesel Generators are the expensive forms of generators and of Imagined Communities, are not ideal due to increase in fuel prices. Usually they are used in factories and big commercial and industrial areas, facilitating large machinery to operate. * Wartsila, 1000 KVA, Heavy Fuel Diesel, Rs 60, 00,000/- * Mitsubishi, 650 KVA, Diesel, Rs 22,50,000/- * Cummins, 350 KVA, Diesel, Rs 15,50,000/- * Denyo, 75 KVA, Diesel, Rs 8, 50, 000/- Advantages and Disadvantages of Generator: It can run many electronic devices and it can supply electricity for the long duration of load shedding. Essay Impacts Of Cyberbullying? * The disadvantages are air and noise pollution, usage of fuel and cost it too much. Reasons of Load shedding in Pakistan Modern times, electricity has become very necessary for life to survive in this world. No sector becomes alive. Now, the electricity plays a very vital role in economic growth, and the progress of any country. Anything that has to Communities Essay do directly attached with electricity. In all market places, hospitals, offices, cinema, college, universities, factories, mills and industry depends on. an agriculture without irrigation, industrial Wheel stand still. The house was dark. Detrimental to energy shortages that affect industrial and agricultural production.

Insignificant limit. Quotes? Energy is now Pakistan, the Formation of Imagined Essay, debate. House wives, traders, businessmen, students, ministers all the victims from lack of energy. Lahore city experienced 12 hours extreme load shedding in this peak hot weather. Let discus the main causes of load shedding First of woman, all, water level of lakes and dams Mangala, Tarbela Warsak, Rasule, Malakund, etc. Formation Of Imagined Communities? , as much too small, many are suffering as a result of energy generation. Then the construction of large dams, which, for quotes example, the design of Kala Bagh Dam has fallen victim to political conflicts, if narrow, demand and supply of electricity, will reduce Gap, but, at the same time, as we respond to the needs of our industry. Thermal power is produced by Oil, gas, coal and electricity produced by this is the major part of the electricity. It is very expensive, energy, and the public is not exposed to the worst. Therefore, the government has to finance any deficit. 18 RS is a unit production costs, but it supplied at Formation Essay per unit Rs 12. So govt due to insufficiency of capital fails to woman quotes build up a new plant.

These are very expensive to build and govt is incapable to construct it on high scale. Developed countries are part of the basic shapes used in the production of nuclear resources, but Pakistan is not using these resources, our need. Moreover, pressure and power of the world to satisfy us, among other things, the use of the Communities, Don. Second, it requires a lot of attention. Perhaps, the following measures will be taken in Pakistan. Northern Decision? Setting up of new factories and mechanization of agriculture demand of Formation of Imagined Communities Essay, power is on The of Cyberbullying, increasing, but the supply of electricity is falling short of Formation of Imagined Communities, demand at an increasing rate every year. Every year thousands of Essay of Cyberbullying, villages are electrified and new colonies in urban areas are supplied with electricity. Of Imagined Communities Essay? This also a causes an increase in the demand for electricity. Standard of living has become high. People use luxuries goods like AC, fridge water cooler, and fans.

These goods works with the help of electricity which become the cause of increase of consumption. every work is done by light. millions of electronic goods come in Essay of Cyberbullying, market and Communities, sale out. People are these goods blindly without any cautions. in one house there will be found many ac and fans. Markets, Offices, Collages, Universities remains open till late at night. t is main cause of on Women’s, short fall. No benefit is taken from Formation of Imagined Essay sun light in a day. Most of electricity is used illegally without paying any charges by poor people as well as owners of industries and factories.

Income is Essay Idealism and Its Struggles, decreased than expenses so that it cannot be generate abandon. Cause of Energy Crisis in Pakistan * Old Aged Equipment: An important reason endorsed to this energy deficiency is the old aged producing equipment which could not generate the electricity as per the design necessity. Continuous updating and Formation of Imagined Essay, maintenance of equipment is the responsibility of the maintenance of a high level. We sincerely believe that, you should seriously consider, upgrade and maintenance of existing equipment must be in good working condition. * Wastage of Energy: Serious thought is given to the best level of energy use. It is necessary to develop a new culture of energy saving. Several times the level of northern, illiteracy on government, blamed for the failure of savings.

This is not true. Maximum power of the elite class of knowledge and all the resources consumed by communication. But they do not have the luxury to ignore the Formation Communities, problem. The government should seriously embark on energy-saving program. High Cost of Fuel: Crude oil price increase from $ 40 140 $ / barrel. This means that the unit price seems excessive thermal energy. WAPDA when buying electricity on higher price are not ready to sold at a loss. So, do not move to a common complain of load shedding. * Theft of Electricity: A simple solution is to Essay on The of Cyberbullying increase the Formation of Imagined Communities Essay, power price.

Again, the theft of electricity consumers, adding misery to the ordinary citizen to pay the bills by honestly. Energy-loss problem has been discussed for Essay Impacts of Cyberbullying more than a decade, and despite all efforts, no solution has been found. * Monopoly in the Business: WAPDA is the generation and dispatch unit in Pakistan. Although NEPRA is a government authority to settle the tariff matters but it remains the subject of WAPDA has come to power, it has little effect. This is recommended that private sector should be allowed to set up power plant and settle the electricity to customers. Once the rates are fixed on of Imagined Communities Essay, reasonable basis and the service and uninterrupted power supply will be covered then customers will be benefited. * Exploring Coal: Pakistan is blessed with a bulky number of coal resources and there is no serious work required to explore the coal, to Essay Impacts generate electricity. Coal has been accused of less quality. However, tailor-made ?? solutions are available for any type of coal burned. Formation Of Imagined? The government wants the in black quotes, private sector to play its role. In our opinion the government should take initiative and set up the power plants on the site of coal mines. * Renewable Energy: Government efforts to produce renewable energy sources.

PPIB has issued a letter of intent, many private sector guarantors. If severe, the total deficit in the water and the wind-energy sector can be met. Of Imagined Communities Essay? It is recommended that users of securities, small loans to the electricity use of a family of small hydro and solar-cell installation. To provide a mechanism for the recovery of the loan, the monthly bills will be each month. * Role of Government: Government is searching for Essay the private sector to Essay about Idealism Struggles invest in the energy sector and they elected him as a mediator and arbitrator for investment. We suggest the Formation of Imagined Communities Essay, creation of traditional and Groups Twentieth-Century, new technologies has to Communities Essay be a great investment in the units of of us, government. Formation Of Imagined Essay? Once the factors, massive public sector plans, the private sector will be soon. * Energy Planning: Despite the high cost of emergency assistance, is only thermal power plants, and the 24-month period of time can be commissioned. Pakistan to develop comprehensive and realistic planning capacity of a catalytic element in economic growth, and poverty and prosperity in Formation Communities Essay, Pakistan to help. * Distribution System: WAPDA distribution system is inadequate briefing highlights the main reason for the loss of balance, and a broken system.

It is true, the distribution system causes a lot of unwanted and securities decision, broken off, but, now, we truly believe that the shortage of energy is the main cause of of Imagined Essay, our problem, complain WAPDA distribution network in twenty years, but failed to bring any improvement. Groups Affected By Load Shedding: * Social-priority customers: Such as health care institutions, security providing forces, national communications services and energetic manufacturing plants * Non-priority Customers: Such as ordinary local homes, shops and homes may have to be exposed to power failures during a time of load-shedding that factory has sufferers from shutting down its machinery and wasting its workers. * According to teachers estimates, Lahore has 10,000 factories, out of which 30-40 percent factories shut down as a result of load shedding. These companies use electricity and Sui gas in large quantities. In these factories, plastic molding, rubber products, leather garments, cotton, iron goods, and many other things manufactured. * According to sources of the Ministry of Labor, there were about 800,000 workers to their work. 400,000 800,000 workers while they receive less pay. Due to the failure of the owners to end the extra power facilities, and Formation of Imagined, increases our difficulties. * Banquet halls will no longer be capable to host all-night wedding and 3 branches of us gov, other parties. * Brightly-lit billboards and of Imagined Communities, Neon signs are to be banned. Load Shedding gives Birth to new Cottage Industry in Country: The endless load shedding was given birth to 3 branches of us gov a new small industry which is engaged in of Imagined Communities Essay, the production of Essay on Women’s Groups In The Twentieth-Century, products to deal with load shedding. Load shedding, however, the big negative impact on Communities, the major industrial sector but it has helped small businesses grow small producers to produce products to shield against load shedding such as emergency lights, candles, generators, UPS, and like many of the other has become beautiful. Ignored, and woman quotes, although the company does not die, artificial sources of energy is the Formation of Imagined, power of the current “age of teachers, darkness”.

This crisis began long before and gave birth to electrical machinery price-hike. Since then the price has come down and of Imagined Communities, the manufacturers do not earn abnormal profits in energy. Industry has arrived, and of us gov, it was the creation of jobs (something like a family business), and the workshop or factory and labor has been extended too many homes enjoy. According to an estimate, there are 10,000 factories in Lahore, among which approximately 30-40 percent factories have been closed because of load shedding. These factories were utilizing electricity and Sui gas in a huge amount. In these factories, plastic molding, rubber articles, leather garments, cotton, iron-made goods, and many other things were being produced. According to Communities Essay the labor department sources, approximately 800,000 laborers have been dispelled from their jobs.

While, 400,000 to 800,000 laborers were receiving less wage. Many manufacturers make Ultra Power Supply (UPS) 1000w 500 and Rs 6,000-12,000 from selling at different prices. At least two tube lights, two fans, a television, a computer and can be run, as they say, but the price they harge, not 48 or more, the cost of the battery, ie, among the available in the market at Rs 2400, 4500 to Rs. In addition, the age of the batteries is about one year, and the battery is quotes, damaged, repair or replacement costs must be supported by its users. Generator current price increases recorded in 2007, Rs 2000 and Rs 5000 different brands, depending on size and quality. Generators have been used in China more generally on the other side, such as imports, a very high value. The ability to market it under their own power generators with different types, some diesel and some petrol and gas operations. It is advisable to have caught members of the replica market; we have to mention its high price, even though they were not a major concern for Formation Communities quality.

Most of the shopkeepers sell artificial lighting devices, they say, because they are forced ordinary people to bring these products to market. However, the risk of these products, it is not a quality, it is a serious risk of northern securities decision, explosion. In summer, coolers and fans demand will increase, especially in schools, universities, homes, offices, etc. , and in the case of continuous load shedding, artificial demand for energy resources is likely to rise. Negative impact of load shedding: Impact of Load Shedding on Students: Load shedding effects everyone but students are suffering from load shedding and of Imagined, their study activities is badly punished because of unscheduled and long load shedding. Because in the exams day do not enough for students to study, but should be prepared for their exams in the morning and at night, but they cannot, therefore, Load shedding is disturbing very badly Students Study. It’s affecting students especially whose exams are in factors, progress because of unscheduled Load shedding. Proper planning against load shedding has not been done in examination halls and students are meeting with this hide and seek of electricity.

Load shedding causing worst impact on students. Schedule of Formation Communities Essay, their study is Groups In The Twentieth-Century, interrupted. Due to frustration of of Imagined Essay, load shedding they cannot study properly. These days, summer is on its peak, but without electricity is irritating. When students do not have adequate sleep, they cannot learn well, and this will affect their learning. This is because students are able to study at night. Students who suffer most as a hard training especially during the study.

The worst situation is those at the thousands of the government schools and private academies, which lack the power generators facilities as it is only organized by some very posh private schools. Impact of Load shedding on Essay Groups In The, Health: Remember the of Imagined Communities Essay, good old days; many people would enjoy a good night’s sleep. Interestingly, people from other countries, the future, and a better life, we find it easier to go back to the soft smile is better remembered today. Northern Securities Decision? In fact, pessimism and cynicism in a way that is both natural responses. We often hear the saying “I’ll sleep in his diary. ” All I hear is how to keep that night, or how many times it has happened to turn on and turn off the electricity. Formation Communities? People now look forward to about Idealism to Exist the beginning of the Communities, night against securities their body and a new energy to rest and work the next day. Nights are not welcome. Good sleep is essential for the production day. Irritability, aggression, amnesia, insomnia and drowsiness rough night from the Communities Essay, poor, who spend as much. Essay About Struggles? To work together with the indifference and anxiety.

Their capacity to Communities Essay work and earn a lot of suffering. Load shedding is considered too heavy for the underprivileged. Detailed and in-depth psychological analysis is required, how serious psychological disorders are very painful load shedding, to factors determine the of Imagined Communities Essay, result of long hours. Mentally unhealthy workforce contributes nothing to the development of the country. Impact of Load shedding on Industrial Units: Approximately 1,579 industrial units in the country as a result of an extensive, power failure, and other problems in the last five years, closed, sources told Daily Times.

Among these plants, in Punjab, 115, 700 Sindh, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa 688, 29 Balochistan and Processing Zone Authority (EPZA) was combined with 47 different industrial stopped. Sources said these Industries have closed or are not optimal capacity shortage of energy (electricity and gas, frequent interruptions), capital and technology, and poor performance due to the high cost of production. Teachers Factors? Other causes of conflict and the owners of the property-specific financial limitations. Wide range of measures taken by the Government of the country’s industrial sector, a number of recoveries. In KP and Fata, State Bank of Pakistan (SBP) has approved the Formation, removal of all small and medium enterprises (SMEs) revive government loans to help improve the energy supply, and electricity and in black quotes, gas to increase production to meet growing energy demand. Nuclear energy production is being improved by development of of Imagined Communities Essay, indigenization of the nuclear power technology. The government is boosting caged power generation through substitute and renewable foundations of energy like wind power, coal, projects, bio gas projects, solar energy small hydro and coal gasification in short-range. To raise credit conveniences, the and Its Struggles to Exist, SBP has providing many schemes for easing access to Formation of Imagined Essay investment to SMEs by supplying guarantee and Essay on The Impacts of Cyberbullying, building their size to manage their funds. To ease change of hands and have easy winding up processes as a massive amount of dynamic capacity lies inactive the Securities and Exchange Commission of Pakistan (SECP) was asked to make changes to ‘insolvency laws’. The SECP and Funding Division are working on the Corporate Restoration Act to Formation make the processes instant and also cover the chance of providing ‘technical support’ to teachers recover sick industry.

Overview to modern technology: The Ministry of Industry has set up Common Facility Centers through Small and Medium Enterprises Development Authority (SMEDA) and of Imagined, trial projects for drill including tools, mould and dye centers and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) centers and computer-aided designing. Business development centers to grow and polish innovative skills. To challenge inadequacies: The National Productivity Organization is piloting energy audits of steel and factors, textile sector and helping in major reserves through minor modifications. Pakistan Council for Renewable Energy Technologies also conveys out energy audits for a very nominal fee. Impact of Formation Essay, Load Shedding on of us, Economy: Electricity shortage in the country is creating destruction for industries in Pakistan. Long hours of load shedding throughout the Formation Communities Essay, country limiting the industries to work efficiently and smoothly and to Essay on The of Cyberbullying manufacture the goods for fulfilling local needs as well as foreign orders creates problems such as industry dropping its orders and Formation of Imagined Communities Essay, customers and at last it results in northern securities decision, closing of industry. Pakistan is in the hold of a serious energy crisis that is disturbing all sectors of the economy and the various sectors of the society. As the circumstances stands to-day, there are barely any instant solutions to resolve the issue. Load shedding may affect the Formation Essay, economy of the country.

Has a global impact on people’s lives. Industrialization is slow down by load shedding. Commercial operation will affect the teachers, majority of the student research because curfew in effect. Shortage of furnace oil and crude oil prices continued to rise. Of Imagined Communities? The use of oil to generate electricity in 3 branches of us, the oven is the only constant. Load shedding is increasing mainly because of the supply and demand gap during peak hours of using. The circumstances can be managed to a level by the cooperation of the customers to crush the load curve. The consumption which can be moved from the peak hours to other time slots can comfort the situation.

And initiating increase in inflation because tariff is also increasing of commodity per unit 30% to 60% Objectives: The objective of the Communities, research is to collect socio-economic data from the targeted population. The main objectives of this research are to: * Study the overview of Essay about Idealism to Exist, load shedding, UPS and generator. * Examine the reasons of load shedding in Communities, Pakistan. * Study the impact of load shedding on different fields of life. Study the theory of demand, supply, price, indifference curve. * Examine the demand, supply and tariffs of electricity in about and Its Struggles to Exist, Pakistan. Of Imagined Essay? * Whether there is any load shedding in your area? And the frequency of the load shedding * Disturbance faced by teachers Public due to Communities load shedding. On Women’s? * Examine the steps taken by people against load shedding. * Examine substitutes for load shedding affecting consumer. * Did they satisfy on government’s role regarding the load shedding problem? * Examine the steps must be taken to overcome energy crisis. * Study the impact of load shedding on living standards. Chapter 2 Theory Supply: Different quantities of a product which manufacturers offer for sale in the market at dissimilar level of prices. OR A essential economic concept that defines the Formation of Imagined Communities, total quantity of a specific good or service that is available to buyers. Supply can narrate to the quantity available at a specific value or the quantity available across a variety of In The, prices if showed on a graph. This tells closely to the demand for a good or service at of Imagined Communities a specific value; all other being equal, the supply provided by manufacturers will increase if the price increases because all companies look to make the most of woman in black quotes, profits. Formation? Determinants affecting supply.

Some of the common factors that affecting supply are: * Good’s Own Price: If there is any change in the price of a good it affects the supply of that product. * Input Cost: If the northern, price of inputs like land, labor, raw materials and power increases the seller will not supply the goods at existing price. * Government Policies: As the change in Essay, government policies and woman in black, regulations such as wage rate, taxes, gas and electricity rates, it affects the supply of of Imagined, a commodity. * Expectations: If the supplier expects that there will be an increase in the demand of a good, the firm increases the production so it affects the supply. * Number of Suppliers: If more suppliers enter the industry the market, it will decrease the prices and affect supply. Gov? * Conditions of Production: If there is any change in conditions of production like weather, law and order situation or any technological change it affects the Formation of Imagined Communities Essay, supply of a commodity. Law of supply: If other things do not change, then the amount supplied of a product declines with every decline in its price and rises with every rise in its price. Assumptions: The assumptions of woman in black, law of supply are * There must be no change in cost of raw materials. * There must be no change in rate of taxes. Essay? * The transportation cost must remain constant. The wage rate must remain constant. Of Us? * There must be no change in Formation Essay, method of productions. * There weather being constant. * The law and order situation should not be change. Demand: The mathematical function showing the amount demanded in terms of its various factors, including income and woman quotes, value; thus its show the algebraic representation of the Formation of Imagined Communities, demand curve. OR Different quantities of product which a buyer is willing to buying at several level of price.

Qd = f (P) In ordinary language, the want of a product is measured as demand but in economics only that want of a product is measured as demand which is supported by buying power. Thus we can say that, Demand = Desire of a Commodity + Purchasing Power of Consumer Determinants affecting Demand Some of the common factors those affecting demands are: * Change in Price: If the change of price of a commodity changes it changes the demand of a commodity. * Change in Income: The change of income of the buyer also affects the demand of a product. Factors? * Change in Fashion: The demand changes as there is a change in fashion occurs. * Change in Taste: The demand changes as the taste of a consumer changes with time to time. * Change in Population: The demand of Formation, a commodity change with the changes in the size of population. * Change in Weather: The demand of a commodity affects with the change in weather. Law of teachers, Demand: It shows the adverse relationship between amount demanded and price. If other things do not change then the quantity demanded of a commodity decreases with every increase in its price and it increases with every decrease in its price. Demand curve: These are the following reasons of negative slope of demand curve * Price effect: It occurs when the new consumers enter in Formation, market. * Income effect: It occurs when people start buying more units. Substitution effect: It occurs when people decrease buying of alternatives and buying this commodity more. Assumptions: The assumptions of quotes, law of demand are * There is no change in the taste of the consumer. * The income being constant. Of Imagined? * There is no change in the customs. * There must not be any alternates to the commodities. * There must no change in values of the other products. * There must not be likely change in the prices of the goods being used. * The behavior of the buyer must be constant. Limitations: The limitations of law of demand are * It is not apply on the usage of live saving drugs. It is not apply on the use of high-status products. * It is not apply on very high priced goods. * It is not apply in case of critical shortage of product or in unbalanced situation of law and order.

Price: The quantity of money that has to northern securities be paid to Essay obtain a given commodity. Insofar as the amount people are prepared to pay for a product represents its value, price is also a measure of value. The current value at which an good or service can be bought or sold. Economic theory opposes that the market price touches at Essay of Cyberbullying a point where the forces of supply and Formation of Imagined Essay, demand encounter. Shocks to any the supply side and/or demand side can cause the market price for a good or service to be re-evaluated. Of Cyberbullying? Example: In the comprehensive sense, an item’s market price lies at the point of crossing between the existing supply of the good or service and market demand for it. Any change in the supply or demand affects an product’s market price.

If demand remains constant, a decrease in supply results in Formation of Imagined Communities Essay, an increase in its market price and vice versa. 3 Branches Of Us? Similarly, if supply remains constant, a increase in the demand for an product results in a increase in Formation Essay, its market price and vice versa. Price Theory: An economic theory that opposes that the price for any particular good or service is the relationship between the forces of supply and woman in black quotes, demand. The theory of price says that the point at which the profit gained from Formation of Imagined those who demand the entity meets the seller’s marginal costs is the most ideal market price for the good or service. Elasticity: A measure of a variable’s feeling to a conversion in Essay Groups, another variable. In economics, elasticity discusses the degree to Formation of Imagined which individuals (customers or producers) change their demand/volume supplied in reply to of Cyberbullying price or income fluctuations. OR “Elasticity is a measure of sensitivity. The responsiveness of of Imagined Essay, performance measured by variable Z to Essay of Cyberbullying a conversion in environment variable Y is the conversion in Z observed in reaction to a change in Y. Specially, this estimate is common: Elasticity of Demand: The rate at which amount demanded of a product changes due to change in its value, is Formation of Imagined Communities, called Elasticity of Demand.

Types of Elasticity of Demand * Price Elasticity of Demand (Edp): The degree of to Exist, sensitivity of amount demanded of a product due to change in its worth is called Price Elasticity of Demand. Measurement: There are two ways to Formation Communities measure Price Elasticity of Demand Percentage Method: Edp = % change in quantity demanded % change in price * Formula Method: Edp = ? q/? p * p/q * Income Elasticity of Demand (Edy): The unit of change in demand of a commodity due to Essay on Women’s Twentieth-Century change in income of a buyer is called Income Elasticity of Demand. Measurement: There are two ways to measure Income Elasticity of Communities, Demand. * Percentage Method: Edy = % change in Demand % change in Essay Impacts, income * Formula Method: Edy = ? q/? y * y/q * Cross Elasticity of Demand: The unit of change in Formation of Imagined, demand of a commodity (a) due to change in the value of a commodity (b) is called Cross Elasticity of Demand. Measurement: There are two methods to measure Cross Elasticity of Demand. In Black Quotes? * Percentage method: Edc = % change in Formation of Imagined Communities Essay, demand of (a) % change in price (b) * Formula method: Edc = ? qa/? pb * pb/qa Elasticity of Supply: The rate of responsiveness of amount supplied of a commodity due to a change in its value is called Elasticity of Supply. Measurement: The methods of measurement of elasticity of Essay Impacts, supply are * Measurement of elasticity of Formation Communities, supply between two distinct points: Following is the method of measurement of Essay on The, elasticity of supply between two distinct points. * Formula method: Es = q2 – q1 ? 2 – q1 ? p2 + p1 ? p2 – p1 * Measurement of elasticity of supply between two closer points: The two methods of measurement of elasticity of supply between two closer points are * Formula method: Es = ? q/? p * p/q * Percentage method: Es = % change in quantity supplied % change in price * Measurement of of Imagined Communities, elasticity of supply by geometrical method: The two methods of measurement of elasticity of supply by geometrical method * Straight Line: If supply curve is a straight line then elasticity of supply at a single point is securities, measured with the help of this method. * Curve:

If supply line is curve similar than elasticity of supply at a single point is Formation, measured by taking tangent on that single point. Indifference Curve According to Hics-Allen indifference curve refers all those combinations of commodities that give equal fulfillment to of Cyberbullying the buyer so he will be indifferent between them and it will not problem to him which one he acquires. Of Imagined Essay? OR A curve used in Idealism and Its to Exist, economics to show all possible relative quantities of commodities or services equally wanted by or of equal use to Formation of Imagined Essay a customer OR A diagram showing equal levels of convenience (satisfaction) for in black quotes a buyer faced with various combinations of commodities. OR A curve used in economics which shows how buyers would react to different combinations of goods. On the graph, a quantity of one commodity appears on the x axis and a quantity of another commodity appears on the y axis. Buyers would be equally fulfilled at any point along a given arc, as each point brings the same level of utility to Formation of Imagined Communities that buyer. The slope of the arc is stated to as the about Idealism and Its Struggles to Exist, marginal rate of substitution.

History of Indifference Curve: Indifference curve theory was developed in first part of 20th century by by Irish-born British economist Francis Ysidro Edgeworth. Indifference theory can be got from ordinal theory, assumes that people can enjoy the priority of any consumption bundle. Properties of Indifference Curve: The main characteristics or properties of Indifference curve are: * Indifference Curves are Negatively Sloped: The indifference curves must slope down from left to right. This means that an indifference curve is negatively sloped. It slopes downward because as the buyer increases the consumption of of Imagined Communities, X Product, he has to give up certain units of Y product in order to keep the same level of Essay Groups Twentieth-Century, fulfillment. Higher Indifference Curve Represents Higher Level: A higher indifference curve that lies above and to the right of another indifference curve shows a higher level of fulfillment and combination on of Imagined Communities, a lower indifference curve yields a lower fulfillment. * Indifference Curve are Convex to the Origin: It is an important characteristic of indifference curves. They are convex to the origin. This is comparable to saying that as the user substitutes product X for product Y, the marginal rate of substitution reduces of X for Y along an indifference curve. * Indifference Curve Cannot Intersect Each Other:

According to the definition of indifference curve and teachers factors, the assumptions, the of Imagined, indifference curves cannot intersect each other. Essay Of Cyberbullying? It is because at the point of tangency, the of Imagined Essay, higher curve will give as much as of the two products as is given by the lower indifference curve. This is quotes, irrational and impossible. * Indifference Curves do not Touch the Formation of Imagined Communities Essay, Horizontal or Vertical Axis: One of simple assumptions of factors, indifference curves is Formation Essay, that the buyer purchases combinations of different products. He is northern decision, not supposed to buying only one product. In that case indifference curve will touch one axis. This disturbs the plain assumption of indifference curves. Substitution Effect: An effect produced by a increase in value that encourages a buyer (whose income has remained constant) to buy more of Formation of Imagined Essay, a comparatively lower-priced commodity and in black, less of a higher-priced commodity. Substitution effect is always negative for the supplier: buyers always shift from Formation Essay spending on higher-priced commodities to lower-priced ones as they try to about sustain their living standard in face of increasing prices. Substitution effect is not limited only to customer goods, but shows in other areas as well such as demand for labor and capital.

In economics, the influence of a change in of Imagined Communities, the value of a commodity, which inspires buyers to substitute one commodity for another. If a commodity’s price decreases, buyers will tend to securities decision buy it in liking to Formation Essay other commodities; if its price increases, buyers will buy other commodities instead. Essay About Idealism And Its? The idea that as values increase (or incomes decline) buyers will replace more costly items with less costly substitutes. On the other hand, as the of Imagined, wealth of persons rises, the opposite tends to be true, as lower-priced or low-grade commodities are avoided for more costly, higher-quality goods and services – this is known as the income effect. The substitution effect is the effect perceived with fluctuations in relative value of commodities. This effect fundamentally upsets the movement along the curve. Supply Chain of Power Sector | | Power Sector – Supply Chain| | | | Generation| Transmission| Distribution| Consumption| | Furnace Oil| Independent Power| | FESCO| | Thermal| | | | | | | Gas| Plants, Generations| | GEPCO| Domestic| | Coal| Companies, and| | HESCO| | | | KESC| | | | | | | National| IESCO| Industrial| | | | | | | Hydel| Water| Dams| Transmission and| LESCO| | | Solar| Independent Power| Distribution Company| MEPCO| Commercial| Renewable| Wind| | | PESCO| | | Plants| | | | | Hyde IPPs| | | QESCO| | | | | | | Others| | | | | TESCO| | | | | KESC| KESC| | Table 1 Generation Capacity (MWH)| 2012| | Installed| % of total| Thermal| GENCOs| 4,885| 20. 7%| | KESC| 2,050| 8. 7%| | IPPs| 8,587| 36.

3%| | RPPs| 453| 1. Essay About Struggles To Exist? 9%| | Others (CPPs/SPPs)| 324| 1. Formation Communities Essay? 4%| Hydel| WAPDA| 6,444| 27. 3%| | IPPs| 111| 0. Essay About? 5%| Nuclear| Two Nuclear Plants| 787| 3. 3%| Import| Mainly from Iran| -| 0. 0%| | Total| 23,641| 100%| Table 2 Electricity Generation Capacity of Pakistan Electricity Consumption in Pakistan Figure 1 Figure 2 Current and Expected Energy Mix of electricity in of Imagined Essay, Pakistan: Figure 3 Figure 4 : According to Essay on The of Cyberbullying data released by the National Electric Power Regulatory Authority (Nepra) in Formation of Imagined Communities, its 2012 State of the Industry report, private sector firms have already begun work on dozens of Impacts of Cyberbullying, projects that would substantially increase the Essay, country’s electricity generation capacity. After five years of unbearably long daily power outages, Pakistan’s private sector has had enough: over the next five years, they plan on investing over $14. 3 billion in increasing the nation’s power production capacity by nearly 46%, and they are doing so by investing in the cheapest possible sources of electricity. 2,400MW will be Pakistan’s power generation capacity by 2018, if the next government will to do absolutely nothing to prevent or slow down the progress currently being made on teachers factors, projects that are already approved and progressing. : (The Express Tribune, 2013) Expected Demand and Supply Gap, Power Generation Projects Power Generation Projects in Formation Communities, Pipeline| | Number| Capacity| Expected Cost| Per MW| Public Sector| | | US $| US $| Hydel| 12| 2,358| 96,282| 40. 8| Private Sector| | | | | Oil Based| 8| 997| 1,151| 1. 2| Pipeline Quality Gas| 1| 140| 140| 1. 0| Dedicated Gas fields| 3| 621| 780| 1. | Hydel| 16| 5,271| 10,096| 1. 9| Coal| 7| 1,725| 2,356| 1. 4| Naphta| 2| 404| 404| 1. 0| Total| 37| 9,158| 111,209| 12. 1| Table 3 Deficit in Demand and Supply (MWH)| Fiscal Year 13| Fiscal Year 14| Fiscal Year 15| Planned Generation Capability| 21,746| 24,212| 25,081| Projected Demand Growth Rate| 8%| 7%| 7%| Projected Demand Growth Rate| 25,284| 27,092| 29,032| Total| (3,538)| (2,880)| (3,951)| Table 4 | | | Short term| | Medium term| | | | Long term| | | Years| 2009| 2010| 2011| 2012| 2013| 2014| 2015| 2016| 2017| 2018| 2019| 2020| A| Existing| | | | | | | | | | | | | Generation| | | | | | | | | | | | | | Hydel| 6444| 6444| 6444| 6444| 6444| 6444| 6444| 6444| 6444| 6444| 6444| 6444| | Gen. Cos| 3580| 3580| 3580| 3580| 3580| 3580| 3580| 3580| 3580| 3580| 3580| 3580| | IPPs| 5541| 5541| 5541| 5541| 5541| 5541| 5541| 5541| 5541| 5541| 5541| 5541| | Rental| 285| 285| 285| 285| 285| 285| 285| 285| 285| 285| 285| 285| | SPPs| 70| 70| 70| 70| 70| 70| 70| 70| 70| 70| 70| 70| | Total A| 15920| 15920| 15920| 15920| 15920| 15920| 15920| 15920| 15920| 15920| 15920| 15920| B| Committed| | | | | | | | | | | | | Under| | | | | | | | | | | | | | process| 2466| 5501| 7806| 7806| 7556| 7256| 7256| 7256| 7256| 7256| 7256| 7256| | generation| | | | | | | | | | | | | C| Total A+B| 18386| 21421| 23726| 23726| 23476| 23176| 23176| 23176| 23176| 23176| 23176| 23176| D| 0. 8? C| 14709| 17137| 18981| 18981| 18781| 18541| 18541| 18541| 18541| 18541| 18541| 18541| E| Demand| 22500| 24474| 26520| 28683| 30944| 33394| 36217| 40648| 43864| 46689| 50152| 54319| | summer| | | | | | | | | | | | | | peak| | | | | | | | | | | | | F| deficit of| | | | | | | | | | | | | generation| 7791| 7237| 7539| 10702| 12273| 14853| 17676| 22107| 25323| 28148| 31611| 35738| Forecast Supply and demand position from 2009-2020 in woman in black quotes, MW Table 5 Tariffs: Table 6 2011| Units Purchased| Units Sold| District Losses| Amount Lost| Billed| Realized| Recovery Ratio| PESCO| 13396| 8,712| -35%| (37,133)| 69,065| 541,146| 78.

4%| IESCO| 8502| 7674| -10%| (7,231)| 67,015| 62,580| 93. 4%| GEPCO| 7314| 6439| -12%| (7,625)| 56,111| 55,459| 98. 8%| LESCO| 16995| 14741| -13%| (21,178)| 138,501| 135,872| 98. 1%| FESCO| 9685| 8596| -11%| (9,411)| 74,289| 74,111| 99. 8%| MEPCO| 12471| 10189| -18%| (18,956)| 84,637| 82,922| 98. %| HESCO| 8784| 5814| 34%| (27,229)| 53,302| 31,501| 59. 1%| QESCO| 5084| 4048| -20%| (7,998)| 31,250| 12,810| 41. 0%| KESC| 15433| 10072| -35%| (56,961)| 107,016| 91,559| 85. 6%| | 97,664| 76,285| -22%| (188,211)| 681,186| 600,960| 88. 2%| | 2006-07| 2007-08| 2008-09| 2009-10| 2010-11| Tariff Determined by NEPRA (Rs/Kwh)| 4. 73| 5. 77| 8. 63| 8. 63| 8. Formation Of Imagined? 95| Tariff Notified by GOP (Rs/Kwh)| 4. 43| 4. 74| 5. 52| 5. 57| 7. 33| Subsidy (Rs/Kwh)| 0. 30| 1. 02| 3. 11| 3. 06| 1. 62| Table 7 Literature Review “Does Liberalization cause more electricity blackouts? Evidence from a global study of newspaper reports” (William Yu amp; Michael G. Pollitt, January 2009) “Electricity blackouts are a source of political and regulatory concern.

They bring both economic and social losses to business and Essay on The, society. Beyond the direct causes due to technical and human errors, the recent occurrence of the significant blackouts in Western countries, such as those in North America (August 14th, 2003) or Italy (Sept 28th, 2003), are thought to be the result of liberalization in the electricity sector. It is of Imagined Communities, commonly believed that the frequency and scale of blackouts will intensify in line with the increased competition, scale of operation and cross-regional trade of electricity. Small and short blackouts also affect some developing countries with a lesser degree of deregulation. The causes of power outages vary among different countries due to the inherent differences in infrastructure, environment and technological sophistication. According to analysis of 15 years (1984 – 1998) of teachers factors, NERC data on North American blackouts, large blackouts are much more likely to happen than previously expected, given a probability distribution function of blackout sizes with a power tail (Carreras, Newman et al. 2002). The frequency distribution of the blackout sizes does not decrease exponentially with the size of the blackout. The power tail suggests that a complex system is operating close to a critical point, which increases the risk of blackouts.

It should be noted that the size of a given blackout is irrelevant to the particular event, which causes that blackout (Carreras, Lynch et al. 2004). Quality of of Imagined Communities Essay, service experiences change in Essay In The, the wake of electricity liberalization. Electricity liberalization continues to be one of the longest running and challenging international micro-economic experiments. However, the effect of liberalization on the quality performance remains controversial. Thomas and of Imagined Communities, Hall (2003) reveal that a greater risk of securities decision, blackouts is faced in the current context of liberalization and privatization. They argue that the reduction in maintenance, in Essay, order to maintain the profitability of generators, will increase the risk of blackouts. However, further academic research shows that all recent blackouts in Western countries are transmission-related, and that there is no problem with generation adequacy (Bialek 2003). Bialek (2004) contends that there seems to be little formal evidence of a connection between electricity reform and blackouts based on the US-Canada and Italian blackouts of Essay about Idealism and Its, summer 2003. Although some operating rules have been violated in of Imagined Communities, these cases, the main underlying reason for the blackouts is the inadequacy of of us gov, rules to accommodate the Communities, changes, which is a direct consequence of significant increases in cross-border trades and tighter reserve margins. In Europe, in the wake of liberalization, it has become evident that the in black quotes, market is characterized both by underinvestment in cross-border transmission capacity and by a reluctance to carry out costly upgrades of power technologies, which would otherwise improve the quality of service (EurActiv 2008).

The aim of this paper is to examine the relations between the degrees of liberalization and reported blackouts on a regional comparative basis. We evaluate whether or not there is an increase in the frequency of small and medium blackout incidents in developed and developing countries – all with different degrees of liberalization – over a specific time period (1998 – 2007). We investigate the causes of unplanned blackouts in 69 countries / locations among European, Latin American and Asian regions reported in the media during these years. These incidents could be individual and isolated events derived from one consistent news database – Factiva. Headlines regarding blackouts are something politicians inevitably wish to of Imagined Communities Essay avoid. In contrast, newspapers are highly intent on reporting or even over-reporting them. A survey regarding the public perception of electricity blackouts was conducted 18 months after the London blackout in woman, September 2003. The results revealed that the events were no longer foremost in people’s minds. However, the respondents mostly held the Communities, utilities, and to a lesser extent, politicians responsible (Brayley, Redfern et al. 005).

Factiva is a database, which contains blackout news articles. Although the Factiva database is not exhaustive, the blackout news record of the last 10 years might provide a lens that offers insight into whether or not there is an northern securities decision actual increase in Communities Essay, blackout incidents with the advent of liberalization, or if this perceived increase in blackouts is simply the 3 branches, result of proportionally increased media focus on blackouts. We also look at of Imagined Essay large blackouts separately because of high socio-economic costs and the availability of investigation reports. Using the content analysis technique, this paper identifies the common threads emerging from a number of large failures which recently happened in the U. S. , Europe, Latin America and Asia. This paper is the first study of its kind, at least in the context of electricity deregulation, where the reporting of blackout incidents in regions of Europe, Latin America and Asia over time is teachers factors, used to evaluate the causes of power outages. Communities Essay? Section 2 provides an overview of deregulation in developed and developing regions. Section 3 reviews the small and large blackouts in Latin America, Europe and Asia.

Section 4 describes the data used in Essay on Women’s In The Twentieth-Century, the study. Section 5 is the methodology. Section 6 summarizes the Formation of Imagined Communities, results. In Black Quotes? Section 7 is the conclusion. ” (William Yu amp; Michael G. Communities Essay? Pollitt, January 2009) Conclusion: Electricity reform in many countries still transition. Essay About Idealism And Its To Exist? Some countries continue to move forward, despite the obstacles they face. Other countries have postponed their plans due to various internal and external factors. Necessarily, policy adjustment, operational paradigms and institutional reforms are needed, and not to mention good quality regulation. This includes clearly defined objectives, responsibilities and incentives for supply security, regulatory and administrative processes to minimize risk and ensure policy consistency. Formation Communities Essay? In order to justify and match the different interests of market players at Essay a reasonable regulatory framework is one approach.

To promote the reliability of network monitoring the effectiveness of the organization’s financial goals without compromising the Communities, standard, is another way to avoid power failures. Factors? “Pakistan’s Power Crisis: How Did We Get Here? ” (Kamal A. Of Imagined? Munir amp; Salman Khalid, September 2012) In Pakistan, 2012 is proving to be the Year of Energy Summits. And Its? Typically, it all starts with a large mob emerging onto the streets of Lahore, Faisalabad, or another major city of the country, demanding an Formation end to the rampant load-shedding that has been plunging entire cities into darkness for over 12 hours a day and rural areas for 18–20 hours a day, with the electricity shortfall reaching 7,000 MW in May 2011 (Malik, 2012). This is followed by loud promises by the government to immediately resolve the issue. Promptly, an Struggles to Exist energy summit is convened in which the same issues are rehashed. It produces no tangible results apart from Formation of Imagined Communities (occasionally) a curious drop in load-shedding for a week or two due to the release of some payments to the independent power producers (IPPs). Almost invariably, however, the problem is treated as one of governance—issues of corruption in distribution companies (DISCOs), their failure to of us gov collect bill payments, the government’s inability to Communities pass on the full costs of energy production, or its failure to meet its obligations to investors who are left with no choice but to stop producing electricity, hog the headlines. Circular debt is seen simply as a tangible manifestation of northern decision, this governance problem. Little attention is focused on the rather large elephant in the room: The policy choices that have led to this situation. ” (Kamal A. Munir amp; Salman Khalid, September 2012) Conclusion: To the right incentives is Essay, essential for optimal energy mix. It is perfect situation is to northern securities decision move to water and local coal resources, and continue the development of renewable wind and Formation Essay, solar energy sources.

In the short term, and imported coal or gas can be seen from the solution. Though, only partial responses to the changing energy mix. The procedure under which private or public suppliers of woman quotes, energy is similarly important. Of Pakistan are poor, prices and inflation and taxes in Essay, each of the new bailout circular debt, as the government prints money with an unbearable burden fortunately become a problem. The problem, however, does not mean that it is teachers factors, impossible. All this requires putting the public interest first, something unusual ways failed to last. “Crisis of Electrical Energy in Pakistan and Future guideline for Policy makers” (Sifat Shah amp; M.

K. L. Formation Communities? Bhatti) “Throughout the world electricity is the most widely used and desirable form of energy. It is a basic requirement for economic development and for an adequate standard of Twentieth-Century, living. As a country’s population grows and its economy expands its demand for electrical energy multiplies. If this demand is not met adequately a shortage in supply occurs. This shortage can assume crisis proportions. Pakistan has been facing an unprecedented energy crisis since the last several years. The problem becomes severe during the summers. Large numbers of users have to be disconnected from the energy supply system to prevent overloading the generating stations (load shedding). Of Imagined Communities? On occasions the urban dwellers had to suffer load shedding of 8-10 hours every day. During the same time rural consumers suffered it for up to 20 hours at a stretch.

Almost two years ago the Chairman Water and Power Authority (WAPDA) admitted that his organization could not meet the current demand for electricity. It is surprising such a senior person took so long to discover this problem. The government talked about Pakistan’s supposedly booming economy but failed to understand the need for meeting the energy needs of the boom. General Musharraf (R) (ex-President) after becoming Chief Executive used to talk about building dams especially Kalabagh Dam. Very few power plants have since been set up.

The present energy crisis is totally due to lack of forecasting and planning. Essay On The? Any power system has 3 major parts: 1. Generation system 2. Transmission system 3. Distribution system Generally speaking the major technical causes of the shortfall in the availability of electrical energy in Pakistan are: Insufficient installed generating capacity. Of Imagined Communities? * Transmission system unable to transmit the greater load now imposed upon it. Of Cyberbullying? * Grid Stations and Communities Essay, related equipment unable to teachers carry the load imposed. Formation Of Imagined? * Distribution System was built to carry a smaller power and hence unable to cater to existing demands [Gelling at el 1988]. Essay About Idealism And Its Struggles To Exist? The major management-related causes of the crisis are: * Management Information System (MIS) not fully utilized. * Failure to forecast and plan for the future. Formation Of Imagined? * Failure to Impacts set up new generating stations in Formation Communities, time. * No new Transmission/Distribution networks amp; grid stations setup. Unexpectedly rapid growth of load. Securities? ” (Sifat Shah amp; M. K. L. Of Imagined Communities Essay? Bhatti) Conclusion: The politicians and decision, establishment of Pakistan discuss about building dams and of Imagined Communities, setting up nuclear power plants but they do not know the benefits of substitute energy sources such as solar energy, Wave energy, windmill Tidal energy and Geothermal energy etc. They are economical and fast method to generate electricity. Northern Securities? Pakistan is Essay, a very blessed country; solar energy is available in most parts of the country throughout the year. Likewise wind energy is freely vacant in winter in the interior Baluchistan and woman in black, coastal areas. These energy sources if tapped can be of great help in reducing the Essay, current demand supply gap. The possibility of gov, using coal and hydro-electric run of river plants must also be considered seriously for the long term. “An Empirical Analysis of Electricity Demand in of Imagined Communities Essay, Pakistan” (Shabib Haider Syed amp; Noel Alter) “Electricity is considered the backbone for an economy’s prosperity and Essay about Idealism and Its Struggles to Exist, progress thus it plays a crucial role in socio-economic development. With the passage of time as rapid development and technological innovation has taken place the utilization of energy resources has also mounted.

Therefore, demand for energy has increased instantaneously with time while resources have been squeezed. Of Imagined Essay? Thus, require keen and helpful research to deal with the ascending energy demand. This specific literature investigates “electricity demand,” an important source of energy both worldwide and in Pakistan. In Pakistan, electricity is teachers, among the most used energy resources. Electricity is of Imagined Communities, used for various purposes at residential, industrial, commercial, and agricultural sectors. Moreover, electricity in these sectors has become a necessity. In view of Khan and Qayyum (2008) in Pakistan 60 to 70 percent of the population has access to electricity consumption. Essay About Idealism? They are connected to the nation’s electricity grid; it indicates that as more and more electrification will occur demand will increase, requiring proper planning in the field of electricity demand management. It is also a fact that price distortion in different sectors and more use of electrical appliances boosts the consumption level of Communities Essay, electricity.

Currently Pakistan is going through the on Women’s, worst energy and electricity crisis of Formation Communities Essay, its history. Electricity shortfall has increased about 5000 Mw, load shedding has increased from 8 to Essay Groups Twentieth-Century 14 hours daily, industrial growth has declined, and ultimately the whole economy has suffered. Among other causal sources of the electricity crisis, escalating electricity demand is an important constituent. Thus in this research study, electricity demand estimates and determinants are scrutinized for better policy management. The impact of real income, electricity prices, stock of electric appliances, and number of customers is studied on electricity consumption. Current electricity crises are also discussed in of Imagined, this study; its causes, influences and about, impacts. The empirical analysis of Formation of Imagined Communities, electricity demand is carried out from 1970 to 2010. The main purpose of this research study is to estimate electricity demand function of Pakistan at in black aggregate and disaggregate levels. Communities? The impact of electricity demand determinants is Essay on The, estimated for short and long run.

Current energy crisis is also discussed in this study. The discussion provides helpful policy outcomes for healthier electricity demand management to the government. ” (Shabib Haider Syed amp; Noel Alter) Conclusion: The results of this study show that the response of electricity demand in each sector is different, so is the demand management policy, as well as demand management and pricing policy for each sector of the industry to formulate an effective response to the base. In addition, the peak of the price policy of Pakistan, where the peak power consumption of the high prices charged for the time they need to be practiced in Communities Essay, order to maintain power praise. Gov? In recent years, steps have been undertaken to obtain quick delivery of electrical appliances a low-cost and, thus, energy consumption has increased considerably. Order to maintain a strong impact on the energy consumption of Formation, household appliances, such policies should be studied. Policy measures, in addition, the government also needs to teachers factors be improved, and energy generation and infrastructure to the new system. The private sector in the electricity sector to break the existing natural monopolies and increase competition should be encouraged. New cleaner and cheaper electricity alternatives must be considered. Finally, the powers of the conservation objectives of the strategy are effective and should be applied in all sectors of production.

CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Research Methodology: Process used to Formation Communities Essay collect information and northern securities, data for business decision-making. The methodology contains published research, surveys interviews and other research techniques, and can be both current and historical information. Research Type: This research was exploratory research because it was done by either secondary data i. e. reviewing literature and articles or primary data such as filling up questionnaire, conducting interviews with people about the topic. Data Collection: The data collected for Communities conducting this research was quantitative. Because the objective of this research was to in black find out the Formation Communities Essay, impact of factors, load shedding on living standards of Lahore. So this research demands quantitative data.

Primary Data: The primary data for this research discover the main causes and of Imagined, views of public on Essay Twentieth-Century, load shedding in Lahore were conducting a survey. For this purpose a questionnaire was made having questions asked about the problem and then filled up by Communities Essay people of different ages, gender and occupation resident of Essay on The Impacts of Cyberbullying, different areas from Formation Communities Lahore. Secondary Data: We collected our secondary data from National Electric Power Regulatory Authority (NEPRA), News agencies articles and from internet. But, most of the 3 branches gov, data were collected from primary sources. Population of Formation of Imagined, Research: The nature of the research demanded that the woman quotes, target population must have the knowledge and Formation of Imagined Communities Essay, interest because the objective of this research is to investigate the impact of load shedding and use of woman, UPS and Formation Communities, generators on living standards of Lahore. So the target population of this research is the residents of urban areas of Lahore. Sample of Essay Groups, Study: The questionnaires were filled up by Communities 100 participants including every age and every profession living in Lahore.

Sampling technique was used to select participants randomly because practically it was impossible to collect information from all areas of Lahore. Essay Groups In The? But while using sampling technique it was kept in mind that participants must have knowledge about the topic. Of Imagined? Survey Instrument: Primary data was collected by using questionnaire. The questionnaire designed for conducting survey was consisting of around 23 questions to collect primary data from public. Questionnaire was based on 5 sections: * Information of Demography * Measuring effect of Load shedding * Steps taken against Load shedding * Responsibility determination for load shedding * Steps taken to teachers factors overcome Electricity crisis Data Processing: For this research, interviews conducted in Formation Communities Essay, planned way and interviewee allowed defining his point of view. For every interview conducted notes are made to record it. Essay On The Impacts? After interviews recorded in notes form, questionnaire made that circulated among the participants and the data collected through questionnaire was used to analyze the problem. The analysis and conclusion mainly focuses on impact of load shedding and Communities Essay, use of Essay about Idealism Struggles to Exist, UPS and generators on living standard of Lahore. Data Processing Technique: Microsoft Excel 2010 was used to input data and makes charts are graphs of the questions asked form participants. Communities Essay? Microsoft Word 2010 was used to interpret and explain graphs.

Limitations: There are many factors in Essay Twentieth-Century, this research that put up limitations on result of of Imagined Communities, this research. Some of them are: * The major limitation of this research is in black, that sample size was too small and was not able to cover all the areas of the city. Some of the participants of the survey had not proper knowledge about the topic. * The majority of participants in this research were students who had no real income level. * Another limitation which put limitation on this research was money that limits researcher to go deeply in the issue. * The time for the research was also a limitation as the finding of impact on whole city demands some more time. * The limitation of resources like journals, authentic reports and of Imagined Essay, other similar sources also has impact on the research work. Errors: There are some errors due to of us gov which data cannot be measured as exact and accurate. * There can be some errors while making questionnaires. * It cannot be sure that the information provided by Communities Essay participants in the survey was true. * Data processing technique may show any error while analyzing. 3 Branches Of Us Gov? Data Analysis and Communities, Interpretation Question No. 1. Gender of participant Gender| Frequency| Male| 64| Female| 36| Total| 100| Interpretation: This question is about total no. of Gender whose participant in questionnaire of this research. The total questionnaires filled by the participant are 100 by both male and female. In this research questionnaire male participant are more as compared to female participant. Graphical Presentation: Figure No. 1. Explanation: It is a demographic information based question asked from the participant about their gender.

The frequency of the participant is 100 out of which 64% are male including young and old, and Essay Groups Twentieth-Century, other 36% are female. The reason of male dominance is that mostly questionnaires are filled outside domestic areas where male presence is of Imagined Communities, more as compared to female. Question No. On Women’s Groups In The Twentieth-Century? 2. Age group of participant Table No. 2. Age| Frequency| 18-23| 41| 23-28| 23| 28-35| 21| 5 or above| 15| Total| 100| Interpretation: This question is about different age group whose participant in questionnaire of this research. Of Imagined? There are four age categories in this questionnaire. Most of the participant of this research falling in the category of 18 to 23 ages. Graphical Presentation: Figure No. 2. Explanation: It is a demographic information based question asked from the participant about their age. The frequency of questionnaire is 100 out of which 41% fall in category of 18-23, 23% fall in 23-28 age category, then 21% fill up by 28-35 age group and 15% participant are 35 or above of age. Youth is the strong and major part of the nation so they are majority in this research.

Question No. Teachers Factors? 3. Occupation of the participant Table No. Formation Communities Essay? 3. Occupation| Frequency| Business| 26| Student| 43| Household| 17| Other| 14| Total| 100| Interpretation: This question is about occupation whose participant in questionnaire of this research. There are four occupation categories in this questionnaire. Most of the participants in this research are students. Graphical Presentation: Figure No.

3. Explanation: It is a demographic information based question asked from the and Its Struggles to Exist, participant about their occupation. The frequency of participants in Communities Essay, this research is Essay Groups Twentieth-Century, 100 out of majority are students 43%, business holder are 26%, 17% are house holder and 14% participants falling in others category such as jobs, providing services. Reason of students dominance in Formation Communities, this research is northern, that mostly questionnaire are filled in universities. Question No. 4. Resident of participant Table No. 4. Resident| Frequency| Cantt Areas| 18| Canal Areas| 37| Walled City Areas| 21| Others| 24| Total| 100| Interpretation: This question is Communities Essay, about resident whose participant in questionnaire of 3 branches gov, this research. There are four resident categories in this questionnaire. Most of the participants in this research belong to canal areas. Graphical Presentation: Figure No. 4. Explanation: It is a demographic information based question asked from the participant about their resident area. The frequency of participants in this research is 100 out of Formation of Imagined Communities Essay, which mostly participants are from canal areas 37%, 18% are belongs to cantt areas, 21% participants are falling in the category of walled city areas and remaining 24% are resident of other areas of factors, Lahore.

Reason of canal area majority participants is that canal of Lahore covers quite huge areas than other division. Question No. 5. Income Level of the participant Table No. Of Imagined Communities? 5. Income Level| Frequency| Below 5000| 34| 5000-15000| 23| 15000-25000| 17| 25000 or above| 26| Total| 100| Interpretation: This question is about income level whose participant in questionnaire of of us, this research. There are four income level categories in of Imagined Communities Essay, this questionnaire. Most of the participants in this research falling in the category of factors, income level below. Graphical Presentation: Figure No.

5. Communities Essay? Explanation: It is a demographic information based question asked from the Essay about Idealism and Its to Exist, participant about their income level. The frequency of participants in this research is 100 out of which majority of the participants 34% having below 5000 monthly income, then 26% having 25000 or above, 5000-15000 category holder are 23%, and 17% are 15000-25000 monthly income participants. Formation Of Imagined Essay? Reason of majority below 5000 monthly income participants is that mostly participants in this research are students so they don’t have any source of income they rely on pocket money. Securities? Question No. 6. Are you suffering from load shedding in your daily life of routine? Table No. Of Imagined Essay? 6. Experiencing Load Shedding| Frequency| Yes| 94| No| 6| Total| 100| Interpretation: This question is about the load shedding in which asked by the participants that whether they suffer load shedding in their daily routine or not. Majority of the participants say ‘Yes’ Graphical Presentation: Figure No. 6. Explanation: It is a measuring effect question asked from the participant whether they suffering from teachers load shedding in their daily routine of life or not?

The frequency of participants in this research is 100 out of which 94% which is very large number of participants say ‘Yes’ they are suffering load shedding in their routine life while only 6% participants say ‘No’. Reason of such a large number of participants in Yes is that today load shedding become a curse in this country no one is saved from it Question No. 7. Formation Of Imagined? How many hours you normally experiencing load shedding in 3 branches gov, 24 hours of of Imagined Communities Essay, a day? Table No. 7. 3 Branches Of Us? Hours of Communities Essay, Load Shedding| Frequency| Below 2 hours| 4| 2-4 hours| 16| 4-8 hours| 33| Above 8 hours| 47| Total| 100| Interpretation: This question is about the duration of load shedding participants of this research normally experience in a day.

There are four categories in this questionnaire. Mostly participants are experiencing above 8 hours load shedding in a day. Graphical Presentation: Figure No. 7. On Women’s Groups In The Twentieth-Century? Explanation: It is a measuring effect question asked from the participant about the duration of load shedding they face in 24 hours of Formation Essay, a day. The frequency of participants in northern decision, this research is 100 out of Formation Communities Essay, which mostly participants 47% are suffering above 8 hours load shedding, 33% are suffering 4-8 hours load shedding, 2-4 hours category holders are 16% and 4% suffering below 2 hours load shedding in a day. About Struggles To Exist? Reason of 47% participants suffering above 8 hours load shedding is that in these whole country especially Lahore facing worst electricity crisis. The current load shedding duration exceeds 12 hours a day. Question No.

8. Is load shedding disturbing your life? Table No. Of Imagined Communities Essay? 8. Disturbance by Load Shedding| Frequency| Yes| 78| No| 22| Total| 100| Interpretation: This question is about the Essay Groups In The Twentieth-Century, load shedding in which asked by the participants that whether their life is Formation Communities, disturbed by load shedding or not. Majority of the participants say ‘Yes’ Graphical Presentation: Figure No. 8. Teachers? Explanation: It is a measuring effect question asked from the Formation of Imagined Essay, participant whether load shedding disturbed their life or not? The frequency of participants in this research is 100 out of which 78% which majority of participants say ‘Yes’ load shedding disturbed their life while other 22% participants say ‘No’ load shedding didn’t disturbed their life much. Reason of majority of participants in Yes is that load shedding disturbed every one’s life in every field. People become fed up with these long power failures. Question No. 9. How many hours of load shedding do you think will not disturb your life much in Impacts of Cyberbullying, a day?

Table No. 9. Bearable Load shedding| Frequency| Below 2 hours| 78| 2-4 hours| 22| 4-8 hours| 13| Above 8 hours| 2| Total| 100| Interpretation: This question is about the bearable hours of of Imagined Communities, load shedding participants of this research can bear in a day. There are four categories in this questionnaire. Factors? Mostly participants think below 2 hours load shedding in of Imagined Communities, a day don’t disturb their life much. Graphical Presentation: Figure No. Decision? 9. Explanation: It is a measuring effect question asked from the participant about the Communities, bearable hours of load shedding they can tolerate in 24 hours of a day.

The frequency of participants in Essay on The, this research is 100 out of which 78% which is huge majority of participants can tolerate below 2 hours load shedding, 22% can tolerate 2-4 hours load shedding, 4-8 hours category holders are 13% and only 2% say they can tolerate above 8 hours load shedding in a day. Reason of majority in below 2 hours category is Essay, that in today electricity becomes basic need of every person’s life. And wapda’s electricity has no substitute. Question No. 10. In which timing Load shedding affects you more? Table No. 3 Branches Of Us Gov? 10. Impact with respect of Time| Frequency| Day| 37| Night| 41| Both| 22| Total| 100| Interpretation: This question is about load shedding in which asked by the participants that in which timing they suffer more from load shedding.

Most of the participants affecting by load shedding in night timing. Graphical Presentation: Figure No. 10. Of Imagined? Explanation: It is a measuring effect question asked from the participant in which timing they have more effect of load shedding? The frequency of participants in this research is 100 out of which mostly 41% participants have impact of in black quotes, load shedding in night timing, 37% affecting in day timing and remaining 22% are affecting in both night and day timing. Reason of majority participants in favor of night category is that good sleep is Communities Essay, essential for the productive day. To spend all night with anxiety their capacity to work down and earn a lot of suffering for them. Question No. 11. In which season Load shedding will have stronger impact on you? Table No.

11. Impact with respect of Season| Frequency| Summer| 67| Winter| 12| Both| 21| Total| 100| Interpretation: This question is teachers, about load shedding in which asked by the participants that in which season they suffer more from load shedding. Most of the participants affecting by load shedding in Communities, summer season. Essay About And Its Struggles To Exist? Graphical Presentation: Figure No. 11.

Explanation: It is Essay, a measuring effect question asked from the participant in which season they have more effect of load shedding? The frequency of participants in this research is 100 out of which mostly 67% participants have impact of load shedding in Essay on The Impacts of Cyberbullying, summer season, 12% affecting in winter season and remaining 21% are affecting in Communities, both summer and winter season. Reason of majority summer season affection is woman in black, that in summer it is very hot here in Lahore. Temperature exceeds from 50© C and with this extreme load shedding it feels like a hell to survive. Question No. 12. Which of your activities are being affected by load shedding from following list?

Table No. 12. Formation Of Imagined? Activities Affected| Frequency| Business/Study| 48| Household| 12| Entertainment| 14| Rest| 17| Other| 9| Interpretation: This question is about the activities of participants affecting from load shedding. There are five categories in this questionnaire. Majority of participants have impact on business/studies activities from load shedding.

Graphical Presentation: Figure No. Essay Impacts Of Cyberbullying? 12. Explanation: It is a measuring effect question asked from the participant about impact of load shedding on their activities to perform. The frequency of participants in this research is 100 out of which 48% of participants business/studies activities affected from load shedding, rest routine affected participants are 17%, 14% feels their entertainment activities affecting, 12% participants household activities affected and 9% participants fall in others category. Reason of majority of Formation Communities, business/study activities affecting in this research is that most of the participants in this research are either students or business holders. Question No. 13. Have you selected for any alternative (generators, UPS, emergency lights) to handle with load shedding?

Table No. 13. Alternative Adopted| Frequency| Yes| 73| No| 27| Total| 100| Interpretation: This question is on Women’s Groups, about the alternate of load shedding in Communities, which asked by the participants that whether they choose any alternative in on The of Cyberbullying, load shedding or not. Majority of the Communities Essay, participants say ‘Yes’. Graphical Presentation: Figure No. Decision? 13. Explanation: It is an action taken in response of load shedding question asked from the participant whether they have any alternate for load shedding or not? The frequency of participants in this research is 100 out of which major part of participants 73% have alternate for load shedding and other 27% don’t have alternate for of Imagined Essay load shedding. Reason of majority participants having alternate for load shedding is that it’s been 6 years the country facing electricity crisis and its growing day by day instead of decreasing. So, people go for alternate of load shedding to woman in black fulfill their needs during load shedding. Question No.

14. What is your alternative for of Imagined Communities load shedding? Table No. 3 Branches Gov? 14. Load Shedding Alternative| Frequency| UPS| 57| Generator| 24| Emergency Lights/Hand Fans| 19| Total| 100| Interpretation: This question is about the of Imagined, alternate of load shedding in which asked by the participants. They are three categories to choose from. Most of the participants using UPS as alternative for load shedding. Graphical Presentation: Figure No.

14. On The Of Cyberbullying? Explanation: It is an action taken in of Imagined Essay, response of load shedding question asked from the participant which alternate they adopted for of us load shedding. The frequency of participants in this research is Essay, 100 out of which majority 57% are using UPS, generators users are 24% and some participants 19% use emergency lights/hand fans as load shedding alternate. Reason of majority users of UPS is that UPS is convenient, cheap and give continues back up during load shedding. Question No.

15. Is your alternative for load shedding being able to fulfill your electricity needs in load shedding? Table No. 15. Needs Fulfill| Frequency| Yes| 63| No| 37| Total| 100| Interpretation: This question is Essay on The Impacts, about the fulfillment of needs during load shedding in which asked by the participants that whether their needs are fulfilled or not.

Majority of the participants say ‘Yes’. Graphical Presentation: Figure No. 15. Explanation: It is an action taken in response of load shedding question asked from the participant whether their needs are fulfilled by your alternate or not? The frequency of participants in this research is 100 out of which majority 63% participant’s needs in load shedding are fulfilled by their alternates. 37% participants say their needs are not fulfilled by their alternates.

Reason of majority participants in Formation of Imagined Essay, favor of Yes is that with this extreme load.