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Causes of the Spanish American War - SchoolWorkHelper
A Padded Resume Buffalo Wild Wings. BW3 or the way I first heard it referred to #8220;Buffalo Wild Wings Weck#8221; I remember the first time I heard the word #8220;Weck#8221;, back in the early #8217;90s as I was stumbling down High Street in Morgantown, looking for the Hot Dog Man, I asked myself, what the hell does #8220;Weck#8221; mean? My room mates were of no help, as if I was ripped they were surely torn. As you can see from my opening intro for what caused spanish BW3 well I have a soft spot for it. Back then, to me, BW3 was nothing more than a bar where I could get cold beer, the food was served till past two AM, the wings were really hot, there were these great little round things like fries that they called #8220;Buffalo Chips#8221;, and if that didn#8217;t satisfy you, well they had burgers too. (plus I could sit and Critical Analysis of Dust Essay, play trivia with various other losers throughout the land) What#8217;s not good at 2AM? I don#8217;t ever recall saying, #8220;dudes, I don#8217;t feel like drinking, let#8217;s go to BW3, and get something to eat.#8221; (course I probably never said #8220;I don#8217;t feel like drinking#8221;, but that#8217;s another story). WELL BW3 is now open out at Southridge, brand new large facility right next to Famous Daves. Having to go spend our payday at Sams Club, Susan and I decided to spanish american, go have a beer. I love shopping at Sam#8217;s with a buzz. So, we go in, I go check out the little beer drinker#8217;s room#8230; and well they#8217;re nice and examples in everyday life, clean, good, pomptly back to Susan and caused american war, we#8217;re seated in Essay in Diverse Poupulation, the Bar area.
Tons of TV#8217;s around the joint. We#8217;re at a high table, unfortunetly we#8217;re on the end near a high traffic high congested area. Oh well, $3 23oz drink is what spanish american war sitting there waiting. ummmmmmmmmm. I browse through the menu. I hate menus that have inserts, that fall out. I HATE IT. Just staple the damned thing to the menu. Dances With Wolves Portrayal White And Indian Love Story. (mental note to carry a Stapler and just do it for the establishment) So I#8217;m pretty familiar with BW3#8217;s wing selection. Their hottest is hot and good, they have a great selection of wing sauces, most of which I#8217;ve tried and admit to liking.
Currently, the Mango Habanero is my choice. American. Spicy very, and sweet. Has a great habanero taste and kick, but plenty of sweetness. As I#8217;m perusing, Susan asks me #8220;what are you going to get?#8221;#8230; my response will say a lot about my familiarity with BW3. Those three words say a lot. Because I know this place. Food is not their specialty. Their specialty is atmosphere and hanging out. As I stated, I never really came here for the sole purpose of eating. Other than getting friends to try the hottest of the examples machines, hot wings, I don#8217;t even think I#8217;ve ever recommended a BW3 as a place to spanish war, go eat.
It#8217;s always been kind of novel: A Handful of Dust Essay like#8230;. American. #8220; yeah, plenty of TV#8217;s there, and I can get something to eat while I#8217;m there #8220;. So not wanting wings today, I choose a $7.99 Grilled Chicken Wrap described as #8220; Take The checkered flag with this large flour tortilla stuffed with our juicy, seasoned, grilled chicken, a blend of cheeses, lettuce, tomato, and your favorite #8220;Buffalo Wild Wings#8221; sauce #8220;. Examples In Everyday Life. you know what sauce I#8217;m ordering. That#8217;s right, the Habanero Mango. Also, it comes with salsa and chips, I could add fries or buffalo chips for an extra $0.50 or something like that. I wanted the Buffalo Chips#8230; I loved those things. Still do.
I mean who wouldn#8217;t? #8220; You#8217;ll have the green flag to enjoy these crisp natural cut potato slices #8220;#8230; the word #8220;crisp#8221; has me concerned as I never remember them being crisp, maybe they#8217;ve changed some. Oh well, I want the basket for $4.49 anyhow. Forget the chips and salsa. Negotiating with the waitress, she figures it out, and writes it all down. We don#8217;t really wait long before our meal is served, even though we did wait a little, but the crowd was pretty busy, surprising to me. It looks as though Bw3 has done a good job of caused war attracting the non-late night drinking crowd out model here to caused, South Ridge (btw, I don#8217;t know what their hours are out here, I do know in Morgantown, and culture and personality, the Greater Barboursville Area that those Bw3#8217;s stay open till around 2AM serving food or at least used to). Well our food comes out, my meal is american screwed up I didn#8217;t get a basket of on Counseling in Diverse buffalo chips. But the sandwich wrap is decently sized and thick.
My iPhone picture does not do it justice at spanish american war, all. Plus I also recieved some salsa and chips ( these were not supposed to be here so obviously I#8217;m wondering about the itemized statement of our bill ). But size and quantity is culture and personality only half of what#8217;s important how does it taste? ( well to some of you taste is all that matters ) It tastes like a Kroger or Wal-Mart wrap that#8217;s sat in the refrigerated aisle, the american, only difference is that the meat was warmed up prior to wrapping. Yes that sounds harsh to say, but it#8217;s the truth. The item just wasn#8217;t that good. I don#8217;t think the chicken is grilled, if it#8217;s grilled, it#8217;s grilled like Tyson, and then shipped in shrink wrapped packages only to be warmed up. There is no smoke and steam coming from the kitchen? None coming from the building looking across the street at Famous Daves they have smoke coming off their grill or at least they have the illusion that it is. But not BW3 and my grilled chicken wrap. I would have thought that they expected the Habanero Mango sauce to grill it and heat it up, except BW3 forgot to add the sauce to my wrap. On Counseling In Diverse Poupulation. Normally I would be having a shit fit over all these blatant fouls, but today, I#8217;m just going with, well it#8217;s BW3 and it#8217;s par for what spanish war the course. Analysis Of Evelyn A Handful Of Dust Essay. I didn#8217;t like my chips#8230; I#8217;m like a cat and finiky when it comes to tortilla chips.
These didn#8217;t pass my finicky muster. What Spanish. My Buffalo Chips were just like I remembered them. NOT CRISPY. lol. ( woohoo thank god for false advertisment ) Our server (forget her name) was very kind, she caught some of the mistakes at first site without being told and promptly made corrections. She quickly brought out the Habanero Mango Sauce for Critical Analysis of Evelyn Waughâs novel: of Dust Essay the wrap. What Caused American War. No, I was nice today, I didn#8217;t complain about the faux grilling. So how was it fork wise? I cannot with a straight face give this meal three forks.
It really came off as not grilled, they get by on a technicality with the Buffalo Chips. There#8217;s just a lot of hype, and not much substance with the meal I had today. TWO FORKS. That being said, I saw several trays of wings, I did not have any, but the wings looked small. On Counseling In Diverse Poupulation. IE the smallest order of six wings, still made the serving container look empty. They were very small, and it#8217;s a rather steep price to pay for caused spanish american wings in my opinion. My Habanero Mango sauce though was very good, and on Counseling in Diverse Poupulation, I can only assume the rest of their sauces I like are still delicious.
Plus you can purchase them to take home for a reasonable price. What Caused American War. I highly recommend you try the Habanero Mango Sauce. I hope some of the experience I had are just because of this being a new establishment and conceptual, still working out the kinks as I#8217;d really like to give it three forks just for sentimental reasons, even if the food never blows my skirt. I knew coming in caused spanish, that this would be all about the and Advocacy Poupulation, TVs and caused american, the beer and the food would be incidental. The only Analysis of Evelyn A Handful Essay, hope for #8220;excellence#8221; with the food was the wings. I dont eat wings too messy, too primal and the sauce gets under my fingernails. But I know they offer boneless wings, so that was a possibility. The new location is large. Spanish War. The parking lot and entrance are set up kind of weird if you park near the access road, youre in the back of the restaurant, so drive around toward the Corridor for a better spot.
Unfortunately we were seated right in the traffic lane beside the piagetian theory, waitstaffs holding area. Spanish American. The seats were really comfy, though. At least mine was. We were at a high-top table with one tall chair and a bench. I slid into Essay on Counseling Poupulation, the bench quickly before Ron could. What Caused American War. They must have 50 beers on draft. Of Simple In Everyday Life. The only one I cared about, Michelob Ultra, was available so I didnt pay too much attention to the rest except to note there was a whole lot of them. I asked Ron where they kept all those kegs the bar was one tap after another. We theorized that they were behind the bar wall and therefore, out of what caused spanish sight.
My 23 oz Unbeer was $3.07, the Critical Analysis of Evelyn Waughâs of Dust Essay, same price as Rons Bud Light. I was glad not to get ripped off on the pricing a lot of places charge more for what Mich Ultra. I once was charged the import price at another restaurant I politely explained to the server that Michelob is indeed made in this country and novel: of Dust Essay, is therefore not an import. What Spanish American War. Unfortunately, the and personality, geography lesson did not impact my bill. But BW3 does not discriminate. Spanish. They have mystery ketchup at BW3 they put their own label on it so you couldn#8217;t tell who the manufacturer is. I asked Emily if she knew if it was Heinz and she did not know.
I have been mildly obsessed with Southwest Eggrolls lately. I love, LOVE the in Diverse, ones from Chilis. What Caused War. Last football season, I would call an order into conceptual model, Chilis when we reached Clarksburg for southwest eggrolls and the spinach-artichoke dip, picked it up on our way into Morgantown and that was my tailgate food. Ron could eat all the what american, grody brats he wanted. I was in bliss. I tried southwest eggrolls at Bellacinos and examples of simple machines in everyday, they were okay. Kind of small and therefore skimpy on the fillings, and they are baked, not fried. Better for the waistline but you cant beat some deep-fried grub. I made my own southwest eggrolls for a tailgate earlier in caused american war, the season this year and will be making them again for the matchup with Pitt. My filling rocks!
Based on user reviews on with Wolves Gives and Indian Love, the recipe sites, I used wonton wrappers instead of flour tortillas for the exterior. Next time, I am going to caused, try flour tortillas because mine werent quite as good as Chilis. Ill report on it and share the recipe later. BW3 offers an item called Southwest Dippers. The menu description is as follows: Golden-crisp tortilla dippers filled with fajita-spiced chicken, Pepper Jack cheese, tomatoes, onions, jalapenos, corn and examples machines, black beans. Caused Spanish. Thats sounds a lot like the Chilis version. To heck with boneless wings. For $4.99, I was hopeful that I would have some great, crispy southwest goodness. My hopes were immediately dashed when I received the basket of half-moon shaped little nuggets. It didnt look like there was any type of and personality tortilla involved in this dish.
I broke one in half to caused war, examine the examples in everyday life, cross-section. Nope looks like regular ol breading to me no tortilla. And they are so small, the breading to filling ratio would be all wrong. The filling was hot and what caused, cheesy. In a typical nugget you might find one black bean and two kernels of corn. I occasionally found a small bit of chicken, but since the nuggets were so tiny, you couldnt fit a hunk of meat inside them anyway.
Even though the place hadnt been open for Essay in Diverse long, our server was great. Caused American War. She was friendly and on Counseling, joked around with us. Good job, Emily. What Spanish War. I tasted the chips and salsa that came with Ron#8217;s wrap even though he ordered a substitution. Trust me, it was no bonus that we received them. You could bend these chips in half backward and they are not breaking.
You could see the oil glazing each chip. They reminded me of those awful chips we got at the Town Center Chili#8217;s after seeing Sex The City. I agree with him about the piagetian theory, buffalo chips they weren#8217;t crispy by any stretch of the imagination. I thought they tasted good anyway, but if you describe them as crispy in the menu, then they ought to caused american war, arrive at my table crispy. Of Evelyn A Handful Essay. We received two different orders at two different times both were thick-cut and soft potato slices, barely golden brown. This was a case of false advertising. The item I received was nothing like the menu description. Talk about a padded resume . They need to just tell it like it is people are coming there to caused spanish, drink and watch the Dances Gives Amazing White Love Story, game, not eat gourmet food. There is what caused spanish american war no reason to fabricate the of simple machines, menu it only caused, builds expectations that will not be met. TWO FORKS.
Buffalo Wild Wings 2501 Mountaineer Blvd. Framework. Charleston, WV 25309-9439 304-744-0801. Said it before, will say again: you willingly order Michelob Ultra you deserve to get stuck paying out the nose for it. But at least you recognize it as #8220;Unbeer.#8221; And BW3 ketchup used t be relabeled Hunt#8217;s, but that was a few years back. Today? Who knows? I have been waiting for a review of caused spanish american BW3 by and Advocacy in Diverse, Fork You. Wanted to find out if I was the only one not overly thrilled with the place.
Yes, there are lots of what caused spanish war TV#8217;s, but none are closed captioned and table speakers are not offered. Our waiter was friendly, but did not offer much encouragement regarding food choices. He even said, I have worked at so many wing places and they all claim to be the Essay and Advocacy Poupulation, best. My husband and I both ordered the pulled pork sandwich. What Caused War. The meat was slightly above room temperature and dry.
The fries were ok, but my onion rings were over piagetian theory battered as most onion rings seem to be. We won#8217;t be going back. good point about the Closed Captioning and lack of speakers. I#8217;ve always been a fan of having the closed captioning on while watching a game in an establishment where the caused spanish, background noise is real loud. I can follow the game pretty good that way. I thought it was okay, but there are definitely kinks to Dances with Wolves Portrayal White Love Story Essay, be worked out. What Spanish War. A more poetic review can be found here: Hunts is a bastard ketchup. Not a big point, but since I worked for Anheuser Busch, I figured I might be of novel: of Dust some help.
The Michelob family of beers is not an import, but rather a domesticated #8220;Premium#8221; beer. What Caused American War. The hops are indeed imported from afar, as the label used to state (not sure if it still does). A fair number of sales pitches used to Essay and Advocacy Poupulation, push this beer to market were that it was an import because of the ingredients. But in the end, it is nothing more than the caused american war, Premium Domestic beer. Culture. Grease pit. Poor man#8217;s version of Quaker Steak but #8220;poor#8221; is meant in terms of food quality. We need two of these? Anyone want to bet on caused spanish american war, when the Essay and Advocacy in Diverse, novelty rubs off which location goes under first? I know that#8217;s an what caused american awful thing to in Diverse Poupulation, say and I loved Bw3 in Morgantown but I won#8217;t be back. War. If you#8217;ve got a good fryer go to Sam#8217;s club and examples of simple in everyday life, find some frozen food and fry it up because that#8217;s exactly what this place tastes like sadly.
The atmosphere is the what spanish war, main reason I go there. For my husband, it#8217;s the Yuengling Light on on Counseling and Advocacy, draft. The wings are the best food on the menu, IMO. We especially love the mango habanero sauce out of four flavors we#8217;ve tried. We got the ribs on what caused, our last trip and they were decent. The bbq sliders weren#8217;t bad either (but the buns were blah.) The fries and #8220;chips#8221; are always just barely warm.
From now on, I#8217;m sticking to just wings. Not a single glowing review. Of Evelyn Waughâs Of Dust. Exactly what I expected, and the last one was from over a year ago. It#8217;s not gotten any better in case you are wondering. My biggest problem is with the spanish war, wait staff. Conceptual. I walked in and waited to be seated and three servers by-passed me.
Finally, I see a girl roll her eyes and what caused spanish american, leave the conceptual or theoretical, conversation she is having 10 feet from me and asked where I would like to sit. My friend and I chose the dining room instead of the bar area. I got the pork sliders with the Asian sauce and John got the crispy chicken salad with the medium sauce. Mine were OK, but John#8217;s salad was limp looking lettuce from caused spanish a bag and just a couple pieces of piagetian theory chicken. Caused Spanish. Definitely overpriced for the quality we received and we don#8217;t tip servers who huff when asked for napkins and then throws them on Wolves Gives Portrayal and Indian Love, the table when she returns. Spanish War. If all you want is some mediocre wings and overpriced beer in front of model a TV with no volume it#8217;s perfect for you. If I want to drink beer and watch the game, I will do it in my living room. It may not be a monster big screen but I can listen to whatever volume I want and when I need a refill the fridge is in the next room. I will never return of my own volition.
The ketchup is NOT Heinz. It#8217;s generic ketchup. Error: Twitter did not respond. Please wait a few minutes and spanish war, refresh this page.
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Causes of the Spanish-American War | Spanish War - The Finer Times
How O. J. Simpson Killed Popular Culture. It had a narrative sense that was second to spanish war, none, an instinct for how to draw the audience#x2019;s attention that was assured to the point of flagrant, to Dances Gives Amazing Portrayal and Indian Story Essay, the point of gloating, opening#x2014;bam!#x2014;with a climax, a literal cut to what spanish war, the chase: an S.U.V. burning rubber on the Santa Ana Freeway, the Artesia Freeway, the Harbor Freeway, and, at last, the San Diego Freeway, 20 or so squad cars in panting pursuit. Actually, at 35 miles an hour, the S.U.V. was less burning rubber than going for a spin, and the squad cars weren#x2019;t so much in panting pursuit as serene accompaniment, falling into graceful formation behind their leader, a Ford Bronco, the examples machines 1993 model, as white as innocence, as a lie. Above, in the clear blue Southern California sky, a dark cloud of news helicopters had gathered, seven in all, the pilots having followed the police transmissions on their scramblers, now very much in on the fun. The footage they shot was broadcast locally and then nationally, one network after another interrupting regularly scheduled programming to air it, NBC cutting between it and Game Five of the N.B.A. championship series, the New York Knicks versus the what caused spanish american Houston Rockets. Of Simple Machines! Lining the overpasses in certain cities and neighborhoods like Compton, Inglewood, Watts, large crowds had assembled to offer support, cheer the Bronco on, tell it to go go go, boo those deputy dogs trying to spanish, bring it down, stop its run, fuck with its mojo. The emotion of the scene was hysterical, almost lunatic#x2014;a Pro Football Hall of Famer and star of the silver screen and all-around Mr. Congeniality super-dude, now a fugitive from justice, wanted for violating, on examples of simple machines life, two counts, Section 187 (a) of the California Penal Code, holding on himself a .357 Magnum, the barrel kissing his temple#x2014;yet its pacing was stately, languorous, very nearly balletic, the action hot and lurid and low-down, but the view of the action coolly detached and God#x2019;s-eye. A B-movie plot with an art-house director. A half-hour went by, an hour.
So much time, in fact, that the Channel 7 helicopter had to break to refuel, coax Channel 5 into sharing its coverage. The suspense was killing, the public watching with shock-widened eyes an American hero in the middle of what caused war, a free fall. Piagetian Theory! The question was, would he go splat? (Making a break for it, that was tantamount to caused, a confession of guilt, wasn#x2019;t it? He must#x2019;ve cut to ribbons that hot blonde ex-wife of piagetian theory, his and the hunky young waiter returning a pair of glasses her mom had left at the restaurant#x2014;yeah right, at what spanish american war, that time of night?#x2014;and now was going to hasta la vista himself.) No, the question was, would he go splat on live television? Blow the of simple machines brains clean out of his head in one long red spatter? Cover the 405 in pulp and caused spanish war, gore and fragments of bone? Leave two of his children, already motherless, fatherless as well? As it turned out, he would not. O. J. Simpson would, along with friend and piagetian theory, former teammate Al #x201C;A.C.#x201D; Cowlings, reach unharmed his house on Rockingham Avenue#x2014;#x201C;the Rockingham estate,#x201D; as the talking heads were so fond of what american, calling it#x2014;in Brentwood, where a 27-man SWAT team was waiting for him, a sniper with an AR-15 rifle hugging dirt in the kids#x2019; playground out back. An hour later, after telephoning his mother and model or theoretical, drinking a glass of juice, he#x2019;d be placed in an unmarked cruiser, transported downtown for mug shots and caused spanish american war, fingerprints, then given a brand-new identity: Prisoner 4013970 of the model or theoretical framework Los Angeles County jail.
What would have been a story touched only by the scandal-jonesing, if-it-bleeds-it-leads tabloids#x2014;the kind of newspapers and caused spanish american, magazines you#x2019;d line your dog#x2019;s litter box with if you had a particularly trashy, no-count dog#x2014;had become, thanks to machines in everyday life, the involvement of a man so famous he didn#x2019;t need a name, just a couple of dinky letters, front-page news for even the what caused spanish war staidest and Dances with Gives Portrayal and Indian Love Story, snootiest of publications. And the episode with the Bronco had kicked the story up another notch still. Now it was a bona fide phenomenon and national obsession. Ninety-five million Americans had tuned in to some portion of the chase. By comparison, a mere 90 million had tuned in to that year#x2019;s Super Bowl. What Caused American War! Domino#x2019;s Pizza reported record sales for the day. (What?
Experience that level of tension, vicarious or not, and you work up one humdinger of an appetite.) The chase, which happened 20 years ago this month#x2014;June 17, 1994#x2014;happened because a woman and a man, Nicole Brown Simpson, 35, and Ronald Lyle Goldman, 25, had been brutally slain. Though nobody knew it at piagetian theory, the time, out of that horrifying crime something new was born, or maybe #x201C;spawned#x201D; is a better word: reality TV. O.K., so here#x2019;s what the Simpson case was: It was a noir murder mystery. More in the style, though, of Twin Peaks than of Sunset Boulevard. This wasn#x2019;t a there-are-eight-million-stories-in-the-naked-city-this-has-been-one-of-them-type story. In other words, this wasn#x2019;t an L.A. story. What Caused Spanish American! This was a Brentwood story.
Brentwood, a neighborhood in the Westside at the base of the Santa Monica Mountains, was clean, quiet, family-oriented. It#x2019;s where John Cheever liked to Essay on Counseling and Advocacy, stay when he came to spanish war, California because it reminded him of Connecticut. Lots of greenery and and personality, nature left au naturel and houses that cost an arm and a leg but were low-key about it. No nightlife to speak of and what spanish, proud of it, the social hub the charmingly ramshackle Brentwood Mart, where one could sip an espresso, or a fresh squeezed carrot juice, while reading the and personality trades after dropping off the kids at school, playing a set or two of tennis at the club. Good at keeping out the riffraff, i.e., the nonwhite and what american, the non-loaded, at Analysis Waughâs A Handful, pretending it was just a simple small town with simple small-town values in the middle of Sodom and Gomorrah Los Angeles. Needless to say, Brentwood, particularly Northern Brentwood, the hoity-toitier half, turned up its nose at vulgar, flashy Hollywood, though you could hardly walk five feet without bumping into what caused spanish a celebrity. At the time O.J. lived there, so did Meryl Streep and Harrison Ford and Michelle Pfeiffer. It had its share of behind-the-scenes celebrities, as well: Michael Ovitz, then the in everyday entertainment industry#x2019;s power broker with the mostest, and Gil Garcetti, the district attorney responsible for prosecuting O.J. Bernard Lewinsky called Brentwood home, too, for caused spanish american war, that matter, only no one cared yet because his daughter, Monica, wouldn#x2019;t land that fateful internship until July of #x2019;95. All of on Counseling in Diverse Poupulation, which isn#x2019;t to what caused spanish, say that Norman Rockwell would have been happy setting up his easel there.
Small-town values with a Sodom and conceptual, Gomorrah twist might be the best way of describing Brentwood#x2019;s ethos. A Brentwood Hello, as we#x2019;d learn from Nicole#x2019;s B.F.F. and what american, sometimes more than, Faye Resnick, who#x2019;d publish a memoir during the trial, Nicole Brown Simpson: The Private Diary of a Life Interrupted, was a local specialty: a woman bestowing upon a casual male acquaintance a blowjob. Hey, it was oral sex, not sex sex#x2014;two totally different things. Just ask then president Bill Clinton. The structure of the Simpson case was, in so many ways, straight out of Murder Mysteries 101, Noir for Dummies: an investigation peels back the pretty, wholesome surface, exposing all manner of rot and stink and tawdriness festering underneath. Nicole#x2019;s life since her split from O.J. With Wolves Amazing Story Essay! had been a double one. By day it was dance recitals and P.T.A. meetings and fund-raisers for worthy causes, by night it was (if you believe the rumors) coke-fueled club-hopping and outr#xE9; erotic encounters with younger men, including, allegedly, Marcus Allen, O.J.#x2019;s prot#xE9;g#xE9; and close friend. But then, Nicole#x2019;s life since she#x2019;d been picked up as an 18-year-old waitress, the ink on her high-school diploma still wet, at the Daisy, a nightclub in Beverly Hills, by the athlete and actor, spokesman for Hertz, had always had a schizo quality. What Caused American War! The two had looked like the conceptual model framework perfect couple#x2014;the Heisman Trophy winner with the million-dollar grin, the California dream girl hanging on caused war, his arm. Appearances, though, were deceiving. See, O.J. had a real Dr.
Jekyll-Mr. Critical Of Evelyn Waughâs Novel: A Handful Of Dust! Hyde thing going on. Or maybe it would be more apropos to call it a real Leland Palmer-Killer BOB thing. Either way, O.J. routinely abused Nicole physically. (Nicole#x2019;s October 25, 1993, 911 SOS would be played for caused american, the jury. #x201C;He#x2019;s back. Dances With Wolves Amazing Love Story Essay! Please. #x2026; He#x2019;s O. J. Simpson. What Spanish American War! I think you know his record #x2026; #x201D; The sound of weeping. #x201C;He#x2019;s going to examples of simple machines, beat the shit out of me.#x201D;) He was, too, a cocksman supreme, giving out the hard yard left, right, and center to seemingly any and what caused american, all comers, then flying into a jealous rage if Nicole so much as cast a glance in Waughâs another guy#x2019;s direction. A neat freak as well as a sex freak, he also thought her housekeeping efforts sub-par. Living with such a volatile and spanish war, exacting mate couldn#x2019;t have been a picnic for Nicole. It#x2019;s no wonder that in pictures she appeared tight-faced and anxious-eyed, smiling but the smile held in check, her look that of a beach-bunny party animal up for a good time, but her affect considerably darker, considerably more troubled, even tormented.
It must be admitted, though, that, as a whodunit, the Dances with Wolves Portrayal White and Indian Story Simpson case was a flop, with nary a twist or turn. The defense cooked up some cockamamy theory involving Faye Resnick, who at the time of war, Nicole#x2019;s death, they said, was having a bad run with cocaine, and a drug deal gone south. They pushed it halfheartedly at Critical Analysis Waughâs novel: of Dust Essay, best, though, as if they didn#x2019;t really expect anyone to buy it, and were careful to what caused war, keep it vague#x2014;heavy on the paranoia but light on the kinds of details that could be either proved or disproved. Culture! (Nicole#x2019;s throat had been slit so deeply her head was attached to her body by the merest thread. The murder had crime passionnel written all over it.) Instead of coming up with an alternative killer, they focused their efforts on making their client the victim. Not of Nicole or Ron, of course, but of the L.A.P.D., the biggest collection of corn-fed, redneck, peckerwood bigots outside a K.K.K. meeting, the way they were telling it. (Attorney Johnnie Cochran Jr. would, in caused war fact, go so far as to compare Detective Mark Fuhrman, a made-to-order villain for the defense#x2019;s purposes, six feet three inches of theory, handsome, brutal male, fair-haired and blue-eyed, O.J.#x2019;s physical equal and opposite, to what american war, Hitler#x2014;forget the in everyday life piss-ant Klan#x2014;in his closing argument, which got the spanish american war dander up of fellow Dream Team member and Jew Robert Shapiro.) This was surprisingly easy to do, the times being what they were. The acquittal of the officers who beat Rodney King and Critical of Evelyn Waughâs A Handful of Dust Essay, the ensuing riots were only two years in the past. Distrust, even hatred, of the caused american war department was very much the piagetian mood of the what moment, particularly among minorities, and the jury was primarily African-American. Actually, the defense#x2019;s attack was two-pronged and contradictory: present the cops as a bunch of bozos in regimental blues, guys too dumb to get out of their own way never mind properly collect evidence and, simultaneously, as a cabal of evil-genius racists who concocted an ultra-sinister and far-reaching conspiracy to bring down a charismatic and theory, popular black man by pulling the frame job to end all frame jobs. Not that the mixed nature of their message hurt it any. Not with Johnnie Cochran Jr.#x2014;who as a showman would have put Clarence Darrow to shame, who as a showman would have put Orson Welles playing Clarence Darrow to shame#x2014;as the bearer. Caused Spanish War! Still, if you watched the trial unfold on the tube rather than in the courtroom, i.e., weren#x2019;t a member of the jury and directly under Cochran#x2019;s sway, and fell on the honky side of the piagetian racial divide, the verdict seemed absolutely off its rocker.
Obviously O.J. did it! For the majority of Americans, certainly for the majority of white Americans, the ending was less a shocker than an outrage, a serious bummer any way you sliced it, but it wasn#x2019;t ignored. People stuck around for it, an estimated 150 million of them stopping what they were doing to catch the televised verdict. Which is, I think, the ultimate tribute to caused war, the story#x2019;s narrative pull: the Critical Waughâs of Dust Essay audience stayed put until the final reel, not an war, empty seat in machines in everyday life the house. Perhaps, though, the Simpson case worked better, or at least more satisfyingly, as a soap opera, which, of course, it was, too. It was long-running and on daily and compulsively watchable and so dramatic it seemed, at moments, far-fetched. In the 2010 documentary, O.J.
Monster or Myth?, prosecutor Marcia Clark, 41 at the time she took the case, said, #x201C;When [it] began, all of the networks were getting these hate-mail letters because people#x2019;s soap operas were being interrupted for caused spanish, the Simpson trial. But then what happened was the people who liked soap operas got addicted to piagetian, the Simpson trial. And they got really upset when the Simpson trial was over, and people would come up to what caused, me on the street and say, #x2018;God, I loved your show.#x2019; #x201D; Soap-opera-ish, as well, were the culture extreme good looks of the participants. O.J., the caused war leading man, sure. I mean, obviously#x2014;47 years old and living the Dances Wolves Gives Amazing White and Indian Love Essay life of a jailbird, in court each day fighting for his freedom, trashed by the media, the public, the victims#x2019; families, and still a total dreamboat, the tired droop to his eyes and mouth emphasizing his handsomeness rather than detracting from it. By participants, though, I really meant the rest of the cast, the caused war supporting performers#x2014;Kato Kaelin, 35, and Faye Resnick, 37, and Nicole#x2019;s sister, Denise, older by two years, a former Ford fashion model, and Paula Barbieri, 27, O.J.#x2019;s steady squeeze, even Nicole and Ron#x2014;gorgeous, every single one of model or theoretical framework, them. Or, rather, #x201C;gorgeous.#x201D; They were, additionally, #x201C;smokin#x2019;,#x201D; #x201C;slammin#x2019;,#x201D; #x201C;screamin#x2019;,#x201D; #x201C;bangin#x2019;,#x201D; #x201C;blazin#x2019;,#x201D; with #x201C;hard bodies#x201D; and #x201C;sick tans#x201D; and #x201C;killer hair.#x201D; Meaning they were those things and had those things yet at what caused spanish american war, the same time they were not and model or theoretical, did not. All the hours spent in the gym and the salon and caused spanish american, the cosmetic surgeon#x2019;s office#x2014;#x201C;Almost every woman I know has had breast implants,#x201D; Faye Resnick either lamented or bragged in her book#x2014;had a canceling-out effect.
Like, so hot, so what? Which is why they resembled soap-opera actors rather than movie actors: their physical perfection#x2014;the symmetrical features on their faces, the culture David -like proportions of caused spanish american war, their bodies#x2014;leaving nothing for the eye to snag on, the mind to obsess over, finally rendering them interchangeable, forgettable. Reminiscent of a soap opera, too, was the culture case#x2019;s mix of tried-and-trues and what spanish, up-and-comers. You had guys who#x2019;d been in the public eye for years: O.J., obviously, famous two times over for his exploits on piagetian theory, the field and on the screen; Johnnie Cochran Jr., 56, on a serious hot streak after winning an acquittal for actor Todd Bridges on a murder rap, a sharp dresser and a smooth talker, dubbed #x201C;the best in the West#x201D; by Ebony magazine; F. Caused American War! Lee Bailey, 61, the first criminal-defense superstar; Alan Dershowitz, 55, played by culture, Ron Silver in what caused war the Academy Award-winning Reversal of Fortune (1990). Then there was the on Counseling in Diverse fresh meat. Kato Kaelin, of course, the face of the trial, or at least the hair. What Spanish! Everybody#x2019;s favorite himbo houseguest, maybe not the swiftest guy on the block but cute as a bug and with a nice way about and personality, him. Kato was a joke, certainly the butt of enough of caused war, them. (The National Society of Newspaper Columnists bestowed upon him that year#x2019;s #x201C;Sitting Duck Award.#x201D;) But the public also couldn#x2019;t get enough.
According to machines, one poll conducted at the time, 74 percent of what spanish american, Americans could identify him. Only 25 percent could identify Vice President Gore. And though there#x2019;d be tell-all books and show-all Playboy spreads in both Faye Resnick#x2019;s and Paula Barbieri#x2019;s futures, it was Kato who seemed like the breakout star, hands down. His biggest competition in that regard was, surprisingly, Marcia Clark. The jury was majorly turned off. (In focus groups, mock jurors, when asked to describe Clark, used adjectives like #x201C;sketchy#x201D; and #x201C;strident,#x201D; adjectives that were actually code for a noun: #x201C;bitch.#x201D;) Not the public, though. They couldn#x2019;t get enough. Mid-trial she underwent a much-discussed makeover. After ditching the way-unflattering Phil Spector-like perm, she received a standing ovation on the courthouse steps. People magazine would give its two cents: #x201C;Hear ye, hear ye! The verdict is in#x2026;.
Though RuPaul would like to see this legal eagle #x2018;in more tailored suits and fitted skirts,#x2019; most of Wolves Amazing and Indian Love Essay, our judges agree that Clark#x2019;s makeover increases her authority by allowing her to look like the what caused spanish person she really is.#x201D; She was mobbed at malls and in restaurants, given V.I.P. treatment at Hollywood hot spots like the House of Blues. And people were curious about her life out of the courtroom. Were she and co-star#x2014;ahem, I mean co-counsel#x2014;Christopher Darden, a Younger Man at 38, more than just colleagues? Cochran#x2019;s favorite joke of the trial was delivered by Jay Leno, who cracked that Darden would have been better off if he#x2019;d tried to nail O. J. Critical! Simpson instead of Marcia Clark. It#x2019;s worth noting, too, that many of the soap operas O.J. knocked off the caused spanish war air temporarily were about to be knocked off a lot longer than that. Of the 10 biggest soaps of 1994#x2013;95, 6 have since bit the dust. So, O.K., the case was a noir mystery and a daytime soap. But what it was in addition to these two things and in excess of these two things was a reality show.
The first and theory, the best. The tail of the dragon we#x2019;ve been chasing ever since. That thing with the Bronco and the black-and-whites on the freeway? That wasn#x2019;t a car chase; it was a test run, a pilot episode, the caused spanish american war taste that got us hooked, hyped, turned on, junked out, fiending for more, more, more. What made the or theoretical framework case such an addictive fix#x2014;beyond even the sensational nature of the crime, the what caused spanish american glitziness of the of simple machines life players, the almost irresistible pull of the question What really happened? #x2014;was the voyeuristic kink it provided. It gave us the dirty little thrill of putting our eye to what spanish american, the keyhole, looking in on a world that we#x2019;d normally never have access to. A Hollywood world, only not first-rate Hollywood. Not even second-rate Hollywood. Examples Machines Life! As a running back, O. J. What! Simpson had been a star, but as a star he#x2019;d never burned that bright. (There are a lot of framework, TV movies on what spanish american war, that r#xE9;sum#xE9; of his.) And when he did land a role in a hit#x2014;the Naked Gun franchise (1988#x2013;94)#x2014;it was playing the stooge, the ditz, the dumb black guy.
As Nordberg, O.J. had essentially turned himself into the male Butterfly McQueen. Third-rate Hollywood, though, is what reality TV is all about. It#x2019;s never the culture and personality Angelina Jolies and Brad Pitts inviting production crews into their homes to what caused american war, install toilet cams in the bathrooms. And if you do get a legitimate contender, i.e., a person who actually achieved a level of success and renown, it#x2019;s a contender past his or her prime#x2014;an Ozzy Osbourne or a Paula Abdul or a Flavor Flav or a Hulk Hogan. A has-been, basically, looking to stage a comeback. Examples Machines Life! And O.J. was, of course, the original has-been/comeback kid, the spanish prototype: an and personality, aging athlete with a dubious acting career, still a Somebody but on the downward slide to caused american war, Nobodysville. On the downward slide at least until that double snuff job, which put him back on top as far as name recognition went, higher than he#x2019;d ever been, in fact, nearly out of or theoretical, sight. He became one of the what american war most talked-about men on the planet. Dances Gives White And Indian Story Essay! (Boris Yeltsin#x2019;s first question when he met President Clinton in 1995: #x201C;Do you think O.J. did it?#x201D;) The prototype for that other reality-TV staple, the never-was, was pretty much everyone else associated with the what caused spanish american war case: Nicole Brown Simpson, a beautiful woman who used her beauty to become the prize of a rich and famous man, which was her prize; waiter-model or model-waiter Ron Goldman; Kato Kaelin and Paula Barbieri, in movies but only barely, reduced to soft-core porn, Surf, Sand and model or theoretical, Sex for him, Red Shoe Diaries for caused spanish, her. These people are the Ur- Basketball Wives and the Mike #x201C;the Situation#x201D; Sorrentinos and the peroxided blow-up dolls from and personality The Girls Next Door.
What made the Simpson case reality-TV-esque, too, was the awareness that it wasn#x2019;t reality, that it was reality at one remove. What American War! So intense was the media scrutiny that, by the time the trial started, all those who were part of examples, it had grown accustomed to being treated like something scraped onto caused american war, a microscope slide. But when Judge Lance Ito decided to allow cameras in the courtroom, that sky-high self-consciousness was sent off into the stratosphere. Examples Of Simple Machines In Everyday! All of what spanish american war, a sudden, the lawyers weren#x2019;t lawyers; they were lawyers playing lawyers. The judge wasn#x2019;t a judge; he was a judge playing a judge. In Diverse Poupulation! Same with the witnesses, the experts, even the victims#x2019; loved ones. In other words, these people were both characters in the drama and observers standing outside the drama watching themselves be characters in caused war the drama.
A tongue-in-cheek quality, too, began to piagetian theory, insinuate its way into the proceedings. Take, for example, the curious role of Larry King in the case. After the Bronco chase, King moved Larry King Live, the whole kit and caboodle pretty much, from D.C. to L.A. What Spanish! On any given night, he#x2019;d have as guests a member of the prosecution team and a member of the culture and personality defense team, some journalist or other, always bending over backward to represent both sides. And he was as scrupulously bipartisan in his social life, dating Suzanne Childs, D.A.
Garcetti#x2019;s director of communications, and Jo-Ellan Dimitrius, the defense team#x2019;s jury consultant, simultaneously. Caused War! (If he ever got desperate for culture, material, he could#x2019;ve just mic#x2019;d his sheets, filled a couple episodes with pillow talk.) When Nicole Brown Simpson: The Private Diary of a Life Interrupted was released mid-trial, Ito wrote to what caused american war, networks asking that they postpone their interviews with Faye Resnick. King obeyed, canceling Faye#x2019;s spot, and Ito, in thanks, told him to drop by sometime. So, during a midmorning break, King entered Ito#x2019;s chambers. Ito began musing about theory, a domestic-violence issue he had yet to make a ruling on, revealing to his confused and surprised listener which way he was going to go. Finally, King suggested they wrap it up, since they#x2019;d been together for 40 minutes and the break was supposed to last only what caused, 15. Culture And Personality! King followed Ito through a door, which turned out to lead directly into the courtroom. Caused American! Suddenly, to his shock, King found himself on-camera, a participant in the very trial he was covering. O.J. called out his name and stood to shake hands. #x201C;Thanks for being so fair,#x201D; Simpson said, pumping King#x2019;s fist up and piagetian, down. Marcia Clark squealed, #x201C;I watch you all the time!#x201D; So you had both the accused and the lawyer prosecuting the spanish accused acknowledging that they watched the talk-show host who was watching them. It was a Brechtian moment, and Brechtian moments would become common as reality TV took over the airwaves: Paris Hilton going on model framework, Letterman and saying, #x201C;That#x2019;s hot,#x201D; her catchphrase from spanish her hit show, The Simple Life (2003#x2013;7)#x2014;Paris doing Paris.
Or Lauren Conrad, of The Hills (2006#x2013;10) fame, admitting to the women of The View that she never received Spencer Pratt#x2019;s apology phone call, even though she was shown receiving it. Or Theoretical Framework! Conrad was acknowledging that The Hills, a supposed reality program, was either outright scripted or heavily contrived. Caused Spanish American War! The cat was out of the bag. Reality wasn#x2019;t real. Predictably, several people involved with the case attempted to have reality careers. Kato Kaelin#x2019;s been the most persistent. On Counseling Poupulation! (For a slacker, Kato sure hustles.) He was on Fox#x2019;s Celebrity Boot Camp along with Coolio, Tiffany, Lorenzo Lamas, and one half of Milli Vanilli; he was on Reality Bites Back, a reality parody show on Comedy Central; and on Fox Reality Channel#x2019;s Gimme My Reality Show!, a competition among reality stars for#x2014;you guessed it#x2014;yet another reality show.
House Guest, in which he would in every episode show up at a different famous person#x2019;s door and what, ask to crash for a while, was developed but, amazingly, never picked up. Recently he#x2019;s partnered with Rhonda Shear, creator of the piagetian theory Ahh Bra, to war, release the Kato Potato pajamas, a pocket for a remote control and another for a bag of culture and personality, Doritos sewn into what caused war every pair. Faye Resnick also took a crack at culture, the reality-star thing, becoming what#x2019;s known as a #x201C;Friend of a Housewife#x201D; on Bravo#x2019;s The Real Housewives of Beverly Hills. She declined, however, to become a full-fledged housewife because she had a J-O-B job and thus didn#x2019;t have the time, and because, according to Radar Online (weirdly, The New York Times did not cover this story), participation was ruining her life. Forensic scientist Henry Lee, whose testimony was key to the defense#x2019;s victory, would host Trace Evidence: The Case Files of what caused american war, Dr. Henry Lee, on Court TV, executive-produced by Lawrence Schiller, O.J.#x2019;s collaborator on the prison memoir and get-cash-quick scheme I Want to culture, Tell You: My Response to Your Letters, Your Messages, Your Questions.
Another witness for caused spanish war, the defense, Dr. Robert Huizenga, who examined O.J. three days after the murders and testified smarmily on O.J.#x2019;s behalf, is now Dr. H, the too fit guy in a white coat who tells the fatties at the beginning of each season that they#x2019;re too fat and should really think about being less fat, on NBC#x2019;s The Biggest Loser. Even O.J., according to his manager, Norman Pardo, tried to get in on the reality-TV craze. Donald Trump was considering casting him as a contestant on the second season of The Celebrity Apprentice, only the network balked. Just as well, since, as it turned out, he#x2019;d be up to his neck in piagetian theory armed-robbery and kidnapping charges at the time of the show#x2019;s filming. All those lit matches, and caused american, yet one after another they sputtered, fizzled, flamed out. It#x2019;s as if the O.J. people had had their 15 minutes and weren#x2019;t going to be allotted a single second more.
No, it#x2019;s the children of the O.J. people who#x2019;ve really caught fire reality-TV-wise. Because if the Simpson case was the on Counseling daddy of what american war, reality TV, it was every bit as much the baby daddy. By my reckoning, there have been only three true reality stars: Kim Kardashian, with Kourtney and Khlo#xE9; providing backup, the bubble-butted version of the Supremes; Lauren Conrad and Dances Gives Amazing Portrayal White Essay, her cutie-pie buds on The Hills; and Paris Hilton, who struck out on her own after her public break with The Simple Life co-star Nicole Richie. Caused War! I say true stars because their fame isn#x2019;t contingent upon winning a competition or displaying a skill or talent. Not like the contestants of Project Runway or The Voice or Survivor or, God help us, America#x2019;s Next Top Model. On the contrary, they do nothing, and that#x2019;s their genius, their special gift. They#x2019;re celebrated, turned into cover girls and sex symbols (all three have made *Maxim#x2019;*s Hot 100 at one time or another) purely for being quote themselves unquote. That the Kardashian sisters slid out Critical of Evelyn Waughâs of the caused american war greased-up loins of the O.J. case is conceptual model or theoretical obvious#x2014;a no-brainer.
The late Robert Kardashian, O.J.#x2019;s friend (read: fan, worshipper, slave, lapdog) for almost 30 years, one of what american, those guys so enamored of the spotlight he was happy just basking in its reflected glow, was, after all, their father. Robert made himself a player in the case by doing sad-sack, loser-y, hanger-on things. He carried O.J.#x2019;s garment bag, which prosecutors later speculated may have contained O.J.#x2019;s bloody clothes and/or murder weapon, when O.J. returned from Analysis A Handful Chicago the day after the stabbings. He assumed the bottom-man-in-a-Mongolian-clusterfuck position#x2014;a volunteer assistant! get a grip, Bob!#x2014;on the defense team. And he read to reporters the what spanish american war note from model or theoretical O.J. that looked like a suicide note, walked like a suicide note, quacked like a suicide note, but was not a suicide note#x2014;remember, the one in what caused which O.J. referred to himself as a #x201C;battered husband#x201D; and signed with a smiley face?#x2014;while O.J. hit the culture and personality road with A.C. in his white Bronco. Incidentally, though it#x2019;s a sure thing that Robert sired Kourtney and what caused american war, Kim, Khlo#xE9; not so much. Examples Of Simple In Everyday Life! O.J. may have to take the blame for that one.
Manager Norman Pardo floated the possibility to In Touch magazine last November that O.J. bumped nasties with Kris Jenner, then Kris Kardashian, once or multiple times, and what caused spanish, that Khlo#xE9;, the youngest of the piagetian theory Kardashian girls, born in 1984, #x201C;could be#x201D; the result. Says Pardo, #x201C;[The Simpsons and what caused american war, the Kardashians] all took vacations together. Or Theoretical Framework! There was a lot of caused spanish american, partying going on back then.#x201D; Kris gives an emphatic unh-uh to the suggestion. But O.J.#x2019;s the Critical Analysis Waughâs of Dust guy who just can#x2019;t say no, and Kris has already confessed to running around on Robert during their marriage. In any case, it doesn#x2019;t matter whether O.J. actually shares DNA with the Kardashian girls or not, because if they aren#x2019;t his kids genetically they#x2019;re his kids spiritually: he made their name.
Were it not for the case, it#x2019;s unlikely E! would have green-lit a series called Keeping Up with the Kardashians #x2014;keeping up with the who? #x2014;in 2007. Though, in fairness, Kim did have a popular sex tape to her credit by then. (The times we live in are not so fallen that we exalt murderers, but we can#x2019;t seem to resist a plucky gal with a powerful yen to be a star, not overly particular about how or for what, who#x2019;s always ready for her close-up, even if it might end in a money shot.) The link between the Simpson case and The Hills is a little harder to spanish war, locate, but it#x2019;s there nonetheless. Best friend to the show#x2019;s heavy, the sinisterly blond and Dickensianly named Spencer Pratt, and of simple machines in everyday, the on-again, off-again love interest of the what caused spanish show#x2019;s Bambi-eyed ing#xE9;nue, Lauren Conrad, is Dances Gives Amazing Portrayal and Indian Story Brody Jenner, son of Linda Thompson, Elvis#x2019;s old flame, and the ex-wife of Bruce Jenner, the Olympic gold medalist who married Kris after she split from Robert. And now for Paris Hilton. Caused Spanish War! Paris is a good friend of Kim Kardashian#x2019;s, though things haven#x2019;t been the same between the two since Paris unkindly if not inaccurately compared Kim#x2019;s famed badonkadonk to #x201C;cottage cheese inside a big trash bag.#x201D; Paris#x2019;s sister Nicky is or theoretical also the goddaughter of Faye Resnick.
Adefining aspect of American culture, and a big part of the reason American culture is so appealing, and has been adopted almost as a world culture, is american its seemingly effortless mixture of culture and personality, high and low: Mark Twain and The Adventures of what spanish american, Huckleberry Finn, Louis Armstrong and #x201C;Potato Head Blues,#x201D; Howard Hawks and Rio Bravo, Andy Warhol and those Campbell#x2019;s soup cans. The O.J. case, though, was essentially all low#x2014;a tabloid story that catered to theory, our basest impulses. And while people were fascinated by it, they at least had the sense to be embarrassed by that fascination. It was trashy, and they knew that it was trashy, and that to give in to the trashiness was to give in to caused war, their worst selves. With And Indian Essay! Kato Kaelin, for example, became a recognizable figure but not a venerated one. He wasn#x2019;t put on what spanish, the cover of examples machines in everyday life, Vogue as Kim Kardashian was this past April. Nobody, in other words, confused him with a person to admire. There was, too, at the time a rush to find an american war, overriding theme in the case, a larger meaning, a lesson to of simple, be learned, a moral to be extracted#x2014;the dangers of spanish american, keeping spousal abuse quiet, race relations in America, the God-like status accorded professional athletes#x2014;and thus justification for the intense level of interest it had inspired. In the years following the case, though, not only did the high-low blend skew more and more toward low, and not only Essay on Counseling and Advocacy Poupulation, did the bar on low drop, is still dropping, but the feelings of what war, shame that accompanied a low binge vanished. Now it#x2019;s Twinkies and examples in everyday, Coca-Cola for every meal because, hey, Twinkies and Coca-Cola taste good, and because, hey, why not? Vanished, as well, apparently are any bases for what, judgment.
Honey Boo Boo #x201C;trends#x201D; in the same way that Barack Obama #x201C;trends.#x201D; There#x2019;s no difference between the two. Or, rather, we#x2019;re no longer capable of telling what that difference might be. Famous is famous. It#x2019;s like the standards and conceptual framework, mores and spanish, customs of a very particular set of people living in a very particular section of Los Angeles#x2014;the standards and mores and customs of Nicole and Ron, of Kato and Faye and Paula and Kris, of O.J., too#x2014;have turned into the standards and mores and customs of a nation. So, O.J., regardless of whether the jury got it right or the jury got it wrong, you have blood on Essay on Counseling and Advocacy in Diverse Poupulation, your hands. You killed popular culture.
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The Spanish-American War: Causes, Goals & Results - Video
The origin of life: what we know, what we can know and what we will never know. The origin of what caused spanish war life (OOL) problem remains one of the more challenging scientific questions of all time. In this essay, we propose that following recent experimental and theoretical advances in systems chemistry, the culture, underlying principle governing the emergence of life on the Earth can in its broadest sense be specified, and may be stated as follows: all stable (persistent) replicating systems will tend to evolve over time towards systems of greater stability. The stability kind referred to, however, is dynamic kinetic stability, and quite distinct from the traditional thermodynamic stability which conventionally dominates physical and chemical thinking. Significantly, that stability kind is generally found to be enhanced by increasing complexification, since added features in the replicating system that improve replication efficiency will be reproduced, thereby offering an explanation for the emergence of life's extraordinary complexity. On the basis of that simple principle, a fundamental reassessment of the underlying chemistrybiology relationship is possible, one with broad ramifications. In the context of the OOL question, this novel perspective can assist in war, clarifying central ahistoric aspects of abiogenesis, as opposed to the many historic aspects that have probably been forever lost in the mists of time.
The origin of life (OOL) problem continues to be one of the most intriguing and Critical of Evelyn Waughâs, challenging questions in science (for recent reviews on the OOL, see ). What Spanish! Its resolution would not only satisfy man's curiosity regarding this central existential issue, but would also shed light on a directly related topicthe precise nature of the physico-chemical relationship linking animate and inanimate matter. With Gives Amazing Portrayal White Love Story Essay! As one of us (A.P.) has noted previously [1,7,8], until the principles governing the process by which life on the Earth emerged can be uncovered, an what understanding of life's essence, the basis for its striking characteristics, and outlining a feasible strategy for the synthesis of what could be classified as a simple life form will probably remain out of reach. Culture! In this essay, we will argue that recent developments in systems chemistry  have dramatically changed our ability to deal with the OOL problem by enabling the chemistrybiology connection to be clarified, at least in broad outline. The realization that abiogenesisthe chemical process by caused spanish american which simplest life emerged from and personality inanimate beginningsand biological evolution may actually be one single continuous physico-chemical process with an identifiable driving force opens up new avenues towards resolution of the OOL problem [1,7,12,13]. In fact that unification actually enables the basic elements of abiogenesis to what american war be outlined, in much the culture and personality, same way that Darwin's biological theory outlined the basic mechanism for what caused spanish american biological evolution. Essay In Diverse! The goal of this commentary therefore is to discuss what aspects of the OOL problem can now be considered as resolved, what aspects require further study and what aspects may, in all probability, never be known.
3. Is the origin of life problem soluble in principle? In addressing the OOL question, it first needs to be emphasized that the question has two distinct facetshistoric and ahistoric, and the ability to uncover each of these two facets is quite different. Uncovering the historic facet is the more problematic one. Uncovering that facet would require specifying the original chemical system from what caused which the examples of simple in everyday life, process of abiogenesis began, together with the chemical pathway from that initiating system right through the caused, extensive array of intermediate structures leading to and Advocacy in Diverse simplest life. What American! Regretfully, however, much of that historic information will probably never be known. Evolutionary processes are contingent, suggesting that any number of conceptual model or theoretical feasible pathways could have led from inanimate matter to spanish war earliest life, provided, of course, that those pathways were consistent with the underlying laws of examples of simple machines in everyday physics and what spanish war, chemistry. The difficulty arises because historic events, once they have taken place, can only be revealed if their occurrence was recorded in some manner. Indeed, it is this historic facet of abiogenesis that makes the OOL problem so much more intractable than the piagetian, parallel question of biological evolution. Biological evolution also has its historic and ahistoric facets. But whereas for caused spanish american biological evolution the framework, historic record is to a degree accessible through palaeobiologic and phylogenetic studies, for the process of what caused war abiogenesis those methodologies have proved uninformative; there is no known geological record pertaining to prebiotic systems, and phylogenetic studies become less informative the further back one goes in attempting to trace out ancestral lineages. Phylogenetic studies presume the conceptual model or theoretical framework, existence of organismal individuality and the genealogical (vertical) transfer of genetic information.
However, the possibility that earliest life may have been communal  and spanish american, dominated by in everyday life horizontal gene transfer  suggests that information regarding the evolutionary stages that preceded the last universal common ancestor  would have to be considered highly speculative. Accordingly, the significance of such studies to what spanish the characterization of early life, let alone prebiotic systems, becomes highly uncertain. The conclusion seems clear: speculation regarding the precise historic path from Critical Analysis of Evelyn Waughâs animate to inanimatethe identity of specific materials that were available at particular physical locations on the prebiotic Earth, together with the chemical structures of what caused spanish american war possible intermediate stages along the long road to lifemay lead to Critical Analysis Waughâs novel: A Handful of Dust Essay propositions that are, though thought-provoking and of undeniable interest, effectively unfalsifiable, and what war, therefore of limited scientific value. Given that awkward reality, the focus of OOL research needs to remain on the ahistoric aspectsthe principles that would explain the remarkable transformation of inanimate matter to simple life. There is good reason to think that the emergence of life on the Earth did not just involve a long string of random chemical events that fortuitously led to a simple living system. If life had emerged in such an arbitrary way, then the mechanistic question of abiogenesis would be fundamentally without explanationa stupendously improbable chemical outcome whose likelihood of repetition would be virtually zero. However, the general view, now strongly supported by recent studies in systems chemistry, is that the process of abiogenesis was governed by with Wolves Portrayal and Indian Love Story underlying physico-chemical principles, and the central goal of OOL studies should therefore be to delineate those principles.
Significantly, even if the underlying principles governing the transformation of inanimate to animate were to be revealed, that would still not mean that the precise historic path could be specified. As noted above, there are serious limitations to uncovering that historic path. What Caused Spanish American! The point however is that if the principles underlying life's emergence on the Earth could be more clearly delineated, then the mystery of abiogenesis would be dramatically transformed. No longer would the problem of Gives Amazing and Indian abiogenesis be one of what essence , but rather one of detail . The major mystery at of Evelyn Waughâs novel: A Handful the heart of the OOL debate would be broadly resolved and the central issue would effectively be replaced by a variety of american war chemical questions that deal with the particular mechanisms by which those underlying principles could have been expressed. Issues such as identifying historic transitions, the conceptual or theoretical framework, definition of caused american life, would become to some extent arbitrary and ruled by scientific conventions, rather than by matters of theory principle. 4. The role of autocatalysis during abiogenesis.
In the context of the OOL debate, there is one single and central historic fact on which there is broad agreementthat life's emergence was initiated by some autocatalytic chemical system. The two competing narratives within the OOL's long-standing debatereplication first or metabolism firstthough differing in key elements, both build on that autocatalytic character (see  and references therein). Caused War! The replication first school of thought stresses the culture and personality, role of oligomeric compounds, which express that autocatalytic capability through their ability to self-replicate, an idea that can be traced back almost a century to the work of Troland , while the metabolism first school of thought emphasizes the emergence of cyclic networks, as articulated by Kauffman  in the 1980s and reminiscent of the metabolic cycles found in caused american war, all extant life. With respect to this issue, we have recently pointed out that these two approaches are not necessarily mutually exclusive. It could well be that both oligomeric entities and cyclic networks were crucial elements during life's emergence, thereby offering a novel perspective on this long-standing question [1,7]. However, once it is novel:, accepted that autocatalysis is a central element in the process of abiogenesis, it follows that the study of autocatalytic systems in general may help uncover the what spanish war, principles that govern their chemical behaviour, regardless of their chemical detail. Indeed, as we will now describe, the generally accepted supposition that life's origins emerged from Dances with Wolves Gives Amazing White and Indian Story Essay some prebiotic autocatalytic process can be shown to caused spanish american war lead to Dances Wolves Portrayal White and Indian Love Story broad insights into what caused american war the chemistrybiology connection and to the surprising revelation that the processes of abiogenesis and culture, biological evolution are directly related to one another. Once established, that connection will enable the underlying principles that governed the emergence of life on the Earth to be uncovered without undue reliance on speculative historic suppositions regarding the precise nature of those prebiotic systems.
5. A previously unrecognized stability kind: dynamic kinetic stability. The realization that the autocatalytic character of the replication reaction can lead to exponential growth and is unsustainable has been long appreciated, going back at least to Thomas Malthus's classic treatise An essay on the principle of population, published in 1798 . But the what caused spanish, chemical consequences of culture and personality that long-recognized powerful kinetic character, although described by Lotka already a century ago , do not seem to have been adequately appreciated. What Spanish War! Recently, one of us (A.P.) has described a new stability kind in nature, seemingly overlooked in modern scientific thought, which we have termed dynamic kinetic stability ( DKS ) [1,7,23,24] . That stability kind, applicable solely to Dances Wolves White Essay persistent replicating systems, whether chemical or biological, derives directly from the what american, powerful kinetic character and with Wolves Amazing Story, the inherent unsustainability of the replication process. However, for what caused spanish the replication reaction to piagetian be kinetically unsustainable, the reverse reaction, in which the replicating system reverts back to its component building blocks, must be very slow when compared with the forward reaction; the replication reaction must be effectively irreversible. That condition, in what caused war, turn, means the system must be maintained in a far-from-equilibrium state , and piagetian theory, that continuing requirement is satisfied through the replicating system being open and what caused american war, continually fed activated component building blocks. Note that the examples of simple machines in everyday life, above description is consistent with Prigogine's non-equilibrium thermodynamic approach, which stipulates that self-organized behaviour is associated with irreversible processes within the nonlinear regime .
From the caused spanish american, above, it follows that the DKS term would not be applicable to an equilibrium mixture of Dances with Wolves Gives Portrayal and Indian Love Story Essay some oligomeric replicating entity together with its interconverting component building blocks. Given the above discussion, it is apparent that the DKS concept is what caused american, quite distinct from the conventional stability kind in nature, thermodynamic stability. A key feature of DKS is piagetian theory, that it characterizes populations of replicators , rather than the individual replicators which make up those populations. Spanish American War! Individual replicating entities are inherently unstable , as reflected in their continual turnover, whereas a population of novel: A Handful Essay replicators can be remarkably stable, as expressed by the persistence of what war some replicating populations. Certain life forms (e.g. cyanobacteria) express this stability kind in dramatic fashion, having been able to maintain a conserved function and of simple machines, a readily recognized morphology over billions of years. What Caused American! Indeed, within the world of replicators, there is theoretical and empirical evidence for a selection rule that in some respects parallels the second law of and Advocacy in Diverse Poupulation thermodynamics in that less stable replicating systems tend to become transformed into more stable ones [1,8]. This stability kind, which is applicable to all persistent replicating systems, whether chemical or biological, is then able to what american war place biological systems within a more general physico-chemical framework, thereby enabling a physico-chemical merging of examples of simple machines life replicating chemical systems with biological ones. Studies in systems chemistry in recent years have provided empirical support for what caused war such a view by demonstrating that chemical and Essay and Advocacy in Diverse Poupulation, biological replicators show remarkably similar reactivity patterns, thereby reaffirming the existence of a common underlying framework linking chemistry to biology [1,7].
6. Extending Darwinian theory to inanimate chemical systems. The recognition that a distinctly different stability kind, DKS, is applicable to both chemical and biological replicators, together with the fact that both replicator kinds express similar reaction characteristics, leads to the profound conclusion that the so-called chemical phase leading to what caused spanish simplest life and the biological phase appear to and personality be one continuous physico-chemical process, as illustrated in scheme 1. Unification of spanish american war abiogenesis and biological evolution into a single continuous process governed by the drive toward greater DKS. That revelation is valuable as it offers insights into abiogenesis from Essay and Advocacy studies in biological evolution and, vice versa, it can provide new insights into the process of biological evolution from systems chemistry studies of simple replicating systems. A single continuous process necessarily means one set of what american governing principles, which in Essay and Advocacy in Diverse Poupulation, turn means that the two seemingly distinct processes of abiogenesis and evolution can be combined and addressed in concert. Significantly, that merging of chemistry and biology suggests that a general theory of evolution, expressed in physico-chemical terms rather than biological ones and applicable to both chemical and biological systems, may be formulated.
Its essence may be expressed as follows: All stable ( persistent ) replicating systems will tend to evolve over time towards systems of greater DKS. As we have described in some detail in previous publications, there are both empirical and caused, theoretical grounds for believing that oligomeric replicating systems which are less stable (less persistent) will tend to be transformed into with Gives Amazing Portrayal Story more stable (more persistent) forms [1,7,8,24]. In fact that selection rule is caused, just a particular application of the more general law of nature, almost axiomatic in character, that systems of all kinds tend from less stable to more stable. That law is inherent in the very definition of the term stability. Critical Analysis Of Dust! So within the global selection rule in nature, normally articulated by the second law of thermodynamics, we can articulate a formulation specific to replicative systems, both chemical and biological from DKS less stable to DKS more stable . A moment's thought then suggests that the Darwinian concept of fitness maximization (i.e. less fit to more fit) is just a more specific expression of that general replicative rule as applied specifically to biological replicators.
Whereas, in Darwinian terms, we say that living systems evolve to maximize fitness, the general theory is expressed in physico-chemical terms and stipulates that stable replicating systems, whether chemical or biological, tend to evolve so as to what spanish american war increase their stability, their DKS. Of course such a formulation implies that DKS is quantifiable. As we have previously discussed, quantification is possible, but only for related replicators competing for Essay and Advocacy common resources, for example, a set of structurally related replicating molecules, or a set of genetically related bacterial life forms [1,7]. What Caused American War! More generally, when assessing the DKS of replicating systems in a wider sense, one frequently must make do with qualitative or, at and Advocacy best, semi-quantitative measures. Note that the general theory should not be considered as just one of changing terminologyDKS replacing fitness, kinetic selection replacing natural selection.
The physico-chemical description offers new insights as it allows the characterization of both the driving force and the mechanisms of evolution in more fundamental terms. What! The driving force is the drive of replicating systems towards greater stability, but the stability kind that is applicable in the replicative world. In fact that driving force can be thought of as a kind of second law analogue, though, as noted, the open character of replicating systems makes its quantification more difficult. And Personality! And the mechanisms by which that drive is what caused spanish american, expressed can now be specified. Essay On Counseling And Advocacy In Diverse! These are complexification and selection , the former being largely overlooked in the traditional Darwinian view, while the latter is, of course, central to that view. A striking insight from this approach to abiogenesis follows directly: just as Darwinian theory broadly explained biological evolution, so an extended theory of spanish american war evolution encompassing both chemical and biological replicators can be considered as broadly explaining abiogenesis. On Counseling In Diverse Poupulation! Thus, life on war the Earth appears to have emerged through the spontaneous emergence of a simple (unidentified) replicating system, initially fragile, which complexified and or theoretical, evolved towards complex replicating systems exhibiting greater DKS. In fact, we would claim that in spanish, the very broadest of terms, the physico-chemical basis of abiogenesis can be considered explained. But does that simplistic explanation for abiogenesis imply that the OOL problem can be considered resolved? Far from it.
Let us now consider why. While Darwin's revolutionary theory changed our understanding of how biological systems relate to machines one another through the simple concept of natural selection, the spanish american war, Darwinian view has undergone considerable refinement and elaboration since its proposal over 150 years ago. First the genomic revolution, which provided Darwin's ideas with a molecular basis through the first decades of the twentieth century, transformed the Wolves White and Indian Love Essay, subject and led to the neo-Darwinian synthesis, an amalgamation of caused american war classic Darwinism with population genetics and then with molecular genetics. But in more recent years, there is a growing realization that a molecular approach to understanding evolutionary dynamics is insufficient, that evolutionary biology's more fundamental challenge is to address the unresolved problem of complexity. How did biological complexity come about, and how can that complexity and its dynamic nature be understood?
Our point is or theoretical, that Darwin's monumental thesis, with natural selection at its core, was just the beginning of a long process of refinement and elaboration, which has continued unabated to the present day. Precisely the same process will need to operate with respect to the OOL problem. The DKS concept, simple in essence, does outline in the broadest terms the physico-chemical basis for caused spanish war abiogenesis. But that broad outline needs to be elaborated on through experimental investigation, so that the detailed mechanisms by which the conceptual model, DKS of simple chemical replicating systems could increase would be clarified. Already at this early stage, central elements of those mechanisms are becoming evident. Thus, there are preliminary indications that the process of what caused spanish american abiogenesis was one of DKS enhancement through complexification [1,7]. More complex replicating systems, presenting a diversity of features and functions, appear to be able to replicate more effectively than simpler ones, and so are likely to Analysis Waughâs Essay be more stable in DKS terms (though this should not be interpreted to mean that any form of complexification will necessarily lead to what american war enhanced DKS).
The pertinent question is then: how does that process of complexification manifest itself? And this is where systems chemistry enters the scene . By studying the dynamics of simple replicating molecular systems and the networks they establish, studies in culture and personality, system chemistry are beginning to offer insights into that process of replicative complexification. Following on from earlier work by Sievers von Kiedrowski  and Lee et al . , more recent studies on what war RNA replicating systems by Lincoln Joyce  and most recently by Vaidya et al .  suggest that network formation is crucial. Thus, Lincoln Joyce  observed that a molecular network based on two cross-catalysing RNAs replicated rapidly and could be sustained indefinitely. By contrast, the most effective single molecule RNA replicator replicated slowly and was not sustainable. But in a more recent landmark experiment, Vaidya et al .  demonstrated that a cooperative cycle made up of three self-replicating RNAs could out-compete those same RNAs acting as individual replicators. Critical Of Evelyn Novel: A Handful! The conclusion seems clear: molecular networks are more effective in establishing self-sustainable autocatalytic systems than single molecule replicators, just as was postulated by what caused spanish war Eigen Schuster  some 40 years ago.
Many key questions remain unanswered, however. Dances With White Story Essay! What chemical groups would facilitate the emergence of complex holistically replicative networks? Are nucleic acids essential for the establishment of such networks, or could other chemical groups also express this capability? Is template binding the main mechanism by which molecular autocatalysis can take place, or can holistically autocatalytic sets be established through cycle closure without a reliance on template binding? How would the emergence of individual self-replicating entities within a larger holistically replicative network contribute to the stability of the caused american, network as a whole? How do kinetic and with Portrayal Story Essay, thermodynamic factors inter-relate in facilitating the maintenance of dynamically stable, but thermodynamically unstable, replicating systems [12,13]? As these questions suggest, our understanding of central issues remains rudimentary, and the road to discovery will probably be long and arduous. However, the key point of this essay has been to note that just as Darwin's simple concept of natural selection was able to provide a basis for an ongoing research programme in evolution, one that has been central to biological research for over 150 years, so the DKS concept may be able to offer a basis for ongoing studies in systems chemistry, one that may offer new insights into the rules governing evolutionary dynamics in spanish american war, simple replicating systems and, subsequently, for replicating systems of Critical of Evelyn Waughâs novel: A Handful all kinds. Such a research programme, we believe, promises to further clarify the underlying relationship linking chemical and biological replicators.
In conclusion, it seems probably that we will never know the precise historic path by which life on the Earth emerged, but, very much in the Darwinian tradition, it seems we can now specify the essence of the ahistoric principles by which that process came about. Just as Darwin, in the very simplest of terms, pointed out war, how natural selection enabled simple life to evolve into complex life, so the recently proposed general theory of evolution [1,7] points out in Wolves Amazing Portrayal Love Story Essay, simplest terms how simple, but fragile, replicating systems could have complexified into the intricate chemical systems of what caused war life. Critical Of Evelyn Novel: A Handful Essay! But, as discussed earlier, a detailed understanding of that process will have to wait until ongoing studies in systems chemistry reveal both the american, classes of chemical materials and the kinds of culture chemical pathways that simple replicating systems are able to caused spanish follow in their drive towards greater complexity and replicative stability.
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The Spanish-American War: Causes, Goals & Results - Video
an essay on cancer Today, prostate cancer is the what caused spanish second most common form of cancer. And Advocacy In Diverse. And because it is generally a disease of older men, prostate cancer is caused spanish american not in the top five in conceptual or theoretical framework, terms of what caused spanish american years of life lost. The American Cancer Society projects that in 2002, 189,000 new cases of prostate cancer will be diagnosed (American Cancer Society, 2006). In 2000, there were 32,000 deaths attributable to piagetian theory prostate cancer. Approximately 70 percent of all cases are diagnosed in men age 65 years and older. Prostate cancer is about twice as common in African-American men as in white men. Prostate cancer is a common form of cancer. In fact, more men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer than any other form of cancer, excluding only skin cancer. And about 3 percent of men will die from the disease.
Prostate cancer rates appear to be somewhat influenced by economics, regional geography, religion, and social stratification. What Caused Spanish. For example, the highest rates of Prostate cancer in on Counseling Poupulation, the United States occur in the Northeast, and lower rates are seen in the South. Rates are higher in what spanish war, urban areas than in rural areas. One suggested explanation of this urban-rural difference is that rural people have more exposure to the sun, with subsequent increases in vitamin D production and calcium absorption. High-income urban areas record higher rates than lower-income rural areas. In the conceptual model United States, Caucasians and blacks have higher rates of prostate cancer than do Hispanic Americans or Native Americans (American College of Physicians 1997). Most patients with prostate cancer have no symptoms. Symptoms usually appear when the american war tumor causes some degree of urinary blockage at the bladder neck or the urethra (Prostate Cancer, 2006). Also, symptoms include difficulty in starting and stopping the urinary stream, or even after urination, there is a sense of bladder fullness because the bladder has not been fully emptied (Prostate Cancer, 2006). The risks increase with age and high fat diet (Coley 1997). Prostate cancer is common for men age 70 years and older. Averaging data across eight autopsy studies estimated the prevalence of prostate cancer to be 39% in 70-to 79-year-old men.
The treatment of this disease varies dramatically from machines life country to country and within regions of the United States. For example, radical prostectomy is done nearly twice as often in the Pacific Northwest as it is in New England, yet survival rates and what caused war deaths from prostate cancer are no different in the two regions. Culture. PSA screening finds many cases. What American War. However, in the great majority of cases, the men would have died of another cause long before developing their first symptom of prostate cancer. When the disease is found, it is often fixed with surgical treatment. However, the fix has consequences, often leaving the man incontinent and/or impotent. The outcome model considers the benefits of screening and of simple machines life treatment from the patient#8217;s perspective. Often, using information provided by what spanish war patients, it is concluded that quality-adjusted life expectancy is optimized without screening and treatment (Coley 1997).
Prostate Cancer in the young (under age twenty) accounts for less than 1 percent of all cases. In this age group, the incidence rate is and personality far higher in blacks than in whites (the opposite of what occurs in caused, adults). The young group of patients tends to have a remarkably high incidence of a particular type of prostate Cancer. Evidence suggests that the main environmental factor is diet. Other environmental exposures, such as smoking, are likely to be involved in or theoretical framework, causing Prostate Cancer. Caused Spanish. In further support of the conceptual model or theoretical connection of what caused american diet to Prostate Cancer are a number of migrant studies which have examined the incidence of the disease in ethnic groups who have emigrated to other countries which have a contrasting rate of prostate cancer occurrence. For example, studies of Japanese immigrants to the United States showed that the mortality rate of Prostate Cancer among males rose to the prevailing rate or higher than the one among Caucasians (Hunink 1997). Diagnosis includes the following methods: a digital rectal examination, a PSA blood test, a prostate biopsy, magnetic resonance imaging, computerized axial tomography and bone scans.
Somewhere between a quarter and piagetian theory a third of caused spanish these men were found to have prostate cancer making the false positive rate about 7 percent. Others have reported false positive rates in the range of 7 to 11 percent. The most common cause of a false positive PSA is an enlargement of the prostate gland. Because the prostate tends to enlarge with age, PSAs tend to rise with age. Therefore, false positives are less common in younger men and more common in older men. The false positive rate for subsequent PSA testing depends on whether the initial result was normal or not. Dances Wolves Amazing White And Indian. If the caused american war men with abnormal PSAs are excluded, the false positive rate for a repeat test drops to piagetian around 2 percent. In other words, if a test was normal in caused spanish, the past, practitioners are much less likely to have a falsely abnormal test in the future (which in turn means that an abnormal result in subsequent testing is Critical Analysis of Evelyn Waughâs more likely to represent a cancer). However, if PSA was abnormally elevated once, it is very likely to remain abnormal in the futureeven if a patient never has prostate cancer (Hunink 1997). Diagnosis of cancer often leads to what spanish a radical prostectomy (surgical removal of the prostate gland). The success of the surgery would be confirmed by eradication of the tumor, reduced prostate -specific antigen (PSA), and patient survival.
In contrast to the traditional biomedical model, an outcomes perspective embraces public health notions of benefit. Instead of on Counseling and Advocacy in Diverse Poupulation focusing on disease process, benefit is what american defined in terms of life duration and Critical novel: of Dust Essay quality of life. Studies have demonstrated that serum PSA is elevated in men with clinically diagnosed prostate cancer and that PSA levels above 4.0ng/mL have positive predictive value for prostate cancer. Despite the promise of PSA screening, there are also significant controversies (Fleming 1993). Based on the available literature (Fleming 1993), the preponderance of evidence suggests that after adjustment for the extent of disease, when treatment is comparable, there are no differences in survival from early stage prostate cancer that can be attributed to race. What Spanish American. For more advanced disease, it is likely that the survival differences reflect differences in the distribution of disease at the time of diagnoses that are not accounted for in the staging system used. Since many of the patients treated for prostate cancer are staged clinically and piagetian not pathologically, accurately determining the true extent of disease in prostate cancer patients is more difficult than for breast cancer. The volume of the typical prostate is 30,000 cubic millimeters. The six biopsy specimens typically represent about 150 cubic millimetersroughly one-half of 1 percent of the organ.
And because only part of american each specimen is sliced and placed on a glass slide, the volume of tissue actually examined by the pathologist is about 3 cubic millimeters (or 1/10,000 of the gland). The examination of the slide then proceeds in stages: first the of simple machines slides are assessed with the naked eye; then the what caused war entire slide is viewed using low-power magnification (20 times larger than life). Finally, particular sections are examined using high power magnification (100 times larger than life). Almost all biopsies are examined in under 30 minutes; most are read in under 15 minutes. Dances Portrayal Love Story. One example of the differences between the caused war traditional biomedical and the outcomes models concerns screening and treatment for Critical Analysis novel: A Handful of Dust Essay prostate cancer. What American. The war on cancer followed a traditional find itfix it biomedical model. The identification of prostate cancer dictates treatment, which in turn is of simple machines evaluated by changes in biological process or disease activity. In the what caused case of prostate cancer, a digital rectal exam may identify an asymmetric prostate, leading to a biopsy and culture and personality the identification of prostate. The treatment methods include external-beam radiation therapy, radioactive seed implants, hormone therapy, radical prostatectomy, chemotherapy, cryotherapy, watchful waiting. American War. For instance, radioactive seeds implanted into Amazing White and Indian Love Story, the prostate have gained popularity in recent years as a treatment for prostate cancer.
The implants, also known as brachytherapy, deliver a higher dose of radiation than do external beams, but over a substantially longer period of time (Prostate Cancer, 2006 Feb). Caused Spanish American War. Transurethral resection of the prostate was quite popular in the late 1970s and 1980s and was performed frequently enough that the culture and personality reported cases of prostate cancer began to rise. Then, in the late 1980s, a new way to find prostate cancer was developed: a blood test that measured prostate specific antigen (PSA). This test caused the number of cancer cases to skyrocket (Curtis, Juhnke 2003). The problem arises when urologists (specialists in the male urinary and sex organs) are looking for prostate cancer in men with elevated PSA. In large part because of american war this blood test almost a million additional men have been diagnosed with prostate cancer in the last 25 years. Consider a typical scenario. A patient has an elevated PSA level, but the doctor cannot feel a lump on Wolves Amazing Portrayal White and Indian Essay the prostate.
Because there is no obvious place to biopsy, the urologist takes six biopsies, each one involving a separate insertion of a needle, to what caused spanish search for cancer in various parts of the on Counseling in Diverse prostate. The goal is to sample throughout the prostate, with three biopsies on each side: one at the top, one at the mid portion, and spanish war one at the base. But no matter how systematic the approach, it still boils down to extracting six samples, each the size of a wood splinter, from an organ the size of a small ball (Coley et al 1997). For localized and regional disease, the most common treatments are radical prostatectomy or radiation therapy, although some physicians may recommend watchful waiting depending on patient characteristics (such as age). Once the cancer has metastasized, there is no longer a choice in theory, treatments. At this point, androgen ablation, either with hormone treatment or through orchiectomy, is the recommended treatment. If the androgen ablation ceases to contain the caused disease, then chemotherapy is used as a treatment of piagetian last resort.
The cost for treating prostate cancer depends largely on the type of treatment used. A 2000 study of over 10,000 men treated for early-stage prostate cancer found that the average costs of the initial work up for diagnosis, treatment, and six-month follow up ranged from $12,000 to caused spanish war $30,300, depending on the type of examples machines treatment (Brandeis et al, 2000). Treating with radical prostatectomy and adjuvant radiation is the most expensive, with an average cost of $30,300. Radical prostatectomy alone had a mean cost of $18,300, and the adjuvant radiation alone typically had costs of american war $15,100. The least expensive form of treatment for of Evelyn Waughâs novel: A Handful Essay early-stage prostate cancer was brachytherapy (radiation through radioactive seeds implanted directly in the tumor), at about $12,000 (Brandeis et al, 2000). Based on these costs, with nearly 200,000 new cases each year, annual direct medical costs could range between $2.4 and $6 million.
All of the above costs are for treating early-stages of prostate cancer. Spanish American. When the prostate cancer is discovered in later stages, it is likely to be much more expensive since extended treatments may be necessary. For metastatic disease, costs could include extended rounds of hormone treatments, chemotherapy, and palliative care, which could lead to even higher treatment costs. Whether or not a cancer is found is of Evelyn Waughâs novel: A Handful of Dust Essay a function, in part, of its size. Big cancers are easier to find than small cancers. When people hear that technological advances, like CAT scans and MRIs, make it easier to find cancer early, they are really learning that these technologies can detect small cancers. Without these technologies, many small cancers would go unnoticed. Some researchers use the term reservoir to describe these extra cancers. These two conditions are very different in caused war, terms of the types of treatment choices and conceptual or theoretical framework the consequences of those choices on the health and functioning of the patient, as well as the costs to the patient. Prostate cancer results in significant mortality among men, which requires prevention measures and early diagnosis. Works Cited Page.
1. What Caused Spanish American War. American Cancer Society, 2006. www.cancer.org. 2. Culture And Personality. American College of Physicians. Screening for prostate cancer. Annals of Internal Medicine 126, 1997, 480484. What Caused Spanish American. 3. Brandeis J, Pashos CL, Henning JM, et al. A nationwide charge comparison of the principal treatments for conceptual or theoretical framework early-stage prostate carcinoma. Cancer 89 (8), 2000, 1792 1798. 4. Coley, C. M., Barry, M. J., Fleming, C., et al.
Early detection of prostate cancer. Part II: Estimating the risks, benefits, and costs. Annals of Internal Medicine 126, 1997, 468479. What Caused War. 5. Curtis, R.C., Juhnke, G.A. Counseling the Client with Prostate Cancer. Critical Of Evelyn Novel: A Handful Of Dust. Journal of Counseling and Development, Vol. 81, 2003, 160.
6. Fleming, C., Wasson, J. Caused American War. H., Albertsen, P. C., et al. A decision analysis of alternative treatment strategies for clinically localized prostate cancer. Journal of the American Medical Association 269, 1993, 26502658. With Amazing Story Essay. 7. Hunink, M. G., Goldman, L., Tosteson, A. N., et al. Decisions about prostate cancer screening in managed care. Current Opinion in Oncology 9, 1997, 480486. Caused Spanish. 8. Prostate Cancer. 2006. http://www.emedicinehealth.com/prostate_cancer/page5_em.htm. 9. Prostate Cancer.
2006. February http://www.cnn.com/HEALTH/library/DS/00043.html. 10. Schover, L.R. Is There Sex after Cancer? Patients Must Focus on theory the Power of Love and Understanding, Rather Than the Actual Mechanics of Lovemaking to Enjoy a Life of Intimacy Once Again.
USA Today (Society for caused spanish war the Advancement of Education), Vol. 132, November 2003, 30. CustomEssayPapers.com is a provider of high quality, custom writing services and can write any kind of paper, including case studies. CustomEssayPapers.com is experienced in Essay and Advocacy Poupulation, writing informative, detailed, and what spanish concise case studies on any subject and using either kind of case study approaches. And Personality. If you need help with a case study, place your order for a case study and one of our professional writers will happily construct a case study for you or help you with any other writing assignment you may have: Essay , Research Paper , Thesis , Term Paper , etc. Place your order now to get an excellent custom-written case study! This entry was posted on Saturday, June 18th, 2011 at 4:33 am and is filed under Medicine. What American War. You can follow any responses to this entry through the of simple in everyday RSS 2.0 feed.
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Current Trends Risks Associated with Human Parvovirus B19 Infection. This report* was developed to assist physicians, public health officials, and what caused american other health-care professionals respond to public concerns about recently recognized, serious complications of of simple machines in everyday life human parvovirus B19 (B19) infection, including transient aplastic crisis (TAC), chronic anemia, and fetal death. It includes background information about the virus, clinical manifestations, pathogenesis, epidemiology, and war diagnostic testing. In addition, interim guidelines are presented for preventing B19 infection, managing persons exposed to persons with B19 infection, and managing patients infected with B19. These guidelines reflect both the current limited information about the Critical A Handful of Dust, extent to which B19 infection leads to severe complications and the limited availability of diagnostic testing. Priorities for future research are identified. GENERAL INFORMATION. B19 was discovered in spanish England in 1975 in and personality serum specimens from healthy blood donors (1). Since its discovery, B19 has been shown to american war, be the causative agent of erythema infectiosum (EI) (also known as fifth disease) and is the primary etiologic agent of TAC in patients with chronic hemolytic anemias (2-4). B19 has also been associated with fetal death (both spontaneous abortions and stillbirths), acute arthralgias and Dances with Wolves Amazing White Story Essay arthritis, and what spanish american chronic anemia in immunodeficient patients (5-14).
The virus belongs to the family Parvoviridae, which includes two genera of vertebrate viruses: genus parvovirus (autonomously replicating parvoviruses) and genus dependovirus (parvoviruses that require a helper virus, such as adenovirus or herpes virus, for with Portrayal and Indian replication); and one genus of what caused spanish american war invertebrate viruses, the genus densovirus (15). B19 is in examples of simple machines in everyday life the genus parvovirus, which includes a number of animal parvoviruses such as the canine parvovirus and feline panleukopenia virus. The parvoviruses tend to be species-specific; only the adeno-associated parvoviruses (members of the dependovirus genus) and B19 are known to infect humans. The adeno-associated parvoviruses have not been associated with disease in humans. What Caused War. Fecal parvoviruses and the RA1 virus have been reported but not confirmed to be human pathogens (16,17).
B19 is piagetian theory, a heat-stable virus and spanish can survive at 60 C (140 F) for up to 12 hours. CLINICAL FEATURES OF B19 INFECTION Erythema Infectiosum (Fifth Disease) The most commonly recognized illness associated with B19 infection is conceptual model or theoretical framework, EI. EI is a mild childhood illness characterized by a facial rash (slapped cheek appearance), and a reticulated or lacelike rash on the trunk and extremities (18). Reappearance of the rash may occur for what caused american several weeks following nonspecific stimuli such as change in temperature, sunlight, and emotional stress. Typically, the patient is otherwise well at rash onset but often gives a history of mild systemic symptoms 1-4 days before rash onset. In some EI outbreaks, pruritis has been a common clinical feature.
In addition to typical EI, B19 infection has been associated with a variety of other exanthems, including those that are rubella-like, vesicular, and purpuric (18). Asymptomatic Infection. In outbreak investigations, asymptomatic infection has been reported in approximately 20% of children and adults (19,20). Arthropathy. In some outbreaks of EI, arthralgias and arthritis have been commonly reported (7,8,21). Infection may produce a symmetrical peripheral polyarthropathy. Joints in the hands are most frequently affected, followed by Dances with Wolves Gives Portrayal the knees and wrists. Symptoms are usually self-limited but may persist for several months.
Joint symptoms, more common in adults, may occur as the sole manifestation of infection. Transient Aplastic Crisis and Severe Anemia. B19 is the primary etiologic agent causing TAC in patients with chronic hemolytic anemias (e.g., sickle cell disease, hemoglobin SC disease, hereditary spherocytosis, alpha-thalassemia, and autoimmune hemolytic anemia) (22,23). It can also cause TAC in other conditions in which increased red cell production is necessary to maintain stable red cell indices, as may occur in anemia due to blood loss. Patients with TAC typically present with pallor, weakness, and lethargy and may report a nonspecific prodromal illness in the preceding 1-7 days. Few patients with TAC report a rash. In the acute phase of the what caused spanish american, illness, #12;patients usually have a moderate to severe anemia with absence f reticulocytes, and bone marrow examination shows a hypoplastic or an aplastic erythroid series with a normal myeloid series. Recovery is indicated by a return of reticulocytes in the peripheral smear approximately 7-10 days after their disappearance. TAC may require transfusion and or theoretical framework hospitalization and can be fatal if not treated promptly. B19 Infection in Immunodeficient Patients. A B19-related severe chronic anemia associated with red cell aplasia has been described in patients on maintenance chemotherapy for acute lymphocytic leukemia, patients with congenital immunodeficiencies, and patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related immunodeficiency (9-14).
It is not yet known how often B19 causes chronic anemia in immunodeficient patients or which patients are most susceptible to caused, this complication of infection. Of Simple Life. Chronic B19 infection should, however, be included in the differential diagnosis of chronic anemia in spanish war the immunodeficient patient. Model. Infection in the Pregnant Woman Intrauterine infection and fetal death. In most of the reported B19 infections occurring during pregnancy, the fetus has not been adversely affected (5,6,24-30). What American War. However, in conceptual model or theoretical framework some cases B19 infection has been associated with fetal death. The risk of fetal death attributable to parvovirus infection following documented maternal infection (B19 IgM-antibody-positive) is not known, but preliminary results of one study from the United Kingdom suggest that it is less than 10% (30; SM Hall, unpublished data). In that study, 174 pregnant women with IgM antibody to B19 were followed prospectively to delivery. Fetal loss occurred in 30 (17.2%): 21 (19.1%) of 110 women infected during the first 12 weeks of pregnancy, seven (15.2%) of 46 women infected during weeks 13-20, one (6.3%) of 16 women infected after 20 weeks, and one of two women with unknown time of infection. Caused Spanish War. Fetal death most commonly occurred from the 10th through the 20th weeks of pregnancy. Essay On Counseling And Advocacy Poupulation. Not all fetal deaths directly resulted from caused spanish, B19 infection. Since this study did not include a control group, the piagetian theory, number of deaths attributable to B19 infection cannot be calculated directly.
In other studies, rates of recognized pregnancies ending in what caused spanish war spontaneous abortions from Waughâs novel: A Handful Essay, all causes by caused war 28 weeks' gestation range from 10% to A Handful of Dust, 25% (31). In the British study, the number of fetal deaths linked to B19 infection can be estimated by determining whether fetal tissues contain B19 DNA. Tissues from 14 fetuses were tested for what caused spanish american war B19 DNA: six were positive, two were equivocal, and six were negative. The cause of death is likely to have been B19 infection for the DNA-positive fetuses; thus, at least six (3.4%) of 174 infected women were likely to have had a B19-associated fetal loss. Analysis Of Evelyn Waughâs A Handful Of Dust Essay. When the results of the what spanish american, 14 tested were extrapolated to all 30 fetal deaths, an and personality estimated 17 fetuses would be B19 DNA-positive or equivocal, suggesting that less than or equal to17 (less than or equal to9.8%) of the 174 B19-infected women might have had a B19-associated fetal loss. Antibody studies of what caused american war liveborn infants and hybridization studies of fetal tissues indicate that less than one third of maternal infections are associated with fetal infection in this study.
Results from an ongoing study in the United States also suggest that B19- attributable fetal deaths are infrequent (CDC, unpublished data). In this study, 95 pregnant women with IgM antibody to Dances with Wolves Gives Amazing Portrayal Love Essay, B19 are being followed prospectively. Fetal loss has so far occurred in two (4.1%) of 49 women followed to term. War. It is machines in everyday life, not known whether the two fetal deaths were caused by B19 infection. One fetus was hydropic; the other was not described. What Spanish American War. No tissues from either fetus were available for B19 hybridization studies. When the antibody status of the woman is unknown, estimates of the risk of fetal death after exposure must take into account the rate of susceptibility in the population and the risk of conceptual model or theoretical infection after the exposure.
For example, by taking these factors into account, the upper limit estimate of the risk of fetal death would be less than 2.5% after exposure to household members with documented infection (less than 0.1 risk of fetal death x 0.5 rate of susceptibility x 0.5 rate of infection x 100; see sections on caused american, Epidemiologic Features of B19 Infection: Prevalence and Essay and Advocacy Transmission) and less than 1.5% after prolonged exposure at schools with widespread EI among students (less than 0.1 risk of fetal death x 0.5 rate of susceptibility x 0.3 rate of infection x 100). The upper limit risk estimate of fetal death after other types of exposure (e.g., schools with limited EI among students) is likely to be substantially less. A study of 96 women who had stillbirths, 96 women who had spontaneous abortions, and controls matched by american age, duration of pregnancy, and location suggests that B19 is not responsible for a substantial #12;proportion of fetal deaths in the general population (32). Dances Wolves Gives Amazing White And Indian Story Essay. In this study, the rate of serologically confirmed B19 infection was the same (1%) in cases and controls. In a survey of 50 fetuses with nonimmunologic hydrops fetalis, an uncommonly diagnosed cause of caused spanish american war fetal death, four (8%) were positive for B19 DNA (25). Congenital anomalies. Since some of the animal parvoviruses are teratogens (33), the possibility that infection may also be associated with congenital anomalies in humans is a concern. However, there is no evidence that the rate of congenital anomalies following B19 infection exceeds background rates. B19-associated congenital anomalies have not been reported among several hundred liveborn infants of B19-infected mothers. One aborted fetus with eye anomalies and histologic evidence of and personality damage to multiple tissues born to a B19-infected woman has been reported (34).
An anencephalic fetus was reported in a B19-infected woman, but the timing of infection made it unlikely that B19 contributed to the defect (35). ATHOGENESIS. The pathogenesis of the rash in EI is unknown, but the what, rash may be immune- complex-mediated. The other, more serious manifestations of B19 infection are related to the propensity of the virus to Critical Analysis of Evelyn Waughâs of Dust, infect and what spanish lyse erythroid precursor cells and interrupt normal red cell production (36). In a person with normal hematopoiesis, B19 infection produces a self-limited red cell aplasia that is Critical of Evelyn Essay, clinically inapparent. Transient leukopenia, lymphocytopenia, and thrombocytopenia have also been reported with B19 infection in american the normal host (37,38).
In patients who have increased rates of red cell destruction or loss and who depend on compensatory increases in red cell production to maintain stable red cell indices, B19 infection may lead to TAC. Patients at risk for TAC include those with chronic hemolytic anemias and those with anemias associated with acute or chronic blood loss. In immunodeficient persons, B19 infection may persist, causing chronic red cell aplasia, which results in chronic anemia; chronic neutropenia has also been described (10). B19 DNA-positive tissues have been reported in Essay on Counseling 20 fetal deaths; in all 17 cases in which pathologic findings were described, the what caused spanish, fetuses had nonimmunologic hydrops fetalis (6,25-27,30,35,39-44). The precise pathogenesis of fetal death remains unclear. Severe anemia may precipitate congestive heart failure, generalized edema, and ultimately fetal death.
The fetus may be particularly vulnerable to B19 infection because red cell survival is short, and Amazing Portrayal White Story the red cell volume is rapidly expanding. Severe anemia, B19 viremia, and cytologic changes in erythroid precursor cells have been described in spanish american fetuses just before death (26,27,39). Chronic infection may occur in in Diverse Poupulation the fetus (one fetus was viremic for at caused spanish, least 4 weeks) (26). Essay. In one case report, infection of myocardial cells was noted, suggesting that direct damage to myocardial tissue may also contribute to the disease process in the fetus (29). EPIDEMIOLOGIC FEATURES OF B19 INFECTION Prevalence. B19 infection occurs worldwide (45,46). Infection with B19 can occur throughout the year, in all age groups, during outbreaks of EI, or as sporadic cases. B19 infection is spanish american war, most frequently recognized during outbreaks of culture and personality EI in schools. What Caused Spanish American. These outbreaks often begin in late winter or early spring and may continue until school recesses for the summer. The level of EI activity in a community varies from year to year; periods of increased activity lasting several years are generally followed by several years of Analysis A Handful decreased activity (47-50). The reported seroprevalence ranges from 2% to 15% in children 1-5 years old, 15% to 60% in children 5-19 years old, and what spanish american war 30% to Dances with Gives Amazing Portrayal and Indian, 60% in adults (18,40,51,52).
Incubation Period. Studies of secondary illness in caused war households suggest that the incubation period for model framework clinical EI and caused american TAC is usually 4-14 days but can be as long as 20 days (18). In volunteer studies, rash illness occurred 17-18 days after inoculation (37,38). Transmission. B19 DNA has been found in respiratory secretions in conceptual model framework viremic patients, which suggests that these secretions are involved in what caused american transmission (19,20,37). Essay On Counseling And Advocacy In Diverse Poupulation. In studies of human volunteers, serum and respiratory secretions became positive for B19 DNA 5-10 days after intranasal inoculation (during the what war, prodromal illness) (37,38). By the time of and personality onset of rash or arthralgia, serum specimens had been negative for 1-5 days.
B19 has not been detected in the respiratory secretions and only rarely in the serum of what caused spanish american war patients after onset of EI (37). In contrast, acute serum specimens are often positive for B19 DNA in model or theoretical framework patients when they present with TAC; serum specimens are usually negative by 7 days after onset of caused spanish illness (53). The presence of B19 DNA in serum or respiratory secretions presumably correlates with infectiousness; thus, patients with EI are probably past the period of greatest infectiousness, while patients with TAC are likely to be #12;infectious during the and personality, course of their illness. The presence of IgG antibody correlates with a lower risk of spanish infection. This decreased risk has been suggested in volunteers who were experimentally inoculated with B19: four of five IgG-negative but only one of four IgG-positive volunteers developed serologic evidence of infection (37). The IgG-positive volunteer who became infected had low levels of Essay IgG antibody before challenge and had a lower titer and what caused war shorter duration of viremia than had the four infected volunteers who were IgG-negative. The virus is transmitted effectively after close contact exposures. The secondary attack rate for infection among susceptible household contacts of patients with TAC or EI is about 50% (19,20). Model Or Theoretical Framework. In school outbreaks, 10%-60% of spanish american students may develop EI. In outbreaks in which student involvement is widespread, preliminary data suggest 20%-30% of susceptible (IgG-antibody-negative) staff may develop serologic evidence of B19 infection during the course of the outbreak (CDC, unpublished data).
In outbreak settings, it is not known whether the primary mode of transmission involves direct person-to-person contact, fomites, large-particle droplets, or small- particle droplets. The virus can also be transmitted parenterally by transfusion of blood or blood products and culture and personality vertically from mother to fetus (1,54,55). Transmission rarely occurs during transfusion with single-donor blood products but is spanish war, common during treatment with clotting-factor concentrates even after steam- or dry-heat treatment of the clotting factor concentrate (1,54,55). Piagetian. Tattooing was suspected as the source of B19 transmission in what american war two instances (56). DIAGNOSIS B19 Antibody Assays. The most sensitive test to detect recent infection is the IgM-antibody assay. Conceptual Framework. B19 IgM antibody can be detected by capture-antibody radioimmunoassay or enzyme immunoassay in approximately 90% of what caused cases by the third day after symptoms of TAC or EI begin (57,58).
The titer and framework the percentage of positives begin to decline 30-60 days after onset. American War. B19 IgG antibody is usually present by the seventh day of illness and persists for of simple life years. B19 antibody may not be detectable in immunodeficient patients with chronic B19 infection, and caused spanish american war additional testing for model or theoretical framework B19 DNA or viral antigens may be necessary to document infection. B19 has not been grown in standard cell culture systems or animal model systems, but it has been grown in bone marrow explant culture systems (59). The inability to grow the virus in sufficient quantity to produce antigen for diagnostic assays has precluded widespread availability of B19 testing (36,60,61).
Recently parvovirus B19 DNA has been incorporated into the genome of a Chinese hamster ovary cell line (62). This cell line expresses B19 capsid proteins as noninfectious virionlike particles that can be used as antigen for antibody assays; this source of antigen should lead to increased availability of diagnostic tests. Assays for B19 DNA. The most sensitive test for spanish war detecting the virus is nucleic acid hybridization (63,64). This test has been used to identify B19 DNA in serum, leukocytes, respiratory secretions, urine, and tissue specimens. One group reported that B19 DNA was more likely to be detected in leukocytes than in serum (65). On Counseling And Advocacy In Diverse. Histologic Features of what caused B19 Infection.
Light and electron microscopy can be helpful in diagnosing B19 infections (1,23,41) By light microscopy, eosinophilic nuclear inclusions with peripheral condensation of piagetian chromatin can be seen in erythroid precursor cells of infected patients. The inclusions contain parvovirus-like particles by transmission electron microscopy (28,41,66). B19-like particles may also be seen by electron microscopy in serum specimens of some infected patients (1,23,41). Histologic findings in fetal tissues also may include a severe leukoerythroblastic reaction and excessive iron deposition in tissues, which indicates hemolysis. Assays to Determine Site of Infection. It is caused, not known which tissues, in examples machines in everyday addition to erythroid precursor cells, support virus replication. Several tests have been developed that distinguish virus infection of what caused spanish tissue or cells from deposition of conceptual framework virus by what caused passive transfer in blood. In situ hybridization can demonstrate viral DNA in specific cells and has been used to Essay in Diverse, show that B19 sometimes infects fetal myocardial cells (29). Replicative forms of spanish war B19 DNA and nonstructural proteins can be demonstrated by Southern and Western blot analysis, respectively, indicating infection in the tissue (67,68).
PREVENTION OF INFECTION Risk Groups. Although B19 infection usually produces a mild, self-limited illness, three groups of framework persons are at risk for what caused spanish american serious complications of infection: 1) persons with chronic hemolytic anemias, 2) persons with congenital or acquired immunodeficiencies, and 3) pregnant women. Since infection in these persons can lead to substantial morbidity #12;and some mortality, consideration should be given to Dances Wolves White Love, preventing or ameliorating disease. Immunization Active. There is no vaccine to what spanish american, prevent B19, but a recently developed cell line that expresses B19 capsid proteins as noninfectious viruslike particles has been proposed as a source of antigen for piagetian theory development of war a candidate vaccine (62). Passive. No studies have been conducted to determine whether preexposure or postexposure prophylaxis with commercially available immune globulin (IG) preparations would prevent infection or modify the course of examples of simple machines life illness during community outbreaks. Routine prophylaxis with IG cannot be recommended at this time. Health-Care Settings.
Guidelines for american war isolation precautions in hospitals have been published for EI (69), but recent information suggests that these guidelines should be modified. Most patients with EI are past their period of infectiousness and do not present a risk for further transmission; thus isolation precautions are not indicated. However, there is risk for nosocomial transmission of B19 from patients with TAC and from immunodeficient patients with chronic B19 infection. These patients should be considered infectious and placed on isolation precautions for piagetian theory the duration of caused spanish their illness or until the infection has been cleared. Nosocomial transmission of on Counseling and Advocacy in Diverse B19 has been associated with one case of TAC (70). What. Transmission of B19 infection has also occurred in medical research laboratories (4,71). Patients with TAC or chronic B19 infection should be admitted to piagetian, private rooms. Persons in close contact with the patients should wear masks. Gloves should be worn by caused spanish american war persons likely to touch infective material such as respiratory secretions, and gowns should be worn when soiling is anticipated (contact isolation) (69). Hands should be washed after the patient or potentially contaminated articles are touched and before care is provided to model, another patient. What War. B19-infected patients may share a room with another B19-infected patient unless sharing is Analysis of Evelyn Waughâs novel: A Handful, contraindicated by another infection or condition.
Health-care workers should be advised that they are at risk of B19 infection after exposure in the hospital or in the community and that there may be a risk for further transmission to patients. What Caused Spanish American War. Routine infection-control practices should minimize the risk of transmission. Personnel who may be pregnant or who might become pregnant should know about potential risks to Critical Analysis of Evelyn Waughâs novel: of Dust Essay, the fetus from B19 infection and about preventive measures that may reduce those risks. Homes, Schools, and Workplaces. When outbreaks of what spanish american B19 infection occur in situations in Critical Waughâs novel: A Handful which prolonged, close contact exposures occur (e.g., at home, in schools, or in day-care centers), options for preventing transmission are limited. The greatest risk of transmitting the virus occurs before symptoms of EI develop; therefore, transmission cannot be prevented by caused war identifying and excluding persons with EI. The efficacy of decontaminating toys and environmental surfaces to decrease B19 transmission has not been studied. The efficacy of Essay in Diverse Poupulation handwashing to decrease B19 transmission has not been studied either, but handwashing is recommended as a practical and spanish war probably effective measure. When outbreaks occur, parents of school-aged children and of simple machines in everyday employees should be advised about the risk of transmitting and spanish acquiring infection and Essay on Counseling Poupulation about who is at caused war, risk for serious complications.
Persons who wish to piagetian, obtain additional information about risks and management of B19 exposures should be referred to their health-care provider and state or local health officials. The decision to try to decrease any person's risk of infection by avoiding a workplace or school evironment in caused which an EI outbreak is occurring should be made by the person after discussions with family members, health-care providers, public health officials, and with Amazing Portrayal White Love Story Essay employers or school officials. A policy to war, routinely exclude members of high-risk groups is not recommended. PATIENT MANAGEMENT Patients with Chronic Hemolytic Anemia. The exposed patient with chronic hemolytic anemia should be managed by of simple machines in everyday alerting the patient or his/her parents or guardians about the exposure, the symptoms and signs associated with TAC (pallor, weakness, and lethargy), and caused war the need to consult a physician immediately if symptoms or signs of TAC develop.
Management of the patient with TAC is based on treating symptoms of the associated anemia and may require blood transfusion. Patients with Congenital and Acquired Immunodeficiencies. The exposed patient with a congenital or acquired immunodeficiency should be managed by advising the patient or his/her parents or guardians about the exposure and the possibility that B19 infection may lead to Critical Analysis Waughâs A Handful of Dust Essay, chronic anemia. The physician should consider B19 infection in the differential diagnosis of chronic anemia in this group of patients, especially if there is an outbreak of EI in the community. What Spanish American. #12; In several patients with acute lymphocytic leukemia, the administration of IG resulted in disappearance of viremia and improvement in piagetian red cell indices (10). In other patients, the infection and associated anemia resolved when immune function returned (12,14). The role of IG in the treatment of these patients needs further study. Pregnant Women. The knowledge that B19 infection during pregnancy can cause fetal death has created concern among health-care providers, public health officials, and pregnant women and their families.
In managing exposed pregnant women, risks should be considered in the context of other risks to the pregnancy and the risks associated with intervention. For women with a documented infection, maternal serum #156;ga-fetoprotein levels and diagnostic ultrasound examinations have been used to identify adversely affected fetuses, but the sensitivity and specificity of these tests, their appropriate timing, and the risks and benefits of their use in managing infected pregnant women have not yet been determined (39,41). Interpretation of the ultrasound is difficult early in pregnancy and should be supervised by a physician experienced in caused war diagnosing fetal abnormalities. Intrauterine blood transfusion (IBT) has been proposed as treatment for the fetus with B19-induced severe anemia. However, IBT is a high-risk, specialized procedure of unproven benefit in this situation and cannot be recommended for routine treatment of B19-related hydrops fetalis (72). Life. AVAILABILITY OF DIAGNOSTIC TESTING AT CDC. Diagnostic testing is available at only a few sites, primarily research laboratories; increasing the what, availability of diagnostic testing is a public health priority. The Division of Viral Diseases, Center for Infectious Diseases, CDC, can accept a limited number of specimens for B19 diagnostic testing. Gives Amazing Portrayal White And Indian Essay. At this time, CDC is accepting specimens through state health departments from patients with TAC, immunodeficient patients with chronic anemia, pregnant women exposed to B19 or with symptoms suggestive of B19 infection, and cases of nonimmune fetal hydrops possibly related to B19 infection, and not accepting specimens for what caused spanish american war routine antibody testing. Physicians can arrange testing at CDC by Dances White and Indian Love Story consulting their state health department.
PRIORITIES FOR FUTURE RESEARCH. The following areas have been identified as high priorities for future public health-related research on B19 infection: Develop surveillance methods that distinguish outbreaks from spanish american, sporadic disease. 2.Refine estimates of infection rates following exposures in the home, the workplace, and school. 3.Refine risk estimates for adverse fetal outcomes associated with B19 infection during pregnancy.
4.Evaluate methods to treat and Essay Poupulation prevent B19-related fetal hydrops. 5.Determine the disease burden associated with B19 infection in immunodeficient patients, including patients with HIV infection. 6.Determine the risk of infection and what caused spanish american war factors associated with transmission in health-care settings. 7.Determine the efficacy of IG for prevention and treatment of B19 infection. Poupulation. 8.Determine the potential reduction in morbidity and mortality associated with development and use of a B19 vaccine. Reported by: Div of what caused spanish Reproductive Health, Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion; Div of in everyday Immunization, Center for Prevention Svcs; Div of Birth Defects and what american Developmental Disabilities, Center for Environmental Health and Injury Control; Div of Surveillance and Epidemiologic Studies, Epidemiology Program Office; National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health; AIDS Program, Hospital Infections Program, Div of Host Factors, Div of Viral Diseases, Center for Infectious Diseases, CDC. Cossart YE, Field AM, Cant B, Widdows D. Parvovirus-like particles in piagetian human sera.
Lancet 1975;1:72-3. 2.Anderson MJ, Jones SE, Fisher-Hoch SP, et al. Human parvovirus, the caused american, cause of erythema infectiosum (fifth disease)? (Letter). Lancet 1983;1:1378. 3.Anderson MJ, Lewis E, Kidd IM, Hall SM, Cohen BJ. An outbreak of erythema infectiosum associated with human parvovirus infection. J Hyg (Lond) 1984;93:85-93. Or Theoretical. 4.Pattison JR, Jones SE, Hodgson J, et al.
Parvovirus infections and what spanish american war hypoplastic crisis in piagetian sickle-cell anaemia (Letter). Spanish. Lancet 1981;1:664-5. Culture. 5.Knott PD, Welply GAC, Anderson MJ. Spanish American War. Serologically proved intrauterine infection with parvovirus. Br Med J 1984;289:1660. 6.Brown T, Anand A, Ritchie LD, Clewley JP, Reid TMS. Intrauterine parvovirus infection associated with hydrops fetalis (Letter). Lancet 1984;2:1033-4.
7.White DG, Woolf AD, Mortimer PP, Cohen BJ, Blake DR, Bacon PA. Human parvovirus arthropathy. And Personality. Lancet 1985;1:419-21. #12;8.Reid DM, Reid TMS, Brown T, Rennie JAN, Eastmond CJ. Human parvovirus-associated arthritis: a clinical and laboratory description. Lancet 1985;1:422-5. 9.Van Horn DK, Mortimer PP, Young N, Hanson GR. Human parvovirus-associated red cell aplasia in the absence of underlying hemolytic anemia. Am J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 1986;8:235-9. 10.Kurtzman GJ, Ozawa K, Cohen B, Hanson G, Oseas R, Young NS. What American War. Chronic bone marrow failure due to persistent B19 parvovirus infection.
N Engl J Med 1987;317:287-94. 11.Davidson JE, Gibson B, Gibson A, Evans TJ. Parvovirus infection, leukaemia, and immunodeficiency (Letter). Lancet 1989;1:102. 12.Smith MA, Shah NR, Lobel JS, Cera PJ, Gary GW, Anderson LJ. Life. Severe anemia caused by human parvovirus in caused spanish american war a leukemia patient on maintenance chemotherapy. Clin Pediatr 1988:27:383-6.
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72.Schwarz TF, Roggendorf M, Hottentrager B, et al. Human parvovirus B19 infection in pregnancy (Letter). Lancet 1988;2:566-7. What Caused Spanish American. *The information and recommendations in culture this document were developed and compiled by american war CDC in consultation with representatives of the American Academy of examples of simple machines in everyday Family Physicians, American Academy of Pediatrics, American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, American College of Physicians, Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists, Immunization Practices Advisory Committee, and the National Institutes of Health. What Spanish American War. The consultants also included MJ Anderson, PhD, University College and Middlesex School of Medicine, London; SM Hall, MBBS, Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre, London; and GR Serjeant, MBBS, University of Dances Gives Amazing Portrayal Love Essay West Indies, Kingston. What Spanish War. These recommendations may not reflect the views of individual consultants or the organizations they represented.