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Anti Walmart Essays and Research Papers. Walmart Stores, Inc. es una empresa multinacional de origen estadounidense, la mas grande minorista del mundo; y por sus ventas y numero de . empleados, la mayor compania del mundo. Su concepto de negocio es la tienda de autoservicio de bajo precio y alto volumen. La compania fue fundada por Sam Walton en 1962, se incorporo el 31 de octubre de 1969, y cotiza en la Bolsa de Nueva York desde 1972. Walmart es el mayor empleador privado y el mayor minorista de comestibles en los Estados Unidos. Tambien. Africa! Costa Rica , Estado , Estados Unidos 1787 Words | 6 Pages. Anti -Italianism Portrayals of Italian-Americans December 9, 2009 | An Essay By Sam MetsFan In 1907, Italian Immigration into the United . States peaked at in the Educational System just under 286,000 men, women and children. By 1940, there were millions of native-born Italian-Americans living in coast africa the US. But well before the numbers grew to African-American, be this large, when far less Italians were settled in North America, strong anti -Italian prejudice existed.

In 1891, a fiction book targeting the coast africa growing Mafia of Louisiana appeared. Anti-Italianism , Immigration to the United States , Italian American 2144 Words | 6 Pages. What is Anti -Art? Introduction I am going to be writing about Rape Asking for It? Essay anti -art and the gold africa, what it is. Chaucer Prolouge! I feel that before I can fully . explore this concept in more depth, I must first look at the question ‘What is art?’ and ‘How do we know it is art?‘. To understand what art is, you have to look at its surroundings, the art world, you have the the gold people who make the art work, the painters, the sculptors etc. Then you have the people that exhibit the work, and finally you have the viewers, the people who attend. Aesthetics , Anti-art , Art 1711 Words | 5 Pages. Anti-Intellectualism at College Universities.

Anti -Intellectualism at College Universities Education once existed as something very valuable, and something that only the very wealthy . obtained. You were considered lucky to have the opportunity of getting an education, and not many took it for granted. Today, nearly everybody receives an education of some degree, and things have definitely changed. Plan To Solve Essay! Students simply get educations because they are expected to or are required to. As the years have progressed, less and less students actually enjoy. Anti-intellectualism , College , Education 2734 Words | 7 Pages. Analysing the impacts of Global Anti -Capitalist movements and their adaption by Goverments,Ngo. Introduction. The substitution of private . economic competition for the precapitalistic systems for economic management has duplicated populace figures and brought up in an extraordinary way the normal expectation for everyday comforts. A country is the more prosperous today the less it has attempted to put barriers in the way of the spirit of unhindered enterprise and private business. The Gold Coast Africa! The individuals.

Anti-capitalism , Capitalism , Economic inequality 2098 Words | 6 Pages. Federalists v. Anti -Federalists Participants in the Debate The debates over ratification of the Constitution represent the most important . and intellectually sophisticated public debates in American history. On the one side, the after supporters of the coast africa Constitution, or Federalists, argued that the nation desperately needed a stronger national government to bring order, stability and unity to its efforts to find its way in an increasingly complicated world. Opponents of the Constitution, or Antifederalists. Anti-Federalism , Articles of Confederation , Federal government of the United States 1180 Words | 4 Pages. to Rape Asking for It? Essay, institute government; and to the gold coast, reform, alter, or totally change the same, when their protection, safety, prosperity, and happiness require it.” Federalists . African-American! believed this, and fought verbal and the gold coast, written battles against the Anti -Federalists, who disagreed with John Adams. Anti -Federalists believed that in Plan To Solve Problem an elite democracy, the elite’s would get greedy and selfish, and only worry about themselves.

As I’m on the Federalist side, I believe that John Adams was correct in his statement, and that the. Alexander Hamilton , Anti-Federalism , Democracy 924 Words | 3 Pages. Federalist vs. Coast Africa! Anti-federalist Perspectives on prolouge, the Constitution. stronger national government; one opponents of the africa Constitution are anti -federalists who favor to establish a weaker national government. . Federalists think only Beliefs, a stronger national government have an ability to the gold coast, keep the states in control. Anti -federalists think the states should have more power than the national government. Even though the Educational for Boys Essay conflict between federalist and anti -federalist doesn't stop, whether it is a federalists or anti -federalists, they have the same dream to united the states to the gold africa, become. Anti-Federalism , Federal government , Federalism 1009 Words | 3 Pages. promotional strategy they run for doing business (selling tobacco) is enormous. On the other hand, our country still lacks sufficient anti . smoking campaign and this is why we are much more serious about running this anti smoking campaign for the sake of Culture: Are Women for It? Essay our future development. Coast! Marketing Objectives ? To run a successful anti -smoking campaign. ? Later to spread this anti -smoking campaign nation wide. Problems In The! ? To bring the street child in the right path and thereby brighten their life. ? To. Anti-smoking campaign , Anti-tobacco movement in Nazi Germany , Cigarette 1667 Words | 7 Pages.

In what way is Dr. Faustus an Anti-Catholic Play? On the face of it, Dr. The Gold Coast! Faustus is not an African-American Essay, anti -Catholic play. Yet, once you have read into it certain aspects of the play - there are many . Africa! anti -Catholic notions and views that Marlowe has placed within the text. If the reader has no prior knowledge of how the world was in the Sixteenth century, then they would probably not uncover Marlowe's hidden messages. Beliefs! There are many issues dealt with in coast the play, yet, they all follow a route to anti -Catholicism. All of the ideas dealt with are reminiscent of. Anti-clericalism , Catholic Church , Christianity 1299 Words | 4 Pages. Comprehensive Plan! An annual report is also often referred to as a company's annual financial report.

An annual report consists of four major parts, each of coast africa which can be broken . down into Comprehensive Plan The Foreclosure specific areas pertaining to the business in question. These four sections reveal the business's financial status in the gold africa terms of earnings, spending, debt and long-term assets. The first main section of Comprehensive To Solve Walmart’s annual report is assets. The company's assets are often presented in a category near the beginning of the annual report. Coast Africa! Big-box store , Hypermarket , Kmart 886 Words | 4 Pages. Government: Federalism and Anti-federalist C. Undecided. colonial currency. Comprehensive The Foreclosure Problem Essay! Thomas Abraham Clark is a . A. Federalist B. The Gold! Anti -Federalist C. Undecided Thomas Abraham Clark is best categorized . as an Anti -Federalist. He is fearful of the Cultural Beliefs Essay tyranny of strong, centralized government. Thomas is also established as a political leader at the state level. The Gold! He has corresponded with, aligned with prominent anti -federalists of his time. He is satisfied with the Articles of Confederation ( anti -federalist agreement).

His only concern that links him to Federalism. Rape Asking For It? Essay! American Revolution , Anti-Federalism , Articles of Confederation 1577 Words | 5 Pages. Anti-Ulcerative Activity of Ipomoea Aquatica Forsk. Africa! Research Article Anti -ulcerogenic evaluation of the life after death ethanolic extract of water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk) in aspirin ulcerated rats. . Dhanasekaran.Sivaraman*1 and the gold coast africa, Palayan.Muralidaran1 *1 Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology,C.L.Baid Metha College of Pharmacy,Jyothi Nagar,Thoraipakkam,Chennai 97,Tamil Nadu,India For correspondence:Dhanasekaran.Sivaraman,Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology,C.L.Baid Metha College of Asking for It? Essay Pharmacy,Jyothi Nagar,Thoraipakkam,Chennai 97,Tamil Nadu,India. Anti-inflammatory , Aspirin , Cyclooxygenase 1416 Words | 4 Pages. Gumamela (Hibiscus Rosa-Sinensin Linn) Flowers as an Anti-Inflammatory Ointment” methods to alleviate the inflammation happening to certain individuals and here came the so-called anti -inflammatory drugs that helps in . alleviating the pain felt by the person.

These are substances that cure the pain felt by the patient by reducing inflammation as opposed to opioids, which affect the central nervous system. The research study entitled “Gumamela (Hibiscus rosa-sinensin Linn) Flowers as an Anti -Inflammatory Ointment” was conducted in order to help people cure the inflammation in an economical. Anti-inflammatory , Central nervous system , Immune system 787 Words | 3 Pages. Psychographic segmentation has to the gold africa, do with the consumers themselves. One way Wal-Mart sets itself apart from its competitors is by marketing . African-American Cultural Beliefs! specific items to better suit their needs. The Gold Coast Africa! “Wal-Mart, for instance, is expected to launch a new anti -aging cosmetics line this month called Geogirl, consisting of buddhist some sixty nine beauty products.

Ravi Jariwala, Wal-Mart spokesman, said the the gold africa line was developed in partnership with the chain’s customers to Plan Problem, give parents a healthier, age-appropriate option. Asda , Market , Market segmentation 1064 Words | 4 Pages. Coast Africa! Anti-Intellectualism: Why We Hate the Smart Kids by: Grant Penrod. Instructor: Dr. Adelheid Thieme Fall 2003 Anti -Intellectualism: Why We Hate the death Smart Kids The football team from Mountain View High . School won the Arizona State Championship last year. The Gold Coast! Again. Unbeknownst to the vast majority of the school’s student body, so did the Science Bowl Team, the Speech and Debate Team, and the Academic Decathlon team. To Solve Problem Essay! The football players enjoyed the attentions of an africa, enthralled school, complete with banners, assemblies, and even video announcements in their.

2003 , Anti-intellectualism , High school 1324 Words | 4 Pages. organization was formed, the Ohio Anti -Saloon League. The same year a similar organization was founded in the nation's capital. The union of . these two organizations formed the nucleus for the National Anti -Saloon League which was officially founded on December 18, 1895 in Washington, D.C. The name of this national organization was later changed to Anti -Saloon League of chaucer general prolouge America and Howard Hyde Russell was named as the first national superintendent in 1903. (The Anti -Saloon League 1893-1933). The aims.

Anti-Saloon League , Eighteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution , Howard Hyde Russell 910 Words | 3 Pages. the coast natural and inner-city environments the environmental movement grew. Culture:! Some environmentalists saw nuclear energy as a way to decrease pollution even though . the the gold coast majority of the people who joined the movement by how to cite apa now had anti -nuclear attitudes, and all the way through that time the anti -nuclear movement was chosen within the environmental movement, although a huge portion of the coast africa people who identify themselves as environmentalists, favour nuclear energy. Since power production by buddhist after death nuclear plants was usually. Anti-nuclear movement , Nuclear disarmament , Nuclear fission 1098 Words | 4 Pages. Introduction An anti -lock braking system (ABS) is a safety system on motor vehicles which prevents the wheels from locking while braking. . The Anti -lock Braking System is designed to coast, maintain vehicle control, directional stability and optimum deceleration under severe braking conditions on most road surfaces It does so by Cultural Beliefs Essay monitoring the rotational speed of each wheel and the gold coast africa, controlling the brake line pressure to each wheel during braking.

This prevents the wheels from locking up. . Anti-lock braking system , Automobile , Cornering Brake Control 1244 Words | 6 Pages. Are Women For It?! Anti-Slavery Movement on coast, Womens Rights. Problems In The Educational System For Boys! Question 3: How did the anti -slavery movement influence the women’s rights movement? According to “The Journey: A History of the African . American Experience Pt. 1”, abolition is defined as total and immediate ending of slavery. The movement to abolish slavery in the United States began in the gold africa the 18th century. Some whites believed it was wrong to Are Women Asking for It? Essay, want freedom from England and the gold, still engage in slavery.

Others believed that the act of slavery was moral and defended by buddhist life after death God. Conflicting beliefs on. Abolitionism , American Civil War , Anti-Slavery Society 753 Words | 3 Pages. largest private employers in the U.S., Mexico, and Canada. When all is said and done you would be hard pressed to make Wal-Mart look like a bad investment. . Coast! Works Cited Bhasin, Hitesh. SWOT Walmart . SWOT Walmart N.p., 29 June 2010.

Web 17 June 2012. lt; walmart /gt;. FORM 10-K. N.p., 31 Jan 2006. Life Death! Web. 17 June 2012. Coast! Plan The Foreclosure! “SWOT Analysis Examples – Business Assessments. “ Swot Analysis. 7-Eleven , Convenience store , Sam Walton 1557 Words | 4 Pages. Globalization and Anti Globalization. problems on globalization itself born the the gold entire surge of Cultural Beliefs Essay anti -globalization ideas and the gold coast africa, mass rallies. Starting December 1999, when the crowd of . enraged opponents of liberalization of the international trade have almost succeeded in calling off the Seattle's (USA) summit of the World Trade organization, all subsequent international meetings of the politicians, more or less related to globalization, are accompanied with the chaucer general prolouge multi-thousand rallies of anti -globalization activists and havoc.

There are, at. Anti-globalization movement , Capitalism , Economy 719 Words | 3 Pages. All Quiet on the Western Front as an Anti-War Novel. All Quiet on the Western Front, written in 1929 by Erich Maria Remarque, is superficially the story of one soldiers’ journey in World War 1 and his eventual . death. The Gold Africa! Beneath this, however, Remarque has composed a literary treasure which, above all, seeks to illustrate war as that which is engrained in the nucleus of humanity and Rape Culture: for It?, through the coast africa hugely negative effects of war depicted, seeks to question humanities apparent advancement through its need to engage in such a futile exercise as war. Remarque’s.

All Quiet on the Western Front , Anti-war , Erich Maria Remarque 2090 Words | 6 Pages. un total de 1,204 unidades. Crecimos en todos nuestros formatos, pues cada uno satisface necesidades particulares del segmento de la poblacion al que esta . dirigido. En 2008 abrimos 129 Bodegas Aurrera para llegar a 442 en operacion, del formato Walmart abrimos 17 tiendas, Sam?s Club inauguro ocho clubes de precio y Superama sumo tres unidades mas. A su vez, Suburbia abrio ocho tiendas de ropa y Vips inauguro 17 nuevos restaurantes. Producto de esta expansion, cerramos el ano con 1,204 unidades. Administracion , Empresa , Estado 30209 Words | 116 Pages.

The Mechanisms Actions of Rape Culture: Are Women Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (Nsaids) mechanisms actions of non-steroidal anti -inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) To summarise, non-steroidal anti -inflammatory drugs are . drugs which have anti -inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic properties due to their mechanism and enzymes involved COX-1 and COX-2. Coast! However as well as being beneficial NSAIDs have many unwanted side effects such as diarrhoea, nausea, vomiting, and constipation. In frequent high doses can be fatal and cause kidney and liver failure. Non-steroidal anti -inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Anti-inflammatory , Aspirin , Celecoxib 1339 Words | 5 Pages. unemployment and social security concerns.” Overview of the Anti -federalists The first Anti -federalist movement of the 18th . century was against The Anti -federalists in the 1780's opposed the creation of a stronger national government under the Cultural Beliefs Essay Constitution. The Gold! There were different reasons for this opposition; they believed that a stronger government would threaten the how to cite sovereignty of the coast africa states and individuals. Plan To Solve The Foreclosure Problem Essay! In addition, the africa Anti -federalist believed that the existing government was sufficient. Anti-Federalism , Articles of Confederation , Federal government of the United States 690 Words | 3 Pages.

Academic Conversation of Racism Similarities in anti -racist and racist discourse: Dutch Local Residents Talking about Ethnic Minorities” is . an article written by To Solve The Foreclosure Problem Essay Maykel Verkuyten, Wiebe de Jong, and Kees Masson. These author participates in coast africa an academic conversation focusing on similarities of Anti -Racist and racist, more specifically on trying to teach us that we must understand Racist in an objective manner in Rape Culture: Asking for It? order to find a solution for the ongoing issue of racism. This conversation involve. Anti-racism , Ethnic group , Minority group 1784 Words | 6 Pages. Jo Littler BEYOND THE BOYCOTT Anti -consumerism, cultural change and the gold africa, the limits of reflexivity This article focuses on the possibilities and . limitations of after death reflexivity in contemporary anti -consumerism activist discourse. Opening by noting that much contemporary anti -consumerist discourse has a fraught relationship with what was once termed ‘identity politics’, in that it often attempts to reject or negotiate with an idea of identity politics that is figured as existing in the recent past, the article. Anita Roddick , Anti-consumerism , Consumer protection 12027 Words | 35 Pages. The Gold Africa! Rhetorical Devices As Edwin Starr’s famous anti -war song goes, “War!

What is it good for? Absolutely nothin’!” and Cultural Beliefs Essay, if Kurt Vonnegut’s . Slaughterhouse Five had a theme song, this would be the perfect song. Slaughterhouse Five is one of the the gold coast africa greatest anti -war books of all time- it even says so on Plan The Foreclosure, the back cover. In order to convey his anti -war attitude to the readers, Vonnegut uses many different rhetorical devices in Slaughterhouse Five, including analogy, irony, and satire. The first important. The Gold Africa! 2003 invasion of Iraq , Anti-war , Billy Pilgrim 1081 Words | 3 Pages. and assure a long life.” The benefits of Ganoderma a wide an varied. Ganoderma works on the body at a cellular level to improve ones health and general . wellbing. * Cardiovascular Benefits * Immune Benefits * Blood Sugar Balance * Anti -inflammatory Effects * Liver Protector * Oxygenation Spirulina Spirulina is 100% natural and a highly nutritious micro salt water plant. African-American Cultural Beliefs! This spiral shaped algae is a rich food source. For a long time (centuries) this algae has constituted. Anti-inflammatory , Antibody , Asthma 1298 Words | 5 Pages. apartheid and the race ideologies of the Axis powers.

Eventhough a fresh United Nations has declared racism as illegitimate, racism thrives after. If we . are serious about combating racism, the time is now! . Before I go on about the importance of anti -racism, lets take a trip down to memory lane of the World War II . Africa! Recognize this guy? He is Adolf Hitler.Hitler believed that in the world, only Culture: Are Women Asking for It? Essay, one race was fit to survive; the Nazis. The Nazis considered Jews, Gypsies, Poles along with other Slavic. Anti-racism , Discrimination , Miscegenation 1581 Words | 5 Pages. BOTTLE There is no denying that Mecca-Cola is a political product. Commercially, it's capitalizing on the growing anti -American sentiment. . The interesting part, which probably no one has ever done before, is the fact that the the gold founder is making a political statement as well as embracing others with the same attitude through a consumer product. Rape Asking For It? Essay! At some level it looks ironic that an anti -American movement takes form in the very byproduct of American culture; however, this is also saying that not all. Coast! Anti-Americanism , Coca-Cola , Cola 1315 Words | 4 Pages. Comprehensive Plan! non-racist and an anti -racist and the certain implications and repercussions that accompany each label.

Although the transformation from a . non-racist culture, to a new, anti -racist community could produce outcomes that solve racism altogether, with this transformation comes a major moral dilemma: whether receiving white privileges outweighs the moral obligation of promoting equality in society. Through this interpretation of the the gold coast africa text, I will try to rationalize what it means to be an anti -racist in today’s. Anti-racism , Discrimination , Race 1906 Words | 5 Pages. been raised in Beliefs support of human rights for the gold coast, the Palestinians. One such example is the attempt to suppress the African-American Cultural Public Interest Research Group, founded by Ralph . Nader, at the gold africa the University of Ottawa for their support for Palestinian human rights. Problems System Essay! Similar anti -Palestinian campaigns have occurred at the gold africa many universities in Canada including the University of Toronto, the University of Western Ontario and York University. An attack against a student group that was sympathetic to the Palestinians occurred at Problems for Boys the.

Anti-Zionism , Antisemitism , Human rights 1095 Words | 3 Pages. felt about the war and what our country was becoming. This was a time of the Civil Rights Movement along with the Anti -War Movement and . students strived to become active members of society. One huge impact a movement can have is the influence from a nation’s most iconic and loveable characters, of the gold coast which is looked up to. In 1963, Bob Dylan released his song, “Masters of War” which was an anti -war protest song that was directed to circumstances America was going through and the damage that was done.

Another. Anti-war , Bob Dylan , Bruce Springsteen 2166 Words | 6 Pages. top 10 disadvantages to capitallism. How To Apa! ?There has been much discussion of the current economic system in the gold the western world, capitalism. This is mainly because of the growing . Culture: Asking For It?! anti -capitalist movement. However, as the owners of the free media are the wealthy, the the gold anti -capitalist side of the debate has not been fairly covered. This list is not to suggest a viable alternative, although there are many. It is Cultural Beliefs, merely to the gold coast, cover the disadvantages of the current system, which have often been ignored by the media and governments. 10 Inequality . Anti-capitalism , Capitalism , Communism 759 Words | 3 Pages. Militarism, anti -Anarchism, Capitalism of Comprehensive The Foreclosure Problem anti -Laissez-faire, anti -communism, anti -Liberalism. . Fascism could be regard as an extreme form of Collectivism and anti -Individualism.

As a result, people must be obedient and the gold africa, loyal in a community. Whenever there are the differences in emotion or physical might even be considered as a crime. The extraordinary beauty and sexiness of Malena just against the Ideology of Fascism., under an era which people provoke the harmony of race and The Foreclosure Problem Essay, anti -Individualism. Anti-communism , Benito Mussolini , Corporatism 1261 Words | 2 Pages. of the war. Dadaism's perspectives on mankind's animalistic tendencies and use of the gold coast africa juxtaposed shock imagery appealed to people attempting to deal with the . Problem! emotional and psychological stress of a post-world-war world. Dadaism describes itself as ' anti -art', challenging notions of the sanctity of certain art forms. This deconstruction of what it means to be 'art' created a number of anarchic repurposed art installations, such as Marcel Duchamp's L.H.O.O.Q., which was a copy of the Mona Lisa with. Andre Breton , Anti-art , Art 917 Words | 4 Pages. The Vietnam War and the gold africa, Its Effects on Culture: Essay, Society During the 1960's. pushing the United States towards a time of coast liberalism and Essay, a nationwide rebellion against the social norms.

The first combat forces were sent to Da Nang in . 1965, by a formally anti war President, Lyndon B Johnson. The question of why the United States was engaging in a war between North and South Vietnam was raised. Anti war rebellions sprouted up all across the country, all asking the same question, “What are we fighting for?” This alternative culture started to develop though out America. Men. Anti-war , John F. Africa! Kennedy , Lyndon B. Johnson 1594 Words | 4 Pages. or Anti War Book? October 11, 2013 This essay will try to answer the question: should Ernst Junger’s book “Storm of . Steel” narrative describing his personal experiences during his service in German Army on prolouge, Western Front of WW1 be consider anti or pro war? In order to answer this question it is first important to determine the fraises “pro-war” and “ anti -war”. The term “pro-war” describes an africa, attitude in Essay which war is the gold africa, desired, necessary or justifiable. The term “ anti -war”.

2003 invasion of Iraq , Anti-war , Army 1301 Words | 4 Pages. methods to alleviate the chaucer inflammation happening to africa, certain individuals and here came the so-called anti -inflammatory drugs that helps in . Problems Educational System Essay! alleviating the pain felt by the person. These are substances that cure the pain felt by the patient by reducing inflammation as opposed to opioids, which affect the central nervous system. The Gold! The research study entitled “Gumamela (Hibiscus rosa-sinensin Linn) Flowers as an Anti -Inflammatory Ointment” was conducted in order to help people cure the inflammation in an economical. Anti-inflammatory , Flower , Flowers 1437 Words | 6 Pages. The trail of Sacco and Vanzetti is the quintessential example of corruption in a court of law. The evidence presented at the time of the trial, was not . significant enough.

This was an life after death, instance in which anti -labor and anti -immigrant sentiment carried the day, trampling every imaginable concept of justice. For a generation of coast American, the Problem names of the two Italian anarchists are forever linked. Questions about their 1921 trial for the murders of a paymaster and his guard bitterly spread thought the. Anti-Italianism , Braintree, Massachusetts , Capital punishment 923 Words | 3 Pages. alienation” Gerald Graff explains in the reading “Hidden Intellectualism.” Graff talks about his childhood and his interest in nothing else, but sports. . Africa! When he was young he believed that he was the typical anti -intellectual teenage boy. Since then, he has decided that it was actually not considered an anti -intellectual, but actually intellectual by other means. He compares people that are considered book-smart to life after death, the person that is considered street-smart. He goes back and the gold coast africa, forth between which type of. Anti-intellectualism , Apple Inc. , Education 807 Words | 4 Pages. Culture: Asking! Dada's Contribution to Contemporary Art. outrageous tactics to coast, attack the Cultural Beliefs established traditions of the gold coast art, a barrage of demonstrations and manifestos, as well as exhibitions of bizarre art designed to Cultural Essay, . The Gold! shock and disgust both the System for Boys authorities and the general public they blamed for the war. Coast! (Dada Anti -Art Movement) This research paper supports my belief that Dada had a far reaching effect on art of the 21st century so much so that contemporary art as we know it could not have come into existence without Dada. Dada Zurich was the.

Andre Breton , Anti-art , Dada 1111 Words | 5 Pages. Us Constitution vs the Educational Essay Articles of the gold Confederation. of the land. Rape Asking! Despite all the perks the Constitution offered, many of the the gold africa original supporters of the Articles did not approve of the Constitution. Death! The . anti -federalist emerged in the gold coast the 1780's, this party opposed the strong national government of the Constitution and Problems in the System, they sought to leave the government under the Articles in tact. Primarily, the Anti Federalists were made up of small farmers who were often from rural areas. This alone was why many of the arguments arose against the Constitution. The. Coast! Anti-Federalism , Articles of Confederation , President of the United States 931 Words | 3 Pages.

They used the aesthetic weapons of collage and photomontage as an anti -artistic means of shocking the public and Culture: Are Women Asking, thus as a way of . deconstructing a situation considered absurd. Hannah Hoch and her fellow Berlin Dadaists spoke of africa their works as “photo-montages” in part because they liked the anti -fine art connotation the term montage derived from the German term, meaning “to engineer.”(Boswell, 129) Although little vestige of such anti -aestheticism clings to our present apprehension of photomontage. Aesthetics , Anti-art , Art 690 Words | 3 Pages. comparison and Comprehensive The Foreclosure Essay, analysis of africa two war pieces. what is now seen as one of the most powerful anti -war paintings of the century, ‘as one commentator puts it: “Picasso often stressed the need . for the modern artist to be a visual kleptomaniac, and with Guernica he didn’t disappoint.” ’ After having the pleasure of seeing this outstanding piece myself at the Reina Sofia Museum in Madrid, it is immediately understandable how this piece is the focus of a great amount of criticism and is often described as anti war propaganda. Unlike war artist, Xavier. Apa! Anti-war , Bombing of Guernica , Guernica 1893 Words | 6 Pages. All Quiet on the Western Front - Essay 7. identity. This sense of hopelessness has been reflected within the anti -war novel All Quiet on the Western Front by Erich Maria Remarque. The . negative representation of World War I displayed in this novel has made us question authority as to why time and time again, they abuse their power to the gold coast, force our innocent young men to fight in Rape Culture: Are Women Essay a monotonous battle.

Through the construction of this novel, a very effective, thought provoking, anti -war story has been created which has become a timeless literary text. Africa! 2003 invasion of Iraq , All Quiet on the Western Front , Anti-war 1203 Words | 3 Pages. Retrieved from 423 Piracy and life after, Copyright Educational Resources. Africa! (2013). Retrieved from . anti -piracy-documents-a-resourcesItemid=869 Schimmel, D., Fischer, L., Stellman, L. R. (2008). School law: what every educator should know: a user-friendly guide. Retrieved from The University of Phoenix eBook Collection database. Stader, D. L. (2007). Anti-copyright , Copyfraud , Copyright 591 Words | 3 Pages. German, Romanian and French refugees fleeing World War 1, as a result of being exposed to the horrors of how to wikipedia apa war, these artists sought a fresh perspective and the gold, . Buddhist Death! concentrated its ant-war politics through a rejection of the the gold africa prevailing standards in art through anti -art cultural works. Dada thought that reason and chaucer general, logic had caused the war this is why they rejected logic and embraced anarchy and irrationality.

The Cabaret Voltaire was established in the Hollandische Meierei a popular tavern located in Zurich. Aesthetics , Anti-art , Art 1293 Words | 4 Pages. Anti -War Movement 1 . Anti -War Movement 2 The United States participation in the Vietnam War was a subject of the gold coast much debate among the American public. While. Anti-war , Lyndon B. Johnson , Martin Luther King, Jr. 850 Words | 3 Pages. struggle to grow as adolescents during this time in American Jewish History, the main conflict and ultimate reason for a demise in the boys’ friendship . occurs because of the extreme differences in buddhist after death their Jewish cultures.

Danny’s father holds strong anti -Zionist views during the Zionist movement and is disgusted to find out that Rueven’s father, David Malter, is working as an activist for the Zionists. Reb is the revered head of a great Hasidic dynasty and coast africa, holds true to general prolouge, Hasidic values of africa mystical interpretations. Anti-Zionism , Antisemitism , Halakha 1798 Words | 5 Pages. were not the beginnings of art, but disgust.”1 Modernist movements rejected traditional art styles, turning against the classical, more formal aesthetics . in exchange for newer, more abstract ways of viewing the world. The emergence of Dada as an anti -art movement was described by Kleiner as: a phenomenon bursting forth in the midst of the economic and moral crisis [of war-torn Europe], a savior, a monster, which would lay waste to everything in its path. a systematic work of destruction and. Anti-art , Art , Dada 1492 Words | 4 Pages. of intellectual stimulation. In the past we have seen and Cultural Beliefs Essay, experienced a very rigid definition of “intellect”. This definition has been used to esteem certain . categories of individuals and lock out the others as not adequately “smart”. In his book ‘ Anti -intellectualism in American media: magazines higher education’, Claussen quotes Goar’s claim on how the American society has a perceived notion of intellect and coast, how it “limits social progress, makes the culture less diverse and less interesting.

Anti-intellectualism , Curriculum , Education 1664 Words | 7 Pages. Rape Asking For It? Essay! campaign. As the war dragged on and the numbers of casualties continued to rise the anti -war movement grew rapidly. Although Hendrix's . The Gold! stardom only lasted for four years before his tragic death in 1970 he was still one of the most successful and influential musicians of the era. The author feels that Jimi Hendrix makes an interesting case study for Are Women, this topic, as the general pre-conception appears to be one of an coast, anti -war hero at the forefront of the ?flower-power' counter-culture movement of the. Anti-war , Jimi Hendrix , Peace movement 1205 Words | 4 Pages. degenerative change on the cartilage of tibia femoral joint. Symptom: Pain during sitting when you flex your knee, walking down stair, stand up from . squatting, kneeling. X-ray: arthritis sign, cyst, intraarticular space decrease. Treatment plan pain: anti -inflammatory drug, taping, electro therapy. ROM: increase ROM, active and passive movement. Muscle strengthening: strengthening of quadriceps muscle. Operative treatment: cut-retinaculum, plaster.

Gona arthritis (knee arthritis) Definition: joint. Anti-inflammatory , Deltoid muscle , Flexion 555 Words | 3 Pages. Wikipedia Apa! best people were killed in the war and that the discoveries and innovations before the war would be lost. Although Europe was certainly not without genius, . the war had brought a rift in coast africa the European art community. Dada was making its mark, and the anti -art manifestations of Marcel Duchamp were building up until 1916, when an Are Women, uproar was organized and promoted by Tristan Tzara. Ironically Dadaism was directed against art, particularly academic art, but also against the political society as a whole. The Gold Africa! Andre Breton , Anti-art , Dada 2042 Words | 6 Pages. Colonialism and Nationalism in To Solve The Foreclosure Essay Southeast Asia. was formed in 1918. Local leaders were elected into the Volksraad where they can give advices on state matters.

Through concessions, nationalist groups will . somewhat be satisfied to see some form of local political advancement and hence will not turn anti -colonial. Thus, it can be said that concessions help colonial powers maintain colonial rule as it help appease nationalists, preventing them from the gold coast africa, becoming unhappy and thereby post a threat to the colonial rule. Cultural Beliefs Essay! Nationalist movements were regulated. Africa , Anti-imperialism , Colonialism 929 Words | 2 Pages. The Gold Coast Africa! Music and the American Society (During the 20th Century) racial barrier between black and white people but remained only reserved for buddhist life after death, black listeners. Coast Africa! And with arrival of the buddhist life death First World War came the africa first forms of . Buddhist Life After! anti war songs against the U.S.A.'s decision to enter the European war, like “I Didn’t Raise My Boy to Be a Soldier,” (1915) by lyricist Alfred Bryan , thus music became a major factor in the anti war movement that had been born in the period which influenced the public at the time. And though music began to emerge in the first quarter of the 20th.

20th century , Anti-war , Blues 1105 Words | 3 Pages. a black pedestal) ‘so that its [former] useful significance disappeared’ and he ‘created a new thought for africa, that object’” (Camfield 1989:39). However, . more emphatic was Duchamp’s 1962 letter to Hans Richter, quoted in the latter’s Dada: Art and Anti -Art (1965:207-208): “When I discovered ready-mades I thought to discourage aesthetics. In Neo-Dada they have taken my ready-mades and The Foreclosure Essay, found aesthetic beauty in them. I threw the bottle-rack and the urinal into their faces as a challenge and now they.

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Obama’s Favorite Theologian? A Short Course on Reinhold Niebuhr. Some of the the gold coast, nation’s leading journalists gathered in buddhist after Key West, Fla., in May 2009 for the Pew Forum’s biannual Faith Angle Conference on religion, politics and public life. Ever since then-Sen. Barack Obama spoke of his admiration for Reinhold Niebuhr in a 2007 interview with New York Times columnist David Brooks, there has been speculation about the extent to which the 20th-century theologian has influenced Obama’s views on faith, politics and social change. Africa? Wilfred McClay, a historian specializing in Problems in the System Essay American intellectual history and author of the gold The Masterless: Self and Society in Modern America , which won the 1995 Merle Curti Award in intellectual history, offered an overview of Niebuhr’s unique form of progressive Christianity and Rape Culture: Are Women Asking for It? addressed ongoing debates about the influence of coast africa Niebuhr’s work on 20th-century American politics and Cultural Beliefs international affairs. The Gold Africa? E.J. Dionne, columnist for The Washington Post , remarked on the recent revival of interest in Niebuhrian thought and spoke about the role Niebuhr played as a public intellectual active during the worldwide political upheavals of the 1930s, ’40s and ’50s.

Speaker: Wilfred M. McClay, SunTrust Bank Chair of Excellence in Humanities, University of Tennessee at Chattanooga. Respondent: E.J. Buddhist After? Dionne Jr., Columnist, The Washington Post ; Senior Advisor, Pew Research Center’s Forum on Religion Public Life. Moderator: Michael Cromartie, Vice President, Ethics Public Policy Center; Senior Advisor, Pew Research Center’s Forum on Religion Public Life. And Obama went on for 25 minutes about the gold africa his admiration for Reinhold Niebuhr. And then David did a column on Niebuhr and then we got an after, excuse to the gold coast africa, do Niebuhr. Plan The Foreclosure? So that’s why we’re talking about the gold coast Reinhold Niebuhr – because our president likes Reinhold Niebuhr.

But we thought you wanted to know about him anyway. Problems Educational System? So our session is really not about coast President Obama; it’s about general Reinhold Niebuhr. But we used that teaser “Obama’s Favorite Theologian?” just to get your attention. Coast? And I’m sure the president’s name will come up in our conversation. Bill McClay is an intellectual historian who’s taught at Tulane and Georgetown universities and now is an endowed chair at the University of Tennessee at Problems in the for Boys, Chattanooga. Bill has, if you look at his bio, written some very important books.

One is called The Masterless: Self and coast africa Society in Modern America , which was the winner of a best-book award – the Merle Curti Award in intellectual history – in 1995. Remind me, Bill, who was Merle Curti? WILFRED MCCLAY: He was a great intellectual historian. MCCLAY: From the University of Wisconsin. CROMARTIE: Okay, good, well you won his award in 1995 and that’s why we invited you. Life Death? Now ladies and gentlemen, we’re going to hear from the gold, Bill McClay and then E.J. Dionne is going to read to us from Essay, about five different books by Niebuhr that he has stacked over here. E.J.

DIONNE: Even a thriller. How do you like that? I have a thriller on my list. CROMARTIE: And you’re going to do all that in 15 minutes? CROMARTIE: Okay. Bill, we look forward. Coast? Thank you. MCCLAY: Thanks.

This is really quite a change. I think Francis Collins and how to wikipedia Barbara Bradley Hagerty had a sort of uplifting, hopeful subject. And I have Niebuhr who’s – I think by the time we get through with this you may be ready to slash your wrists. (Laughter.) But I hope not. I hope not. CROMARTIE: Do you have a song about that – suicide? (Laughter.) MCCLAY: “Stormy Weather.” I’m leaning with “Stormy Weather.” But actually I think there are some connections with what Professor Robert Putnam is the gold coast africa going to chaucer prolouge, be doing tomorrow. So I think you will see some linkages. Niebuhr is a theologian. The Gold Coast? He’s also a student of power politics and a great admirer of the saying of Lord Acton, that the power corrupts and PowerPoint corrupts absolutely. (Laughter.) But now, there are souls who – let me finish – there are souls who are pure enough, children of general prolouge light, as Niebuhr might say, who can – actually that’s a double-edged thing, you’ll see – but who can do it.

But I’m not one of them. The Gold Coast Africa? So there will be no PowerPoint, which is not to say that there won’t be any corruption, but at least that particular occasion of sin is Rape Asking one I’m going to coast africa, pass up. Mike’s right: The occasion for this – the Beliefs Essay, hook – is this discussion between David Brooks and then-Senator Obama, which was in 2007, actually. And actually, it was at a time when his candidacy was beginning to look very plausible. And it’s interesting – this may or may not be significant – but he said that Niebuhr was one of his favorite philosophers, according to David’s transcription – not one of his favorite theologians. So that may or may not have any significance. The Gold? And of course, David did say that Obama gave a sort of perfect description of the book in perfect sentences and perfect paragraph structure for 20 minutes, which does suggest that he knew the book in Educational for Boys question, The Irony of American History , which is one of the books I’m going to talk about.

Obama’s not the first American president to declare his fondness for the gold, Niebuhr. Jimmy Carter notably did, and both before and African-American Essay after his election. The Gold Coast? Some people think that the famous “malaise” speech had some Niebuhrian input, and certainly it was influenced by Christopher Lasch’s book The Culture of Narcissism , although in ways that Lasch didn’t particularly like. Problem? It always tends to happen, when politicians use your books in coast speeches – all of a sudden you’re not so thrilled to see it happening. And I think Niebuhr would have been, probably, no exception.

In any event, as Mike has said, I’m not really going to talk very much about Obama. Cultural Essay? I have a feeling you all would want to, and between E.J. and myself, we may have some thoughts. The Gold Coast Africa? And certainly, I’m not going to get into the question of whether his interest – Obama’s interest in Niebuhr – is Plan To Solve The Foreclosure Problem genuine or not, whether he really understands Niebuhr or not. That’s unrelated to my pay grade. I won’t say above or below – instead, what I really want to do is what I said in the title, is to lay out his vision, his worldview in a kind of short course. And obviously, if there’s an agenda here, it’s simply to indicate that his thinking, although it does develop – and whose doesn’t – has a core of consistency. There is a core to Niebuhr that seems to me carries through some three decades of concentrated work. I will avoid, strenuously, speculating about “what would Niebuhr do,” what would Niebuhr say, about embryonic stem cell research or whatever other present-day issue.

I think there’s plenty to talk about, just with respect to what he did say and africa think. And I’ll lay that out and then we can speculate. Niebuhr is the outstanding public theologian of the 20th century, and I’m sure you know about him. Wikipedia? You may not know much about him. He has become a figure of africa obscurity in recent decades, and general prolouge that’s partly because the term “public theologian” has come to represent something of coast africa a null set in buddhist life recent times.

I remember in the issue of Time right before 9/11, Stanley Hauerwas was dubbed America’s best theologian. But he’s not really a theologian who, whatever his other virtues, has much of practical import to say about coast political life. But Niebuhr had an unusually long and in the Educational for Boys Essay productive career. He turned out africa, many books, many articles; wrote journalistically; wrote highly, densely scholarly works. He was engaged.

He was involved in the politics of the System Essay, day, from World War I all the way to the Vietnam War. So he was not only a theologian of great distinction, but also a public intellectual who addressed himself to the full range of public concerns and had an enormously capacious mind that really could take in all kinds of issues that he wouldn’t necessarily have discussed in his books. His importance in his time tells you something about his time. It was a time when theologians were important people. And it was a time when there was that great vitality in the mainline of Protestantism that Barbara referred to. It’s an indication of the severe attenuation of africa that influence that the wikipedia apa, closest thing to Niebuhr in recent years has been the late Father Richard John Neuhaus – who converted to coast, Catholicism (laughs) – and who had very low regard for the Protestant mainline. So Niebuhr’s career in some ways raises the issue of this now-attenuated influence and Culture: Essay the fact that Neuhaus, who started out as a Protestant, ended up with Catholicism. The mainline Protestant world today is no longer the place where Protestants go for fresh ideas. Also, as a general observation, Niebuhr is something of a counterpuncher as an intellectual, and what I mean by that term I think will become evident; but in short, it’s hard to know what he thinks about somebody or about the gold some subject unless he’s reacting to them. That’s when he truly discloses himself: in taking exception to or responding to other thinkers, which is why I think it’s very important to see him in context and be very careful about what we can extract and use for how to cite wikipedia apa, all occasions.

One thing about the context is, I think it’s impossible to imagine him operating in coast anything other than a modern, Western, liberal environment, where there’s a strong tradition of science, of belief in Comprehensive Problem the idea of progress – a society that is in some ways poised on coast the cusp of Cultural a transformation into secularity, or at any rate a world in which a secular option exists. He was very much a creature of that historical moment and a critic of liberalism from the gold africa, within liberalism, a breed that flourished particularly in the late ’40s and ’50s – and doesn’t seem to exist, at least in the same form, today. The issues that he struggled with are quintessentially related to problems of African-American Essay advanced modernity, and science is one of them. I wouldn’t necessarily have emphasized this – but with Francis Collins here – his talk made me think again and again about the gold how his own perspective on science represents an advance over the dilemma that Niebuhr saw us in. Niebuhr upholds the idea of progress and remorselessly critiques it at how to, the same time.

I might add something else that you may know Niebuhr for – what’s called the “serenity prayer,” which goes something like “God, grant us the serenity to the gold, accept the things we cannot change, the courage to change the things that can be changed, and the wisdom to know the in the Educational for Boys, one from the other.” I’m reciting from memory. But the interesting thing is what – to me anyway, as someone of conservative disposition – is what he leaves out, and africa that is preserving the things that need to be preserved. (Laughter.) It’s a striking omission! But it shows how thoroughgoing a progressive he was. Chaucer General? There’s no hint of this in the serenity prayer – I don’t know whether anybody’s ever observed this about coast it, but – CROMARTIE: It could be a first. MCCLAY: It’s a first and Problems Educational for Boys last.

So Niebuhr has an understanding of Christianity that’s grounded in a very complicated view of human nature. Actually, a lot of coast africa his persuasiveness derives from the fact that this view is more complicated and adequate than its secular equivalents. In The Educational Essay? But first, let me give you a little background biography, which is all-important. He was born in the gold 1892, not in a log cabin, you’ll be happy to know, but in rural Missouri, the son of a German immigrant pastor, Gustav Niebuhr. And Gustav Niebuhr was a member of a tiny Protestant group called the German Evangelical Synod, which was very much an immigrant group. He really grew up in a German-speaking enclave, which was actually rather common in that part of the Midwest – Missouri and Illinois in late 19th- or early 20th-century farm communities. By the way, an interesting side point: The German Evangelical Synod eventually became part of the Comprehensive The Foreclosure Problem Essay, United Church of Christ, which is the same Protestant denomination that the Rev. Jeremiah Wright belongs to. So there’s a sort of odd little connection there. Reinhold inherited from his father this sense of pastoral vocation and africa a keen interest in social and political affairs. He built on this with two years at wikipedia apa, Yale Divinity School, and the gold coast africa so he began his career as a theologian and pastor as an advocate of what was called the “social gospel.” The social gospel was a movement within liberal Protestantism which located the meaning of the buddhist life after, Christian Gospel in its promise as a blueprint for the gold, progressive social reform, rather than its assertions about supernatural reality.

A few words about the Are Women Asking, social gospel, because it’s very important to this story. It arose out of a crisis within, particularly, Protestantism – although Catholicism had its own version of this – in response to industrialization and africa urbanization. In the Protestant case, particularly salient were the challenges to biblical authority rising out of these things, but more so out of Darwinism – Darwin and Darwinism. And not so much the idea of how to cite wikipedia apa evolution per se, which was a doctrine that easily comported with Christian faith, but the specific idea of natural selection. It was the africa, randomness of the buddhist, process of natural selection that was viewed as particularly threatening. And an the gold coast, equally powerful threat came from the so-called “higher criticism” of the Bible, which deconstructed the Bible, for all intents and purposes, into a collection of buddhist life after redactions of successive texts by multiple authors over long periods of time, and therefore not a text that should be regarded as having any kind of organic or authorial unity. So all of these things were terribly threatening, especially to Protestants. Why Protestants?

Because the the gold coast, whole basis of the Protestant Reformation, to The Foreclosure Problem, oversimplify grandly, was to see the authority of the Bible as overriding – as superseding – the authority of the coast, historical institutional church. There are some qualifications you’d need to make to that statement, but basically that is a fair assessment. So that tremendous weight is placed on the authority of that text, and if its authority falls into question, then the entire foundation of Protestantism is threatened. So the social gospel was one way of responding to Asking for It?, this problem. Social gospelers were modernists. They had dismissed the notion that the Bible should be read authoritatively in the way that, say, fundamentalists – the fundamentalist movement was just getting going at this time – read the the gold coast, Bible, or even the historical creeds. But the social gospelers insisted that what they thought of as the heart of the Comprehensive Plan To Solve The Foreclosure, Christian Gospel was very much valid and alive and the gold coast worth preserving. It could be preserved by dispensing with these supernatural problematic elements and instead socializing the Gospel, i.e., translating it into the language of social reform, including scientific social reform.

They saw very little sense of antagonism between science and in the Educational for Boys Essay reform. The Gold Coast? And in the general optimism of the period, there were seen to be very few limits on what could be achieved. Walter Rauschenbusch, who was perhaps the leading figure in the social gospel movement, put it this way – and Rape Culture: Are Women for It? Essay forgive me, I’m going to have to read more quotes than I would normally read to give you a sense of these thinkers. But here’s Rauschenbusch: “We have the possibility of coast africa so directing religious energy by scientific knowledge that a comprehensive and continuous reconstruction of social life in the name of general prolouge God is within the the gold africa, bounds of human possibility.” So this idea of progress, the idea of perfectibility of the human condition, of System Essay man himself, to the gold coast, use that term in a generic sense, is very much at chaucer general prolouge, the core of it all. By the way, one of the coast, ways American sociology differed dramatically from, say, German sociology is that from the very beginning it had an astonishingly religious content to it. Albion Small, who was the chaucer prolouge, chairman of the department of sociology at the gold africa, the University of Chicago, the founder of the first sociology journal in the United States, the president of the American Sociological Association, and so on and so forth, wrote the following: “Sociology is a science … of God’s image … a moral philosophy conscious of its task,” which was nothing less than “an approximation of the ideal of chaucer general social life contained in the Gospels.” Social science was “the holiest sacrament open to men,” devoted to “laying the individualistic superstition” and ensuring that “we live, move, and have our being as members of one another.” In other words, the kingdom of God is not reserved for the gold africa, the beyond or the end of time, but can be created in the here and now by social scientists and wikipedia apa ministers working hand-in-hand together. Although Niebuhr is my subject, I’m going to make a few little interjections about Obama at appropriate points. Coast? And I think that certainly one of the things that one could speculate on chaucer general is the degree to which Obama has been influenced by the social gospel, as I think his pastor Jeremiah Wright very clearly was. There is a lot of evidence that he has been.

For example, there was the famous speech that Obama gave in the gold South Carolina, during the campaign, in which he declared his desire to be an Essay, “instrument of God” – and declared, quote, “I am confident that we can create a kingdom right here on Earth.” And it was a capitalized ‘k,’ – I assume he did not mean that he was going to the gold coast, institute the prolouge, political institution of the monarchy. So definitely, echoes of the social gospel were there. So Niebuhr initially bought into coast africa, this. He bought into the social gospel movement. It fit with his upbringing. It fit with his reformist inclinations. But being Niebuhr, as you’ll see, he soon became impatient with this kind of talk. He became uneasy with the progressive movement. He found it and the social gospel to be utterly naive about human nature, about the in the System for Boys Essay, intractability of human nature, and inadequate to the gold coast, the task of explaining the Culture: Are Women Essay, nature of power relations as they existed in the real world. Sin was not just a word that we use to describe bad institutions that can be corrected. Sin, he thought, was something much deeper, an intrinsic part of the human condition, something that social reform was powerless to coast africa, do much, if anything, about.

And – I just had to throw this in for E.J. – in 1939 he says, “Liberalism is little more than faith in man, exemplifying that perversion of the will, that betrayal of divine trust, which is called sin.” Of course he was a liberal through and through, so he was critiquing his own beliefs, his own system. What was arguably his most important book came out in 1932, with the revealing title Moral Man and Immoral Society . Nineteen thirty-two, needless to Rape Asking, say, is the depths of the Depression, so it’s a propitious moment to africa, publish a rather hard-hitting book, which this was. Niebuhr turned the social gospelers’ view on its head or on its feet – whichever Marxian analogy you like – and Rape Are Women for It? argued that in fact there was a disjuncture between the morality of individuals and the morality of the gold africa groups. Cite Apa? And the latter – the morality of groups – that morality was generally inferior to the morality of coast africa individuals. I’ll explain that in a moment. This was, he thought, a fixed condition, a fixed dynamic of life after death human life.

Individuals could, once in a while, in rare instances, transcend their self-interest for the sake of a larger good. Coast Africa? But groups of individuals, especially groups like nations, never could. So in fact, groups made individuals worse rather than better because the work of collectives was invariably governed by a logic of self-interest. So Niebuhr rejected the progressives’ belief in Comprehensive Plan The Foreclosure Essay the plasticity or semi-plasticity of human nature. He thought sin was a better explanation. He liked to say that sin was the one element in the Christian creed that was empirically verifiable. (Laughter.) And he also took aim – and the gold coast africa I think this is more radical than people appreciate – he took aim at the very concept of socialization, which for the progressives was so central. John Dewey was a frequent target – in Moral Man and Cultural Beliefs Essay Immoral Society he just goes after him every chance he gets. John Dewey argued that “The lost individual will re-find inner wholeness … by subduing himself to the forces of organization at work in externals.” You can tell that’s John Dewey because you could read it over and over again and it’s sort of like processing jelly, but you get the idea. Africa? (Laughter.) Niebuhr thought almost the opposite was true. As I said before, men have little enough goodness in themselves and socialization makes them worse because the reason for being, for all social groups, is to pursue the shared self-interest of the members. So that self-interest is apa triumphant. He dismissed as sentimentality the progressive hope that the wages of individual sin could be overcome by intelligent reform and that there we could transform into a loving fellowship of like-minded comrades holding hands beside the campfire.

Instead, the pursuit of good ends in africa the arenas of national and international politics had to take full account of the un-loveliness of human nature, and the un-loveliness of power. The implications for Christians who wanted to do good in the world were fairly stark in his view. They had to be willing to To Solve The Foreclosure Problem Essay, get their hands dirty – very dirty, for existing social relations were held together by coercion and only counter-coercion could change them. Social change was brought about not by persuasion, diplomacy, pedagogy, intelligence or sweetness, but by – to coast africa, use a term that he uses repeatedly in the book – “emotionally potent oversimplifications.” Emotionally potent oversimplifications – these are the things that galvanize groups to effective action. You see why I say this is a rather depressing outlook – (laughs) – and it doesn’t get any better. A quotation: “Our contemporary culture fails to general, realize the the gold africa, power, extent and persistence of group egoism in human relations.” So the Rape Are Women for It?, idea of the gold africa solidarity – the campfire – is an illusion. Quote: “Society is a perpetual state of war between different self-interested groups.” Jesus Christ, meet Thomas Hobbes. Quote: “The only way a society can maintain itself is by how to the coercion of dominant groups who go on to invent romantic and moral interpretations of the facts, and the peace lasts only as long as the underdogs are kept down.

Then when they are able to the gold coast, successfully challenge and chaucer general prolouge coerce a new peace, they impose another set of romantic and moral interpretations of the the gold coast africa, facts.” So only power can counter power in his view – and power, as Henry Adams said, is poison. It’s a formulation that doesn’t – (laughs) – that doesn’t lead to an attractive conclusion. His conclusion was that the exercise of power was always morally dangerous, but also always morally necessary. You had to act in the world. You couldn’t take the option of opting out. Hence, the need for a dualism in morals, since – and I quote again – “The selfishness of prolouge human communities must be regarded as an inevitability and can only africa, be countered by Essay competing assertions of interests.” So that’s James Madison – (laughs) – along with Hobbes. But in none of the gold this is there a release from the moral requirements of Christianity. I’ll come back to that. This rather stark view extends very much to the nation-state. And this was a response on his part to the social gospel, to the progressive movement and to a rather long strain in American ideas – progressive ideas – about solidarity.

Edward Bellamy’s famous movement was built around a philosophy, a kind of socialist-fascist meld that he called nationalism. So on the reform – I won’t necessarily call it the left; I’m not sure what to call it – but on general prolouge the progressive side of things, nationalism was not a bad thing. The Gold Coast Africa? But to Niebuhr it was. Niebuhr wrote an article in 1916 in The Atlantic called “The Nation’s Crime Against the Individual,” a nice, subtle title. And the idea here was, and this is before American entry into buddhist after, the first world war, which he strongly supported, that the nation cheats the soldier because it takes his loyalty, his willingness to die and the gold coast africa sacrifice, for Rape Culture: Asking for It?, its own purposes without being able to hallow that sacrifice. Or as he put it, the nation “claims a life of eternal significance for ends that have no eternal value.” Or as he expressed the the gold africa, same idea some 16 years later in Moral Man and Immoral Society , “Patriotism transmutes individual unselfishness into national egoism.” It is “the unselfishness of the individuals [that] makes for the selfishness of nations,” which “is why the hope of solving the larger social problems of African-American Essay mankind, merely by extending the social sympathies of individuals, is the gold so vain.” So much for empathy. But there’s an how to apa, interesting twist here; it is that all of this rejection of the social gospel, affirmation of original sin and coast so on, did not mean that he gave up on Rape Culture: Are Women Essay social reform. And Niebuhr was a man of the left and he remained a man of the left always. Maybe not enough left to suit some people, but he certainly was never a conservative. And he believed Christians were obligated to coast africa, work actively for progressive social causes, for the realization of justice and after death righteousness, but they had to africa, do this in a way that, as he characteristically put it, abandoned their illusions, not least in the way they thought about themselves. The pursuit of general social justice would involve them in the gold acts of sin and acts of imperfection.

Even the most surgical action, one might say, involves collateral damage. Life After? But the Christian faith, just as inexorably, called its adherents to the gold africa, a life of perfect righteousness, a calling that would seem to give no quarter to dirty hands. So we’re left with the feeling that Niebuhr is wikipedia calling Christians to the gold, the impossible and, in a sense, he is. He insists original sin is true. He insists that its probative value is cite confirmed every day. Yet he insists at the same time that human beings are splendidly endowed by coast africa their Creator, still capable of chaucer prolouge acts of nobility and generosity or truth, still able to advance the cause of the gold social improvement.

All of these things he insisted are true at the same time and all have an equivalent claim. So he’s correcting the social gospel. He’s pushing against the social gospel, which he sees as making many errors, but he’s not abandoning it entirely. These ideas would continue to Asking for It?, develop. Coast Africa? In 1938, he was invited to give the Gifford Lectures at St. Andrews University, very prestigious lectures in natural theology.

And these were later published as what is arguably his magnum opus, a book called The Nature and Destiny of Man , about which David Brooks once said, as I recall, “If you write a book with a title like that, you really feel like you have nothing else left to say.” (Laughter.) And that appeared in 1943. It’s interesting how productive Niebuhr was right through the for It? Essay, second world war. And this book is really a grand tour of the entire intellectual history of the West and ultimately, I think, it’s really a book about the idea of progress itself and about the question of whether human history can be meaningful. The Gold Coast Africa? I want to Comprehensive To Solve The Foreclosure Problem, stress that last point. The Gold Coast? One of Niebuhr’s great antagonists was Henry Ford. Cite Wikipedia Apa? He hated Henry Ford, loathed him for his treatment of coast his workers. And actually his hatred for Henry Ford was a very formative influence in his life.

But Henry Ford had one of the great sayings about general history: that history is “one damn thing after another.” I think that’s a legitimate way of understanding history, that it has no intrinsic dynamic or meaning. But Niebuhr wanted to struggle with that, of course. And as a thinking Christian he had to see some meaning in history. Christians understand history as meaningful, although sometimes the meaning is in history and sometimes it’s outside of history and one can’t know in advance which is operating. So it’s another one of these hazardous but necessary operations. What he felt had happened, however, in modern times, was that there was a secularized idea of progress that saw an immanent order, or as he called it, “an immanent logos,” that was no longer related to a transcendent meaning, but was inherent in history itself. And this idea of coast progress was something that had emerged out of Christianity, that was in some sense an in the Educational System, outgrowth of Christianity’s worldview and ethos, but that had threatened to negate Christianity. It’s a view that is built on biblical language, built on biblical insights, but an idea that became transformed by two modern innovations. First, there was the elimination of the notion that grace, meaning the supernatural intervention of coast africa divine power to give meaning to history, was necessary.

And second, the thinkers who laid the Culture:, foundation of the gold africa modernity – and this I think is really where you get to the heart of Niebuhr – failed to see that the dynamism of chaucer general prolouge history was a double-edged thing. These thinkers assumed that all development means the advancement of the good, but in the gold africa so assuming, they failed to recognize – and this I think he sees as characteristic of Problem all modernity – that, and I quote, “every heightened potency of human existence may also represent a possibility of evil.” So in other words, as our capacity grows, so does our power to africa, do evil – intentionally or unintentionally. Everything that has its being within history is involved, on every level, in contradicting the eternal. And so the general, tendency is, as he says, to complete the system of coast africa meaning falsely in a way that makes either the individual or the group the center of the system. And then Niebuhr goes on and says, “It’s not possible for any philosophy to escape this error … but it is Cultural Beliefs Essay possible to coast africa, have a philosophy, or at least a theology, grounded in faith, which understands the error will be committed and that it is analogous to all these presumptions of history which defy the Essay, majesty of God.”

So he sees progress as a factor of history, a facet of the gold coast africa history. Culture: Are Women Asking Essay? He sees that it’s right to conceive of history dynamically. He takes a generous view of history’s possibilities, but also warns that, as he puts it, “History cannot move forward towards increasing order without developing possibilities of chaos by the very potencies which have enhanced order.” In other words, we’re never out of the the gold africa, woods. That’s my redaction there. And the danger only Cultural Beliefs, increases as we progress. Man’s capacity for evil advances with his progress towards the good. Hence, the greater the progress, the greater the need for vigilance, the greater the need for coast africa, some metaphysical check on human pride. The image I like to use to describe this is of a tightrope, one that is always going higher and higher and, as you know, with a tightrope, you have to keep moving forward.

You can’t stop moving. But you’re moving along this tightrope towards ever-greater dangers, along with the death, ever-greater achievements. And that I think is the vision that he’s operating with. I was going to say a little bit about the gold The Children of Light and the Children of Darkness , but I think I’m running out of time. So let me move on Culture: Asking for It? Essay to the book that has really gotten attention in the last 10 years, The Irony of American History , published in the gold coast africa 1952. And he takes these same insights and focuses them upon a consideration of America’s role in the world.

Published in 1952, at the height of the Cold War, this was an interesting and perhaps surprising book. It was a stinging attack on communism and at the same time a stinging attack on America, on the moral complacency of America, a warning against the moral failings that would make America vulnerable. That’s Niebuhr – typically, as always, fighting on two fronts at once. Nobody can top Niebuhr for his anticommunism, but he also believed the United States resembled its antagonists more than it cared to imagine. And much of the book is devoted to making that case.

He criticizes the communists for their philosophical materialism, but then points out that Americans are guilty of the same thing in practice. Here’s a statement that I think rings just as true today as in 1952: “Despite the constant emphasis upon the ‘dignity of man’ in our own liberal culture, its predominant naturalistic bias frequently results in views of human nature in which the dignity of Rape for It? Essay man is coast not very clear.” And this tendency towards materialism was not even the how to cite, greatest of the gold coast America’s dangers. Even more perilous, he thought, was one of our principal points of pride, the African-American Beliefs, entrenched idea that America has a providential mission in the world and our nation’s rendered uniquely virtuous and innocent by the blessings of that history. And he goes through a discussion of coast africa this, locating the beginnings of it in the Calvinist Puritan tradition, and then the Jeffersonian tradition, which saw America’s as nature’s nation, free from the encumbrances of the old world.

It was the place of the new man, of the democratic future. America was, so to speak, the land of the great reset button, presumably labeled in Rape Culture: Are Women Asking for It? the correct manner. (Laughs.) Even Abraham Lincoln, who was not a dewy-eyed fellow, called America “the last best hope of coast africa mankind,” words that certainly, if nothing else, convey a kind of cosmic significance to Educational for Boys Essay, American history. Niebuhr didn’t reject these things completely; he didn’t see them as having no basis. He did not reject the greatness of America, but he insisted that the American belief that America had turned its back on history and made a new beginning for humankind was naive and dangerous, laying America open to africa, the sins of spiritual pride. It was a source of strength that turned into a source of weakness. And that is what he meant by the irony of American history, the tendency of American civilization to allow decent motives and noble intentions to blind it to the sins and Are Women Asking for It? errors to which it’s prone and the gold coast thereby let its virtue become the source of its vice. It was an irony because it was unintended, inadvertent, unconscious and a consequence of prolouge good intentions, rather than doing evil for the sake of coast africa a larger good, which he called tragedy, not irony.

If that was all he was saying, then he would just sound like another typical critic of American civilization, but he said something more. He said America had to The Foreclosure Essay, act in the world and do so effectively. It had no choice but to the gold africa, do so. Chaucer Prolouge? In the the gold coast africa, same way that the sinful imperfect Christian is required to act in the world and get his or her hands dirty in working for the cause of good, so a morally imperfect America was obliged to employ its power in the world. Now, opting out was not an option, or rather it was an option that was just as perilous as the general prolouge, alternatives it would avoid. And let me just read you a couple of passages that illustrate this, and then I’ll stop: “Our culture knows little of the use and abuse of power; but we have to use power in global terms. Africa? Our idealists are divided between those who would renounce the responsibilities of Problems in the System for Boys Essay power for africa, the sake of preserving the purity of death our soul and those who are ready to cover every ambiguity of the gold africa good and evil in our actions by the frantic insistence that any measure taken in a good cause must be unequivocally virtuous.” Fairly timely words, I think.

Needless to say, he rejects both of these options and African-American Cultural continues this way: “We take, and must continue to take, morally hazardous actions to the gold, preserve our civilization. Life? We must exercise our power. But we ought neither to believe that a nation is capable of perfect disinterestedness in its exercise, nor become complacent about particular degrees of interest and passion which corrupt the justice by which the the gold, exercise of power is legitimated.” And I will stop there. CROMARTIE: No, that’s great. African-American Cultural? We’ll just keep it rolling. Everybody here knows E.J. Dionne. I know you’ve spoken on Niebuhr a lot and we’re delighted to have you respond to Bill. Africa? Thank you. DIONNE: Thank you, Mike.

I was thinking that maybe Barbara would explain it as some peculiar part of my brain, but it actually makes me happy to talk about Reinhold Niebuhr – (laughter) – and to do some research on him. I ran across how Robert McAfee Brown described Niebuhr as a pessimistic optimist. And I think that’s exactly what he is, unless you want to see him as an life after death, optimistic pessimist. But I think there is this very deep element of optimism that comes out of that pessimism, which I want to get into. Before I say anything, I just want to thank Mike for running these things for 10 years.

We’ll probably say this later, but I’ve been coming to these things from the beginning, and who’d have thunk that having sessions with journalists on religion would work like this. The Gold Coast? Now, Mike had the absolutely brilliant idea of holding these sessions in rather nice places. How To? (Laughter.) But for me it’s not only been the coast africa, meetings, but also all the friends I have met through this. He actually – in this time it’s not easy – he actually created community out of this 10 years of work. So I thank him and African-American Essay the Pew Charitable Trusts. (Applause.) And I also want to say it’s a great honor to be with Bill McClay.

One of my very favorite essays on the general subject of religion in politics is a piece Bill wrote in 2003 called “Two Concepts of the gold coast africa Secularism,” which I commend to everyone. And he wrote a great essay right after 9/11 called “The Continuing Irony of American History” in in the System Essay First Things . The Gold? And I suggest this to anybody who wants to see more of Bill’s thoughts on this. It’s a very interesting read in Essay the wake – all these years later. Just to the gold coast africa, pick up two quick points that Bill made and then I just want to say a few things. He did note that Barack Obama called Reinhold Niebuhr a philosopher rather than a theologian, and I can’t help but point out that President Bush referred to Jesus as his favorite philosopher. And you may recall that Alan Keyes took George Bush to task by saying, “Jesus isn’t a philosopher; Jesus is the Word.” And I was thinking that would be a great Cromartie session: “Jesus: A Philosopher or the Word?” So I hope Mike gets refunded. And it’s not just because he finally gave me one of those nice rooms on the water this year. (Laughter.)

And I’m really glad that Bill did point out that Niebuhr got all this attention in Time magazine. Can you think of African-American Cultural Beliefs Essay a talk show that would book Reinhold Niebuhr now? I was thinking about the gold that. In The Educational For Boys Essay? “Tell us, Reinhold, what do you mean by the irony of American history?” “Well, Larry, as I was saying the other day to Abraham Heschel and Paul Tillich …” It just wouldn’t happen. And I think – (laughter) – it suggests a certain hole in our discussion of this. The Gold Coast Africa? Colbert would have him on; absolutely, absolutely. And I was reminded of the omnipresence of Reinhold Niebuhr when I picked up one of my favorite thriller writers Philip Kerr – I highly recommend him. His hero is a perfect Niebuhrian character. Cultural Beliefs Essay? He is a German detective in Nazi Germany.

He’s anti-Nazi. I’m pleased to say that in one of coast africa his books he says that he voted for the social democrats. And he’s trying to operate in Problems System Nazi Germany to do as little damage and as much good as he can without actually going to the slammer. And I opened my Philip Kerr and there right at the beginning is the serenity prayer of Reinhold Niebuhr. So we were destined to the gold coast, have this discussion. In 1987, so 22 years ago, the late Father Richard Neuhaus organized a conference on Reinhold Niebuhr.

It was funded – you will be surprised – by the Pew Charitable Trusts. General Prolouge? It is written that the Pew Trusts will always be with us. And Father Neuhaus said a very interesting thing in introducing the volume about Niebuhr. He said, “In recent years,” – this is back in ’87 – “there has been something of coast africa a Niebuhr renaissance. How To Cite Wikipedia Apa? It has been led in large parts by the gold those who are or are suspected of being, as though it were a sin, neoconservative.” And then he adds – and this part I very much agree with – “Attempting to capture Niebuhr for any partisan agenda, however, would be a great disservice both to Niebuhr and to what he can help us do today.” And I think it says something about Niebuhr that this new Niebuhr revival, which I think we are seeing right now, is not being led primarily by neoconservatives, but actually by life death liberals and certain dissident conservatives like our friend David Brooks. I want to just talk a little bit about the political character of Niebuhr’s thought without violating what Father Neuhaus said. I do think in the gold africa the end he is unmistakably, or if you have the buddhist life, other view, irredeemably, a liberal in the end.

I wouldn’t use the the gold africa, word “irredeemably,” but it is something worth talking about Rape Asking Essay because it’s very much a question of how his view of original sin fits in coast africa with a liberal worldview. How do you sort of get at wikipedia, what being a Niebuhrian is? My original example was going to be about a baseball player, but in deference to our resident hockey star Clare Duffy, I decided to use a hockey player instead. A Niebuhrian hockey player tries to win the game, but does not assume victory renders him superior to his opponent and would admit that he may have won unfairly when he high-sticked Clare Duffy and africa got away with it. That’s a Niebuhrian hockey player. A Niebuhrian wagering in Vegas plays the odds intelligently and tries to win, but always admits that perhaps luck or God’s grace, not his system, is why he won.

A Niebuhrian will get into a fistfight if it’s absolutely necessary, but would be acutely conscious of the pain his blows are inflicting on how to his opponent and know that the very fact the fight is happening is proof of the fallen nature of both himself and the person he is fighting. (Laughter.) And a proper Niebuhrian will have a sense of humor about all of these things, understanding the profound ironies involved in trying to act effectively in the world and coast africa trying to act morally at the same time. And that’s why I love Reinhold Niebuhr. I went back to the canonical text, which is David Brooks’ famous interview with Barack Obama, and life after I just think it’s worth to recalling. It was actually just a short statement by Obama, but it’s worth quoting to provide a context for the headline that Mike put on our discussion. David asked, “Have you ever read Reinhold Niebuhr?” Obama replied, “I love him. The Gold Africa? He’s one of my favorite philosophers.” And David asked what Obama took take away from Niebuhr.

And here’s what Obama actually said. In The Educational System For Boys Essay? “I take away the compelling idea that there’s serious evil in the world, and hardship and pain. And we should be humble and modest in our belief that we can eliminate those things. But we shouldn’t use that as an excuse for the gold africa, cynicism and inaction. Rape For It? Essay? I take away the africa, sense we have to make these efforts knowing they are hard, and not swinging from naive idealism to bitter realism.” That is actually a pretty good description of Reinhold Niebuhr. And whether Barack Obama, the politician, was pandering to David Brooks’ well-known love for Niebuhr or whether he was reflecting something deep in him, it sounded pretty deep and Rape Culture: Asking for It? Essay I think it’s actually not a bad description of the way Obama views the world. In the discussion I’d love to have a friendly argument with Bill about whether he’s more social gospel or more Niebuhrian. I think he’s actually more Niebuhrian. There are elements of social gospel in the way Obama preaches, but I think his content is more Niebuhrian. Niebuhr – and this is the gold coast africa probably why I like him – is Cultural much more a “both/and” guy.

He’s a “yes, but” guy. His favorite words are “paradox” and “irony.” He is a 1940s liberal and that’s why there is the big debate between liberals and neocons because a lot of neocons say they are 1940s liberals. I think Niebuhr, later in life, suggested that he did not take the same path as some of his neoconservative friends, particularly with his very early support for the civil rights movement – although a lot of them supported the civil rights movement – but also with his strong opposition to the gold, the Vietnam War. African-American Cultural? But that’s just a piece of history that we can talk about. What I like about him is that he believes what he believes passionately, but with a sense of humility. I got some Niebuhr in Francis Collins’ presentation today. Why are there Niebuhr revivals? Niebuhr is the person we turn to the gold africa, for balance. African-American Cultural Beliefs? We turn to him when things get out of hand. He is a critic of the left’s utopianism and he’s a critic of the right’s tendency to deify our own country. His critique of original sin I think applies neatly at different times to both the right and the left in our politics.

I think he has what you might call a dialectical relationship with the left. And I think Bill was absolutely right to point out kind of three important episodes. He reacted against the gold africa the social gospel not because he opposed the economic or social programs of the social gospel but because he had a different understanding of human nature. He thought liberals had too optimistic a view of human nature. His next big political turn was in Essay the late 1930s, when he broke with his pacifist friends. The Christian Century , as you know, is still around, but he broke with The Christian Century and formed another magazine called Christianity and Crisis to argue that we needed to the gold africa, go to war against Hitler and Nazism.

And then he made his mark again in politics, with a liberal anticommunism that made him one of the founders of Essay Americans for africa, Democratic Action with Arthur Schlesinger Jr. And I’m going to cite Schlesinger before I close. Niebuhr never stopped being a liberal, but he was a liberal critic. I want to African-American Cultural Essay, use myself as simply a specimen of why people at different points get engaged with Niebuhr. I think I’m fairly typical of people who will fall in love with Niebuhr, if he would permit that. Coast Africa? I’m not even sure he would. (Laughter.) I read The Children of Light and the Children of buddhist life Darkness , which is the first Niebuhr I read, in the early-to-mid-’70s. I read it as someone who broadly shared – still shares – the left’s views on economic justice and coast africa social reform, but I was impatient with a certain utopianism I saw on the left, which I thought was destructive. And I was also impatient with some parts of the life after death, left that seemed not to coast africa, believe in the disciplines and limits placed upon our aspirations by the need to persuade majorities and to build consensus in in the democratic societies.

I was and the gold still am turned off by self-righteous moralism disguised as morality. Mike Novak is someone who’s written very well on that over the years and I think that tendency to be moralistic rather than moral afflicts the right, the prolouge, center, the left and even parts of the self-satisfied center. And so I realized quickly after reading that book that Niebuhr was my guy, again preaching that you could combine passion and the gold coast humility. I see two major reasons for the revival of interest in Niebuhr among liberals. One, I think some of the criticism by Christian moderates and liberals of what we would see as a hyper-politicized Christian right square very much with some of Niebuhr’s criticism of a certain style of Christianity, a kind of revivalism that he was critical of in his own time.

Niebuhr enjoined the believer to understand that “the worst corruption is a corrupt religion.” We need a sense of modesty about the virtue, wisdom and Comprehensive To Solve The Foreclosure Problem Essay power available to us and a sense of contrition about the common human frailties and foibles which lie at the foundation of both the enemy’s demonry and our vanities. Americans, Niebuhr argued, were never safe against the temptation of claiming God too simply as the the gold coast africa, sanctifier of whatever we most fervently desire. One great Niebuhrian quote should hang over all seminars. Niebuhr once said that “we must always seek the truth in our opponents’ error and the error in Rape Are Women our own truth.” And that is also classic Niebuhr.

I think the the gold africa, paradox is that – and my friend Bill Galston really called this to my attention – one of the paradoxes is that Niebuhr encourages us to doubt and the kind of doubt that Niebuhr encourages is the kind of doubt that faith ought to encourage. If faith is defined solely as a demand that everyone assent, without reservation, to a long and particular list of propositions, that’s an odd idea. But I think this is an inadequate understanding of the Christian and Jewish traditions, which always call us to a form of Problems System Essay moral doubt that, as Bill Galston has said, calls upon us to question our motivations and the gold coast pretensions to Beliefs, special virtue. Niebuhr said, “No virtuous act is quite as virtuous from the standpoint of our friend or foe as it is from coast africa, our standpoint.” He argued that some of the Rape Culture: Are Women Asking Essay, greatest perils to democracy arise from the fanaticism of the gold africa moral idealists who are not conscious of the corruption of self-interest. And in his assertion, which might usefully have guided us during our debate over the war in Iraq, Niebuhr warned, “A nation with an inordinate degree of political power is doubly tempted to exceed the bounds of death historical possibilities, if it is informed by an idealism which does not understand the limits of man’s wisdom and volition.” David Brooks and I did a session on Niebuhr recently, and one point that emerged clearly is that it is not surprising that Niebuhr really came to popularity in a period when he was writing about Nazism and Stalinism, which were ideologies that justified despotic pretensions in the name of coast africa creating new human beings and perfect societies. Niebuhr had a strong sense of human nature as a constant. He was very skeptical of Are Women Asking for It? Essay projects designed to create a new humanity and was very aware of how terrible these projects could become. This is religion’s essentially moderating role, which is far removed from ideology and from many claims that religion can provide a detailed textbook for creating the perfect society here on the gold coast africa Earth.

Even the religious left’s talk of our obligation to build the how to, kingdom of God’s justice on coast africa earth emphasizes a constant act of Comprehensive Plan To Solve The Foreclosure Problem creation – building – not a final outcome that human beings can achieve on our own. It’s very important to the gold africa, understand that Niebuhr imported Saint Augustine into liberalism. And a friend of many of ours, Jean Elshtain, captured this very well. She wrote – and this is a totally Niebuhrian thought on Jean’s part – that if Augustine is “a thorn in African-American Essay the side of those who would cure the coast, universe once and for all, he similarly torments critics who disdain any project of human community or justice or possibility.” “Wisdom,” Jean says, “comes from experiencing fully the ambivalence and ambiguity that is the human condition.” When David and Plan To Solve The Foreclosure Essay I recently did the session on the gold coast Niebuhr, at one point, I blurted out African-American Cultural Beliefs Essay, that maybe we were talking about the marriage of Madison, Lincoln and Niebuhr. And then I looked up and I said, wait a minute. The Gold Coast? That is System polygamy. (Laughter.) And I don’t know what Niebuhr would think of that. But one of Niebuhr’s – and the gold coast I think Bill alluded to this – one of Niebuhr’s favorite public statements by in the System for Boys any politician is Lincoln’s second inaugural address.

And you all remember the the gold coast africa, key passage in how to cite Lincoln’s second inaugural, when he said: “Both sides read the same Bible, and coast pray to the same God; and each invokes his aid against the other. It may seem strange that any man should dare to ask a just God’s assistance in Plan The Foreclosure Problem Essay wringing their bread from the sweat of other men’s faces; but let us judge not that we be not judged. The Gold? The prayers of both could not be answered; that of neither has been answered fully.” Niebuhr said that this passage puts the relationship of our moral commitments in Cultural history to our religious reservations about the the gold, partiality of our own commitments more precisely than any statement or theologian has put them. Think about it. If anybody could have claimed that he was on the right side of history or even that he was on God’s side, it was Abraham Lincoln fighting slavery during the Civil War. Yet, Lincoln himself refused in this extreme instance to buddhist life death, presume an identification of the gold coast africa his will with God’s will. And I think that Lincoln demonstrated as clearly as any statesman, which is buddhist life after why he is a Niebuhrian figure, that it is possible to undertake great tasks in politics with firmness, commitment, principle and courage and still not pretend to absolute certainty about one’s course, one’s intentions or the purity of one’s motives. And I should note that I have learned much about this point from the gold coast, Congressman David Price of North Carolina, who is a divinity school grad and has written very powerfully about the relationship between Lincoln’s thought and Niebuhr’s.

So I just want to do two quick things and then close with one Niebuhrian thought. And I want to thank Bill because I know he’s very fond of the same passage I’m going to read to close out my remarks, and I’m grateful that he didn’t read it, so I could use it. I’d like to wikipedia apa, call attention to two essays on Niebuhr that I think remain very important, and they show the reach Reinhold Niebuhr had – and continues to have – across philosophical lines. Mike Novak, back in 1972, wrote a great essay for Commentary called “Needing Niebuhr Again,” in which he drew on two Niebuhrian thoughts that I think are particularly revealing. Niebuhr said that “realism means particularly one thing, that you establish the the gold, common good not purely by life unselfishness but by the restraint of selfishness.” That sounds an awful lot like James Madison. In The Children of Light and the gold coast africa the Children of Darkness , Niebuhr said famously: “Man’s capacity for justice makes democracy possible; but man’s inclination to injustice makes democracy necessary.” One of the reasons Mike liked him – Mike then was still a liberal, but in transit over to the conservative side – is because Novak was very critical of what he saw as a new-class kind of privileged liberal. And he thought that Niebuhr called the bluff of those folks. Mike wrote: “Pure intentions, high goals and unblemished radicalism of general prolouge mind did not absolve men of the ambiguous consequences of what they estimate to be their most morally radiant actions. Coast Africa? Political life does not follow the form of a morality play.

It is tragic, and that is in the System Essay a Niebuhrian view.” The other essay that’s worth looking up is one Arthur Schlesinger wrote, a beautiful piece in The New York Times magazine in 2005, an essay in which I think Schlesinger successfully claims Niebuhr back for the liberals. Remember that Schlesinger and Niebuhr founded Americans for Democratic Action together, and the gold coast were great political allies throughout their lives. Schlesinger used some of Niebuhr’s criticisms of the pretensions of chaucer general prolouge American power as a critique of the Iraq war, and spoke of how liberals profited from an awareness of original sin that Niebuhr taught them. This is Schlesinger: “The notion of sinful man was uncomfortable for my generation. We had been brought up to believe in human innocence and even in human perfectibility. This was less a liberal delusion than an expression of an all-American DNA. Andrew Carnegie had articulated the national faith when, after acclaiming the rise of man from lower to higher forms, he declared: ‘Nor is there any conceivable end to his march to perfection.’ In 1939, Charles E. Merriam of the University of Chicago, dean of American political scientists, wrote in The New Democracy and the New Despotism : ‘There is a constant trend in human affairs toward the perfectibility of the gold coast mankind. This was plainly stated at the time of the French Revolution and has been reasserted ever since that time, and with increasing plausibility.’ Human ignorance and unjust institutions remained the life, only obstacles to a more perfect world.” This is the gold coast africa Schlesinger again: “If proper education of individuals and proper reform of Cultural Essay institutions did their job, such obstacles would be removed.

For the the gold, heart of man was OK.” Yet Schlesinger said that this notion became absurd for liberals when they confronted the evils of Problems Educational for Boys both Nazism and the gold coast africa Stalinism. Schlesinger notes Isaiah Berlin’s famous declaration that the 20th century was “the most terrible century in Western history.” And this is how to wikipedia Schlesinger: “The belief in human perfectibility had not prepared us for coast africa, Hitler and Stalin. The death camps and the gulags proved that men were capable of infinite depravity. The heart of man is obviously not OK. Niebuhr’s analysis of human nature and history came as a vast illumination. His argument had the double merit of accounting for Hitler and Stalin and for the necessity of standing up to them.” And I think that is at apa, the heart of The Irony of American History . I’ll close there and we can get into a debate about Obama and Niebuhr, if we want, later on. Coast Africa? But I just want to close with this thought. I’ve always said that the reason I like this optimistic pessimism or pessimistic optimism is I’ve always said to Problems for Boys Essay, myself that I think I’m a psychological optimist because I am an intellectual pessimist.

I am not shocked when people do bad things. I’m actually amazed at how well people do under the the gold coast africa, circumstances, so perhaps it’s worth noting Gene Debs’ great line that there should be another beatitude: Blessed are they who expect nothing for they shall not be disappointed. But I think a Niebuhrian view of the world insists that you can hold on to hope, that good Obama word, even with a realistic view of the capacity of apa human beings to make mistakes, and even, at times, to the gold coast, perform great acts of evil. It is Comprehensive Problem possible, as Jesse Jackson likes to say, to keep hope alive. Coast Africa? So this is my concluding prayer, really from Reinhold Niebuhr. He wrote in Culture: Are Women Asking for It? The Irony of American History : “Nothing that is coast africa worth doing can be achieved in our lifetime; therefore we must be saved by hope. Nothing which is true or beautiful or good makes complete sense in any immediate context of history; therefore we must be saved by faith. Nothing we do, however virtuous, can be accomplished alone; therefore, we are saved by love. No virtuous act is quite as virtuous from the Comprehensive, standpoint of our friend or foe as it is from our standpoint. Therefore we must be saved by the final form of love, which is coast forgiveness.” I hope you will forgive in that spirit any flaws in this presentation. (Laughter.) And now you can understand why I love Reinhold Niebuhr and why he fills me with happiness.

Thank you very much. CROMARTIE: Well, I didn’t know whether it was the topic of Reinhold Niebuhr or the fact that you had a lavaliere neck mic on, E.J. Comprehensive Plan To Solve? I’ve never seen you preach so much like that. That was great. Africa? Thank you. And thank you, Bill. David, you’re up first. DAVID VAN BIEMA, TIME : This is Problems System for Boys both for Professor McClay and also for E.J. And so E.J. remembers it’s for him, I’m going to pervert one of coast africa his metaphors by saying that waterboarding is the ultimate form of high-sticking. And I don’t know much about Niebuhr.

And the answer to this may be so obvious as to not make it enlightening, but if I understand you correctly and he believed in the necessity of acting, and getting one’s hands dirty and exerting power, while at the same time believing that inevitably there would be problems with pride and that the state was particularly apt to Are Women Essay, fall into the sin of the gold delusion of special virtue, where would he come down in Culture: the torture debate? MCCLAY: Part of what I was getting to in this overlong talk that I’ve prepared was the list of africa things that I think are wrong with Niebuhr, or are inadequate, and one of them may address this. How To Wikipedia Apa? And I actually think of the gold E.J.’s example, the Are Women Asking, guy pummeling somebody but doing it with a guilty conscience as he’s beating the crap out of him. It’s awfully hard to tell whether a leader is acting in a Niebuhrian way or just in an unscrupulous way. You know, a lot of it has to do with an inner disposition that’s not visible to us. And that’s a problem, especially in political life where you have to deal with external standards and principles that, particularly in a democratic society, ought to the gold coast africa, be open to general scrutiny. So a great example of this is – and I get this all the time from people on for Boys Essay all sides because I’m a great admirer of Niebuhr and I’m happy about this revival – but when it comes to more general issues of war. For obvious reasons pacifists don’t like Niebuhr. I don’t even need to explain that.

But, I mean, they see the doctrine of “realism” as just a kind of wild card that allows you to do whatever you want in the name of realism. But equally vehement about Niebuhr are some of the people who defend just-war theory. Their argument is, look, we have a whole set of criteria that often are hard to nail down in particular instances, but at least as principles they are worth observing and the gold worth trying to follow as a way of taming and legitimizing warfare in a civilized world. And in their view Niebuhr chucks all that, and says, well, you are going to get your hands dirty, bad things have to Essay, happen, but you’ve got to exercise power and innocents have to die, and eggs have to be broken to make omelets. The Gold Coast? He would never say that in that way, of course. But you get my point, that there is some way in Comprehensive Plan To Solve The Foreclosure Essay which what he writes can be very powerful in coast africa dealing with this way that “power is poison,” in Beliefs Essay Henry Adams’ terms – that it’s just inescapable. I’m not sure Obama – see, I’m mistaking this too – has quite come to terms with that, at least in his rhetoric. But that’s where I think the real test will come. But back to this issue of the gold torture and war.

I think that the after death, problem with Niebuhr is he doesn’t give you clear standards by which to make judgments and have it legitimated in the public arena. CROMARTIE: He emphasizes ambiguity while at the same time saying, use the power. DIONNE: I can’t prove this, although I do have a quotation that I think suggests it. I think if you look back at some of the things Niebuhr said about the the gold africa, Vietnam War, they suggest that he would have opposed waterboarding. I think he would have ended up on the side of those who said, we must fight the terrorists but we can’t use every method and that those methods demean us and hurt us. And my support for that – again, we can’t know for certain – are the very last words of The Irony of cite apa American History . He says: “For if we should perish, the coast africa, ruthlessness of the foe would be only the secondary cause of the disaster.

The primary cause would be that the strength of a giant nation was directed by Problems in the System eyes too blind to coast, see all the hazards of the struggle; and Are Women Asking the blindness would be induced not by the gold coast africa some accident of nature or history but by hatred and vainglory.” If you want to Beliefs Essay, make a case against waterboarding, that’s a pretty good text to cite. MCCLAY: I was just going to say, since we’re going to play this “what would Reinhold say” game, I want to go in with all four limbs. I think that, certainly, if you were updating The Irony of American History , there would be a discussion of the ways in which the jihadists have elements of truth in their critique of American culture. Astonishing as it may sound, I think he would raise that issue. The Gold Coast? I don’t think there’s any doubt about it. ROSS DOUTHAT, THE NEW YORK TIMES : Just to bounce one alternative possibility, especially off you E.J.: I wonder what you think of the idea that maybe what Niebuhr would say is that the waterboarding of Khalid Sheikh Mohammed in 2003 is the kind of Comprehensive Plan To Solve Problem forgivable excess that you expect from governments, but that the the gold coast africa, torture memos of how to cite wikipedia 2005 are the kind of coast thing that shouldn’t be forgiven. Comprehensive Plan To Solve Problem? And I don’t know.

What do you think about that kind of coast distinction, the in the Educational System Essay, sort of institutionalization versus the sort of crisis mentality, getting your hands dirty with an individual case? DIONNE: First of all, Bill is fundamentally right. The “what would Niebuhr say and coast africa do” debate is pretty tough to carry out. DOUTHAT: And all the questions are going to – (inaudible) DIONNE: And so, that’s fair enough. Chaucer General Prolouge? I could imagine Niebuhr saying: “I understand in the heat of the days and the few weeks after 9/11 why the people in power erred on the side of keeping us safe and they may have done things they shouldn’t do.” I still find it hard – again, we can debate this. I still think he would have ended up on the critical side because what’s so fascinating about Niebuhr is the coast africa, neocons have always sort of liked him, as Father Neuhaus suggests, because he always talked about the legitimacy of how to wikipedia using American power in the world. And there were moments when the people on the left were seen as always declaring that American power in the world, the use of africa American power, is wrong and illegitimate. So if you are someone who believes that American power can be used morally, then, yes, Reinhold Niebuhr is your friend. But, he was also always very wary of jingoism, of our tendency not to buddhist death, look at coast, our own flaws, the danger of how to cite wikipedia apa overreach, the danger of the gold coast africa doing things that were immoral in a moral cause.

And those are two sides of Niebuhr, and in some ways, you can say it’s an ambiguity, but I think fundamentally it actually holds together; you know, a shorthand is: American power can be used morally but it should be used with fear and trembling and how to apa we have to be very careful about how we use it. I don’t know. Would Bill disagree with that summary? MCCLAY: Yes. What I would say is, one of the fundamental building blocks of the argument in The Irony of American History is that Americans are utterly bedazzled by this notion of innocence, desire for innocence. And I don’t know what he would say about this, but I think he might react to the current kind of coast africa orgy of interest in this subject that has to come up on African-American Cultural Essay every occasion. And I’m not criticizing you for the gold africa, bringing it up, and there has been a lot of this, I think, in buddhist after the early months of this administration, this pushing the reset button, this desire to kind of scapegoat and africa exorcise the past. This is contrary to the spirit of Niebuhr. African-American Beliefs Essay? There’s no basis in Niebuhr for thinking that America was ever innocent, that any administration is innocent or that there’s any reset button that any administration can ever push to make itself innocent.

So that doesn’t answer the specific question about this one issue, but I think it’s reasonable to deduce from his work – given that I don’t know what he’d say – but it’s reasonable to deduce that he might think that the emphasis on whether sending John Yoo and Jay Bybee to prison is going to coast africa, atone for after death, our national sins, over coast, a war that began as a very broadly popular undertaking but later became a great burden to the national psyche, is a morally misplaced emphasis. Whether that’s an appropriate deduction – that’s a different question. After? I think they’re connected. MICHAEL GERSON, THE WASHINGTON POST : I’ll change the the gold africa, subject. I think I played this role before in this kind of Plan To Solve Essay setting. But let me maybe defend the the gold coast, social gospel – GERSON: – at least properly understood, against the Niebuhrians, and ask your opinion on one point.

There seems to Beliefs Essay, be a difference between Niebuhr as corrective and the gold coast africa Niebuhr as guide, to chaucer general prolouge, me. It seems like you wouldn’t necessarily want, historically, a nation of Niebuhrs. You look at the gold africa, the way social progress took place in America. It was often true believers, patriots who believed we were a new order for Comprehensive, the ages, or William Lloyd Garrison who believed in absolute social equality between blacks and whites when no one else did, for purely religious reasons, or William Jennings Bryan, who had this kind of fundamentalist social gospel because he believed in it absolutely. You know, true believers in this context. Clearly, there are risks and these were often eccentric people with kind of odd views, easy to make fun of. But it seems like the history of American justice, social inclusion was propelled by believers, not by the gold africa Niebuhrians. And I guess, in the sense that I would want a Niebuhrian to do the navigation in my car, but he doesn’t provide the fuel to Comprehensive To Solve, get us there. The fuel is a belief in coast africa justice and buddhist death truth in American history.

So I’m wondering how you combine that kind of the gold coast respect for Problems Educational System for Boys Essay, Niebuhr as corrective with a recognition that that has not been the motivating principle of coast either the founding of our country or the progress of justice? MCCLAY: Well, I think that there’s a big difference between that and the kind of reform impulse growing out of 19th-century evangelicalism, which was oriented toward social reform but also had a strong emphasis on conversion. And, certainly, its supernatural face was part of a reform of the individual. And there’s a way in which the social gospel moves against that notion of individual conversion and individual accountability towards simply seeing the Christian faith as a kind of mythic version of what we, through greater and great advances in social science, know about the way that social structures form the individual psyche. Beliefs? So I think – GERSON: If I could, Bill, you’re missing the question: religiously, the coast, more motivated moral idealism of American politics rather than just the social gospel. GERSON: It’s hard to regard William Jennings Bryan, who had a fundamentalist theology, as evidence of the buddhist, social gospel, but he was, certainly, probably politically more influential of any of the advocates of the the gold coast, social gospel in changing the definition of the Democratic Party and doing all sorts of other things. Maybe it might not be the right word, but I guess I just wanted your reaction to the point that it’s been important in cite and of itself, and that Niebuhr can’t replace or explain that. DIONNE: Now I see what you mean. Let me just say – Bill, do you want to – DIONNE: What I want to say, first of all, is bless you for defending the social gospelers, because I have affection for them too, and in particular for their critique of the society that surrounded them.

But I think you shortchange Niebuhr in the gold terms of his own passion for justice. Cultural Essay? And by the way, you’re completely right about the gold Bryan, who was an extraordinary progressive. Cite Apa? We forget how everybody sees him in coast light of the chaucer, Scopes trial and the gold africa forgets that he rejected Darwinism because he hated social Darwinism and Culture: Asking for It? how Darwin was used to justify radical inequality. Coast Africa? So I identify with all that. But I think you’re shortchanging Niebuhr in terms of his concern for justice. Richard Fox talks about how well into the 1950s Niebuhr could be very passionate in chaucer general his critique of how capitalism actually works.

In 1954, he wrote that capitalism had again become too complacent. We haven’t, for instance, solved the economic problem short of coast africa war preparations. There was a passion in him for justice. Comprehensive To Solve Essay? His critique of the social gospelers was not against their mission. And he certainly did not lack for a willingness to fight for labor, or for Social Security, or for all kinds of corrections to a system of unfettered capitalism.

I think he was critical of the gold africa social gospelers on wikipedia apa two grounds. Africa? One, he thought they had too optimistic a view of human nature and chaucer general thought too much about salvation through social action. They forgot about sin along the way. The Gold? And that in turn led to sort of a politics that didn’t work. He was not against the original motives of the social gospelers. I think Obama shares the social gospelers’ goals, but with a kind of Niebuhrian correction. You know, in that famous speech at Sojourners, he talked a lot about Rape Culture: Asking social injustice, but then, he also talked about the gold coast individual accountability and responsibilities. He said when a gang member “shoots indiscriminately into a crowd … there’s a hole in that young man’s heart, a hole that the government alone cannot fix.” Contraception could reduce teen pregnancy rates, he said, but he also talked about faith and guidance, which “help fortify a young woman’s sense of self, a young man’s sense of responsibility, and a sense of reverence that all young people should have for the act of sexual intimacy.” In other words, I think that Obama accepts some of the buddhist life, Niebuhrian critique of the social gospel but, still, like Niebuhr, believes in the gold coast the social gospel’s core purposes.

CROMARTIE: Quick comment? Although, I must say we’ve got two people in and these guys are so rich with their Niebuhrian illustration. MCCLAY: I would only say that one of the things that Niebuhr insisted on, and it was another source of his criticism of the social gospel because it was so completely subservient to the idea of the nation, was the idea that an emphasis upon the collectivity over the individual could easily lend support to a kind of quasi-totalitarianism. And he says explicitly in his later book The Self and the Dramas of History that you have to have some source of value standing above the after death, values inherent in history in order for the gold coast, those values to have validity. And even though he was himself very much of a theological liberal, he worried that the social gospel dispensed unwisely with the entire supernatural element of faith, which not only was necessary as a driving force for reform, but kept that balance, serving as a corrective to the tendency of all social aggregates to tyrannize the individual. LAUREN GREEN, FOX NEWS: I’ve not studied Niebuhr, so please forgive my ignorance if I say something that is so obvious that you’ll laugh or something.

But it seems to me that Niebuhr has this incredible understanding of the chaucer general prolouge, paradigm of the original sin, the fall, that we live in a broken world; but also of africa this narrative of redemption that there is definitely hope out there, this understanding that there are two prodigal sons, not just one. You know, we see the in the Educational Essay, sins of the one that went away and squandered his wealth, but we fail sometimes to see the sins of the self-righteous older brother. One of the things that is obvious is that his understanding of morality appeared in the context of the time: communism, the Nazis. What would he view as the evil today? What would his position be on the gold the economic crisis? But also, is his effect on policy quantifiable? Did he have access to presidents like a Billy Graham did? Is there any quantifiable effect of him on American policy in any kind of Problems for Boys Essay administration?

MCCLAY: On the last part, I don’t think so. Actually – an interesting little side point – he and coast Arthur Schlesinger were very good friends for a long time, but Schlesinger had a very hard time persuading Niebuhr to support Kennedy. Niebuhr finally did, but with some reluctance. He was no fan of the family. Life? He hated, he just absolutely loathed and distrusted Bobby. And the father, Joseph Kennedy, of course was awful, in Niebuhr’s view. JFK was OK, by africa comparison, but the thing he really held against JFK – and general prolouge this is all amply documented in africa correspondence – were his sexual dalliances – CROMARTIE: He knew about them? MCCLAY: Oh, yes. Quite a few people knew about them, people who were around politics at that time. Yes, absolutely. And Niebuhr was very, very concerned not only about the sorts of Rape Culture: Are Women Asking Essay risks that this would entail in terms of blackmail and coast africa national security, which he was very savvy about, but also what it said about the Asking Essay, character of the man.

So he was not close to the gold africa, Kennedy, who he saw as a somewhat reckless figure from time to how to wikipedia apa, time during his brief administration. DIONNE: Niebuhr, however, despite that, was very important in the gold africa supporting Kennedy against general prolouge anti-Catholicism. The Gold Africa? Shaun Casey writes about this in his new book, The Making of a Catholic President . Not all liberal Protestants were comfortable with having a Catholic president, and within liberal Protestantism, Niebuhr was passionately opposed to bigotry against African-American Cultural Beliefs Catholics, and he played a very important role there. So despite his doubts, he was there. DIONNE: I think, when you think about his impact on policy over the whole period – his work in the labor movement, his support for the civil rights movement and all the work around Americans for Democratic Action ¬- he was engaged in all of the core social reform movements of the the gold, ’30s, ’40s and Rape Culture: Essay ’50s. And he was an activist – you know, he started life as an activist pastor in the gold coast a poor neighborhood. He wasn’t a community organizer, but he almost was.

So, I think it’s just hard to get into in the Educational System, our heads the notion of this very serious theologian as a celebrity. He really was a celebrity in that period, of a certain kind. So I don’t know how much he went in coast africa and out of the buddhist life death, White House. He might not have even particularly wanted to the gold africa, do that, but I think he had a real impact on the direction of in the Educational System for Boys Essay American politics as a New Dealer and a Fair Dealer. MCCLAY: Well, one area in which I think you can document influence is in the way that the doctrine of coast containment came to be formulated. Because containment was really a sort of Niebuhrian halfway between a kind of Rape Culture: for It? appeasement, on the one hand, and what John Foster Dulles called “rollback,” on the other hand. It was an answer to the gold coast, Douglas McArthur’s famous statement, “There is no substitute for victory.” You know, it was this notion that containing – which is actually a very Lincoln-esque strategy – containing the expansion of communism, not rolling it back but containing it, would eventually lead to Cultural Beliefs, the destruction, the the gold, internal unraveling and destruction of the system.

Containment is a very difficult doctrine because it forswears those kind of big victories and upbeat parades that wars generally have been about. George Kennan, who arguably played a major role in the formulation of the doctrine, was directly influenced by prolouge Niebuhr, knew Niebuhr, read Niebuhr. And I don’t think there’s any doubt that something of the Niebuhrian mood influenced Kennan in that long telegram and “Mr. X” article and these other documents that ended up becoming formative to containment – the way those policies and perspectives became formulated. So that’s a big influence.

GREEN: But the other part about the great evil – what would he see as the the gold, great evil today? MCCLAY: That I just don’t know. He’d be very concerned about biotechnology, I suspect. Problems Educational System For Boys Essay? He already was. The Gold Africa? In The Irony of American History there are already passages about it. So I think he’d be very concerned about that. NAOMI SCHAEFER RILEY, THE WALL STREET JOURNAL : I’ll try to be quick. Writing about African-American Essay religion for coast, The Wall Street Journal , I always look for general prolouge, openings to the gold, talk about economics. So I wanted to press you, E.J., and you, Bill, a little more on his views on economics. It was interesting to me that from the quote you read from Obama, he seemed right away to want to talk about Niebuhr’s view of economics, and I think a lot of us tend to Beliefs Essay, think about the gold africa his views of foreign policy as the most formative ones.

And you seem to say that he was on board with the African-American Beliefs Essay, social gospelers as far as their view of economics went. And, if you can clarify that, that would be great. And then, I guess the the gold, second half of that question is, if he saw institutions as so inherently sinful, even more so than individuals, I wonder what he thought about the potential for institutions to solve economic problems like poverty as opposed to individuals sort of bringing themselves out of it. MCCLAY: I think his instincts were socialist. He supported Norman Thomas on the Socialist Party ticket in 1932, and his doing so was actually a moderate position compared with what some of his friends were doing. There were a lot of people, intellectuals, supporting the Beliefs, Communist Party that year. However, I do think you can deduce from Niebuhr some support for africa, free market principles, simply because really, by the time he writes The Irony of American History , he’s completely sold on the structure and dynamics of the U.S. Constitution, on the sort of Madisonian idea – or Montesquieu, really – that it’s important to divide and disperse power as much as possible.

But he’s clearly sold on all of that. I think economics is one area in which he could be a little formulaic and weak and just kind of Essay go with the journalism of the day rather than thinking and reading deeply into it, and thinking independently. I think you can deduce free market principles, or at least mixed-capitalist, mixed-economy kinds of principles from his view of politics. But I think it would be anachronistic to go too far with that. In terms of his political commitments, he cordially disliked businessmen. He disliked Eisenhower and Eisenhower’s support for the business community. He was much more of an Adlai Stevenson kind of coast guy. DIONNE: A quick concrete answer that parallels this. He was either a liberal or a social democrat. This is from Richard Fox’s biography. Comprehensive Plan To Solve? Fox says: “To remember Niebuhr is to remember the union movement in its heyday.

For most of his life, the the gold africa, word ‘justice,’ a term constantly on his lips, meant justice for Educational Essay, workers, especially industrial workers. Only at the very end of the gold coast his life did ‘justice’ come to Problems in the System, mean racial justice to the same degree that it meant industrial justice.” Although he was still earlier than most in supporting civil rights. “When Niebuhr tried to give concrete content to his notion of the gold coast africa justice, he instinctively thought about equalizing standards of living, reducing job insecurity and enacting social insurance schemes. He was irreversibly shaped by his encounter with Henry Ford in open shop, Detroit, in the 1920s.” So I think he would have had differences with the Wall Street Journal editorial page on these questions. Life After Death? (Laughter.) CARL CANNON, POLITICS DAILY : I was interested in what other presidents thought of Niebuhr. Bill mentioned Jimmy Carter.

Three presidents have mentioned Reinhold Niebuhr. The Gold Coast Africa? Lyndon Johnson gave him a Presidential Medal of Freedom. Bill Clinton gave a Presidential Medal of Freedom to African-American Cultural Beliefs, Joseph Rauh and mentioned that he worked for Niebuhr. The Gold Africa? But Jimmy Carter spoke about Reinhold Niebuhr on three separate occasions. I’ll go through it real quick because I want to Comprehensive Essay, ask each of the gold you a question, what the implications are. One was in May of 1978. How To Wikipedia Apa? Carter was talking to the Los Angeles Bar Association and he said, “As a governor and as a president” – and this made me think that he was thinking about Niebuhr even when he was governor – he said that he’d learned that “as Reinhold Niebuhr said, it is the sad duty of politics to establish justice in a sinful world.” In March 1978, he said, “From the experience of the urban renewal program of the 1950s, we learned to the gold africa, be skeptical about what Reinhold Niebuhr called ‘the doctrine of salvation through bricks’ – the idea that we can bulldoze away our urban problems.” That was a bit of a straw man. Niebuhr probably was talking about building our way, not bulldozing, but still. And then, in June, same year, he actually quoted and named Moral Man in Immoral Society , and Are Women Asking for It? Essay Carter went on this riff, and he said that Niebuhr “pointed out the difference between a society and people. The expectations and demands on a person are a much higher standard.

A person should have as our goal” – ungrammatical was his, not mine – “complete agape love.” The sitting president. He just went on this riff. “The most we can expect from a society is to coast, institute simple justice.” So my question for Bill is, what does this tell us about a president who embraces Niebuhr in Problems System Essay this way and keeps coming back to coast, him? And then, I would ask you, E.J., as a Niebuhrian: Should we reconsider Carter now that we’ve established his Niebuhrian credentials? Carter was Mike Gerson’s candidate in 1976, it should be pointed out. CROMARTIE: Carl, what was your source? I thought you were going to bring out cite wikipedia apa, a PowerPoint or something like that. CANNON: No. Coast Africa? Trust me on those quotes. CROMARTIE: Okay. African-American Cultural Beliefs Essay? You were just quoting. Coast? (Laughter.)

CANNON: From the public papers of the president. CROMARTIE: You brought them with you? MCCLAY: I think those are fairly anodyne observations by Carter that have Reinhold Niebuhr’s name tacked onto the end of them. The thing about bricks, I can’t even really quite imagine Niebuhr saying that. But he wrote so much that it’s quite possible he did. I think Carter may have at some point been a serious student of after Niebuhr. I just don’t know.

But there’s a kind of Niebuhr line that you can embrace which is to say, well, you can’t expect the same things of the gold institutions that you do of individuals. True, but that seems fairly obvious. You don’t really need all that heavy theological artillery to make that point. And the belief that one should have a sense of humility about oneself as a leader – I don’t know whether this came before or after he identified himself as born-again, which scandalized the press corps. Such referencing of Niebuhr was a way of redeeming his reputation as a man of some education and breeding. I don’t want to be too harsh about it. But if you look at Problems Essay, Carter’s presidency, I think, in fact, many of the criticisms that Niebuhr makes of the children of light – that they have a kind of conviction about their virtuousness and the virtuousness of their cause, and that by being virtuous and the gold africa showing their virtue they will sway the opinions of others – this just doesn’t work in Comprehensive To Solve The Foreclosure Niebuhr’s view. The Gold Coast Africa? The biblical passage – DIONNE: The children of darkness are wiser in this world than the children of light.

MCCLAY: In this generation. Yes. DIONNE: Yes. In this generation. MCCLAY: And it comes from the parable of the life death, dishonest steward in the Bible, which is one of the the gold, most perplexing things in the entire New Testament.

I never have known what it means. But I think Carter, in practice, didn’t show an ability to exercise the kind of shrewdness and deviousness even that Niebuhr thought an effective leader needed to show. He hadn’t really taken in all of Moral Man and chaucer Immoral Society . By the way, as we were talking I did think of something else in Niebuhr: that he was a tremendous influence on Martin Luther King. DIONNE: Yes. I was going to the gold africa, say that. That’s really important. MCCLAY: Because if you look back – I believe it’s the chaucer general prolouge, last chapter of Moral Man and Immoral Society – there’s a discussion of coast africa non-violent resistance that’s a blueprint for how to apa, what King does, and King evidently read it and the gold coast africa was very influenced by it. King is Plan not an the gold coast africa, example of a political leader, but an example of a social leader, a movement leader.

DIONNE: And I just wanted to in the Essay, underscore too, that if you talk about somebody’s influence – “by their fruits shall ye know them” – King did a lot of his academic work on Niebuhr. The Gold? Richard Fox says Niebuhr didn’t see race as early as he saw the African-American Essay, injustice of labor, but he was pretty early in understanding how important racial equality was. And in terms of Jimmy Carter: Jimmy Carter was, and is, an intellectually serious believer and he’s an intellectually serious believer of a certain age. Coast? And if you were, like Carter, an evangelical but not a fundamentalist, someone who was a moderate or a liberal, you could not help but encounter Niebuhr and take him seriously. You can debate, as Bill suggested, exactly how he applied Niebuhr. But I don’t think Jimmy Carter lost in 1980 because he sort of loved Reinhold Niebuhr. I don’t think it changes our view of him.

I think we knew that he was a thoughtful Christian. He lost because of stagflation and the hostage crisis and the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. In The Educational System For Boys Essay? And I don’t know what one can draw from his love for Niebuhr out of those things. I don’t mean to be glib about it. I just think what you said proves what I think we already knew about Carter, and a good side of Carter that a lot of people liked even if they disagreed with him. AMY SULLIVAN, TIME : Professor McClay, you warned us at the beginning that Niebuhr often wrote as a counterpuncher – speaking in reaction to other people. Coast Africa? And it seems like that’s particularly true, at least in the way you outlined his criticism of buddhist after death religious liberals and coast africa particularly the social gospel. You could be excused for coming away from Asking Essay, that thinking that he wasn’t that different and that he believed Christians still should be engaged in africa efforts to make the world a better place and progress in social causes. They just shouldn’t be surprised if bad things happen and their hands got dirty. African-American? But there must be more to it than that.

And I wondered if one or both of you could talk just a little bit about what his affirmative theology was, or his sense of how religious people or institutions should operate? MCCLAY: Well, I’m afraid this is going to sound like I’m rehashing what I said but maybe I didn’t say it well enough. I think that Niebuhr wanted to coast, stress – and yes, he is counterpunching when he does this – that there is no resolution to the problems of politics in this life. You can ameliorate suffering here and there, and you are obliged to try to do so. Apa? But the notion that history is somehow moving towards some sort of omega point where frictionless social relations will come into being, where the coast, self-realization of individuals is going to occur in an unimpeded way, that it’s possible to African-American Cultural, imagine that the interests of coast different individuals and Essay different groups are not going to clash, and clash in a way that’s more or less permanent in character, that those interests may shift around in complexion but will not clash – that’s an the gold coast, illusion.

MCCLAY: Yes. I don’t believe in being concise. They pay me by cite wikipedia the word. But you know, I’m trying to unpack what anti-utopian means in this context. It doesn’t just mean having moderate expectations. It doesn’t mean that perfection can only be approached asymptotically, and is not achievable for the gold, us here below. For Niebuhr, it is something much more disturbing. It’s the notion that the more we progress, the more we put ourselves in Culture: Are Women Asking Essay danger. That’s a very scary but very powerful principle.

And I think that’s very different from the kind of the gold africa progressive view that the social gospelers, by and large, took. But there’s an argument to African-American Essay, be made that he oversimplifies people like Walter Rauschenbusch, who are not quite as blithe and naive as he makes them out to be. And John Dewey even. SULLIVAN: I guess my question, which I may not have made clear, is what do Christians then do with that? That may be the view, but then, how should they proceed?

DIONNE: See, I think that he assumed that Christians – it was a deep assumption reflected in the way he lived his life and the way he was a pastor – that Christians would be, should be engaged in social action. When you were a minister in a poor parish in Detroit – a place you love – at a time of the gold union organizing, low wages and Cultural all the struggles going on. It was built into the cake, if you were his kind of Christian, that you would be engaged in social action. What he was about was trying to think through not only what was the most effective form of social action, but also how should one think about that social action as a Christian. He came to believe – he started out as a socialist, and still maintained some of the socialist aspirations – nonetheless he came to see utopianism as both theoretically flawed and also as ineffectual in politics. Larry O’Brien, who was an aide to Kennedy and a Democratic National Committee chairman, had a great book title for his memoirs. The book title was No Final Victories . The Gold Coast Africa? And I think that’s an excellent view of democratic – small ‘d’ – politics. I suppose, for that matter, capital ‘d’ too. There are no final victories in democratic politics because we are imperfect.

The world is imperfect. All political systems are imperfect, so you have to just keep fighting. And you shouldn’t give up because you don’t win a final victory. It’s a philosophy of constant improvement and accepting that setbacks happen along the way. And he would have said this in a more profound way than I just said it, but I think that’s what it comes down to. And, at least to me, that is probably the To Solve Problem Essay, most rational way to approach democratic politics. MCCLAY: Can I say one other thing?

I think I’m getting a better feel for coast africa, what you’re really asking. And I think it bears on Mike Gerson’s question and point, which I didn’t initially understand either. Niebuhr lived in a time when you could count on Christian culture as a propulsive force, when your real task was how to channel that, how to Problems in the System for Boys, correct it, how to keep it from the gold coast africa, its worst excesses and make it more self-aware and self-critical. This is one of the problems about reviving Niebuhr – the fact that his time isn’t the buddhist life, one we live in coast africa now. Today, an intelligent person is faced with the question: “Why should I be a Christian rather than nothing? Why should I take a Christian view of politics rather than a strictly secular view? What does the Christian modifier contribute to all of this?” And I think Mike’s point about the problem of religion being a corrective rather than being an engine bears on this too.

These are questions that Niebuhr didn’t really have to face. DAN GILGOFF, U.S. NEWS WORLD REPORT : It struck me that so far, a lot of the conversation about Niebuhr has centered on his enduring, or perhaps not-so-enduring, influence on Cultural Essay American politics and on policymakers both current and past. And I’m wondering if you could talk a little bit about whether that influence is discernable at all in American Christianity today, given that that was the realm in which he was operating. And also, I know you both do a lot more in terms of africa examining politics and theologians’ influence on it besides Niebuhr. Looking at Obama, his public statements, the degree to which he invokes the Bible, or religion, or father, or morality, do you see any other specific figures besides Niebuhr and traditions like the social gospel shining through his words? And I don’t know if you’d go so far as to say actions. Plan The Foreclosure? I mean, I think that’s more difficult to the gold africa, analyze, but if you could speak to Essay, that point too, beyond Niebuhr. MCCLAY: Well, let me make one observation to start with, and I think E.J. would be better on Obama than I am. One thing that’s curious about all of this, and coast africa I think it tells you something about the times we’re living in too, is that – I think I mentioned this in cite passing – if you venture into the seminaries, what you will find is that Niebuhr is almost universally held in low esteem. And I think among many of the brightest young theologians I know, and some who are still graduate students, there are some who see him as completely irrelevant.

CROMARTIE: Is it because they don’t like the ambiguity? MCCLAY: I think they don’t like the ambiguity, and, in some ways, they don’t see him as being bold enough. He’s tailored too much for a secularist worldview. Stanley Hauerwas is – CROMARTIE: A theologian at Duke University. MCCLAY: – is, in some ways, far more influential. And Stanley Hauerwas – to talk about a counterpuncher – he has pretty much made a career out of eviscerating Reinhold Niebuhr at coast, every turn, including in his own Gifford lectures. So what’s odd is that people in Rape Culture: Are Women Asking Essay the position of David Brooks and E.J. and others – I suspect E.J. has a little more contact with the the gold africa, academy than David does – they’re the ones who are interested in Niebuhr. And people like me. I’m a historian.

I’m not even in wikipedia a theological world. Coast? But the theologians, I think they see him as a back number. Now, what that means, I don’t know. People like Hauerwas have a much more – to use the word these theologians would use – “prophetic” engagement with the culture and with politics. How To Cite Wikipedia Apa? One way of the gold translating “prophetic” means without any sort of acknowledgement of the sort of half-measures and compromises and acquiescence that you need to Asking Essay, make to be politically effective. These theologians are much more interested in people who make very bold statements.

And in that sense, ambiguity is the gold coast africa indeed part of the after, complaint. CROMARTIE: Let me just ask, Bill, before E.J. responds: Professor Putnam, if you could tell us your perception of what Niebuhr is, say, in Cambridge, Mass. Or at least, if you know, in the divinity school or in the political science world in which you work. MCCLAY: Well, there is the gold coast a Reinhold Niebuhr chair at Union Theological Seminary, where he taught. And the guy who occupies it – DIONNE: He’s a great guy. Gary Dorrien. MCCLAY: Yes. Buddhist After Death? He’s a big critic of Niebuhr. DIONNE: He’s an affectionate critic of the gold coast Niebuhr.

CROMARTIE: Professor Putnam, you don’t have to answer the question, but I was just thinking, as we are talking about Niebuhr in the academy, what you might want to tell us. ROBERT PUTNAM, HARVARD UNIVERSITY: This is what will cause you to withdraw the African-American, invitation to me to speak here even tomorrow because actually, I have relatively little contact with the divinity school at Harvard and almost no contact with theologians. Coast? It’s not a matter of principle. To Solve The Foreclosure Essay? (Laughter.) In my own field, political science, when I was growing up, which was actually a long time ago in the ’60s, Niebuhr was a major figure actually. The Gold? And essentially along the lines of apa what’s been discussed here, in this kind of tragic realism kind of the gold africa sense.

So, probably, most political scientists of my generation know a little bit about Niebuhr. But I frankly doubt if contemporary political scientists know much about him. And maybe they should, I think, from a political-science point of view, not from a theological point of view. This recent Niebuhr revival is actually quite interesting because I do think it reflects a little bit of what’s happening religiously, but mostly what’s happening sociologically, in America. I think this notion is partly the life after death, Lincoln tolerance part and coast africa partly the unintended consequences part: Don’t start pushing grand plans and distant ideals because you’re almost certain to get it wrong. How To Cite Apa? That part, along with the hope part. I don’t know if that fits theologically or not now, but I think I see it as a little bit of the ethos of our times. But actually I don’t have any reason to disagree with the account that was offered about Niebuhr’s standing among academic or non-academic theologians. DIONNE: Can I have a different view than – CROMARTIE: I know you do, but I want – DIONNE: It’s overlapping but different. DIONNE: Bill, you may not completely disagree with this.

It seems to coast africa, me that Niebuhr went out of fashion somewhere in Plan The Foreclosure the 1960s and that was partly a product of the anti-war movement, which saw him as more of a realist. And, you know, there was a rebellion against realism. He wasn’t left-wing enough. And also, when you think back to some of the theological trends in the gold coast africa the late ’60s and Comprehensive Plan To Solve The Foreclosure ’70s, the coast, death of God movement, the theology of hope, the theology of liberation – I would love to know what Niebuhr would have made of life after death liberation theology; what he would have agreed with, what he would have critiqued. I think that the the gold, journalistic and political comeback of Niebuhr has some parallels now in the academy. General? For example, Harvey Cox was one of my old teachers at Harvard Divinity School, and he was to Niebuhr’s left.

And he had a very interesting little letter in africa The New York Times after Arthur Schlesinger wrote his piece that I think was probably friendlier to Niebuhr than Harvey would have been circa 1969 or 1970. I want to ask Cox about this. I think it reflects Niebuhr’s resurrection – a good theme for in the for Boys Essay, a Christian theologian – and coast the new engagement with Niebuhr that’s going on now. Bill is absolutely right about life Hauerwas. Hauerwas, by the gold africa the way, played a big role in the symposium about Niebuhr I quoted earlier. So I don’t dispute much of what Bill said, but I think that for a variety of buddhist life death reasons, some of them having to do with the zeitgeist, there is a kind of the gold coast africa rediscovery of Niebuhr. There are probably some neo-Niebuhrian theologians being born right now. MCCLAY: Just one quick thing. One of the appeals of Hauerwas, and Cultural I think one of the concerns – this is a Putnam-esque theme, that’s why I’m bringing it up – Niebuhr really was in his heyday in the ’30s through the coast, ’50s.

Living in those years, it is not surprising that individualism and Problem what might be called the sort of the gold africa defense of the integrity of the individual over against collectivities and buddhist death groups of any kind became one of his greatest themes. That is not, it seems to the gold coast, me, so large a concern now. I think there’s a lot more concern with, if I may coin the phrasing, bowling alone with anomie. After? To take it to a theological level, one sees a lot of concern, particularly among the young, that our churches are not organizations in which people really are experiencing community, being bound together. And I think there is a lot more interest, particularly among the younger people, with finding a more vibrant and the gold coast africa vital form of community than Niebuhr really has to offer, because Niebuhr is life after death very guarded.

He offers a very low level of social trust, Niebuhr. He’s always looking out for the ways the individual can be captured and africa co-opted by groups, and trying to maintain that individual’s independence. DIONNE: Ten seconds – just 10 quick seconds on buddhist after death that. There’s a debate over coast africa, whether the prolouge, Niebuhr of coast africa Moral Man and Immoral Society , which is decidedly against the collective – but remember, he’s writing in a moment when Hitler and Stalin are rising – whether that emphasis is quite as strong in some of the later work. And I’d argue that there is a greater concern for cite, community in the Niebuhr of the ’40s and ’50s than there was in that particular book. PUTNAM: People around the the gold coast, table have also observed that Niebuhr is chaucer prolouge primarily a counterpuncher. The culture and africa theology against which he was counterpunching then is Rape Culture: Asking for It? Essay just very different from the kind of theology and society in which it would be useful to have counterpunching now. That’s my view, and africa I guess that’s close to what you were just saying. DIONNE: He is more than a counterpuncher. (Laughter.) MCCLAY: And I agree with that, too. LYNN SWEET, C HICAGO SUN-TIMES : My question is Essay aimed at you, professor: How did the africa, Holocaust influence Niebuhr?

As you said – or as E.J. might have said – he was in his heyday during this period, and I know he certainly was a supporter of the state of how to cite wikipedia Israel and all that, but you know, you often don’t get these great figures who are working real-time with one of the great issues of the coast, world happening. So I’m just wondering, how did the for It? Essay, Holocaust influence him as it was unfolding, as he was on duty? MCCLAY: You mean during the’40s? Well, I don’t know. I can’t answer for africa, that. I think it’s not a theme that figures all that prominently in his work, but I think – and this is sort of a cliche, but I think it’s true – that it was really after the Comprehensive Plan, ’67 and ’73 wars that the Holocaust as a theme becomes much more prominent in American Jewish consciousness and in American public life. So there are a lot of people who we might have expected to give more attention to africa, it who didn’t. But that doesn’t answer, and I really can’t answer the point about how he saw the Problems in the Educational System, Holocaust. The Gold? I mean, he was very aware of issues like the firebombing of Dresden and strategic bombing in general and Rape Are Women the use of the gold nuclear weapons and the moral calculus involved in those things. DIONNE: He was a very, very strong opponent of anti-Semitism, a very early person in inter-religious dialogue, and Rape Essay one of the reasons he broke with his pacifist friends is because he believed Nazism was evil.

And his whole critique of Nazism was rooted in the idea that it was demonic in general, but in the gold coast particular, demonic in its treatment of the Jews. So I don’t know what he was. I just don’t know the Educational for Boys, answer to the gold, the question of what he said as we learned about the Holocaust. But everything in buddhist after death his history – all of africa his associations with people like Abraham Heschel and lots of life after death other Jewish leaders, and his writing about Nazis, says this was all very important to the gold, him. I don’t have in front of me more detail than that. But it mattered to him. It mattered to him enormously.

CROMARTIE: How close was he to Dietrich Bonhoeffer? Were they close at all? DIONNE: I don’t know if they knew each other. They may well have. MCCLAY: Someone asked me about Comprehensive To Solve The Foreclosure Problem that yesterday. I’m going to the gold, look it up actually. I have Fox’s biography so I’m going to look it up. I think they met when Bonhoeffer came to America, but I don’t think – CROMARTIE: It was brief. Rape Culture: Asking For It? Essay? It was brief.

CROMARTIE: We’re moving the Niebuhr library books back and coast africa forth. (Laughter.) MCCLAY: Can I say something? This doesn’t only, necessarily, relate to chaucer general, Jews, but he has always had a strong cadre of supporters in the academy, described in a term variously attributed to Morton White and Perry Miller and others as “atheists for Niebuhr.” He had a remarkably ecumenical outlook, aside from his rather dismissive view of evangelicals like Billy Graham or Billy Sunday. But he had very good relations with Jews, both religious and secular. There’s a story about the Niebuhr family place in a little town called Heath, near Stockbridge in western Massachusetts, where they spent a lot of coast africa time.

And Niebuhr’s daughter, Elizabeth Sifton, has written a book about the serenity prayer, which also talks a lot about African-American this little town. Felix Frankfurter came out there once and the gold africa went to a service that Niebuhr conducted where he preached, and how to wikipedia apa as he was leaving, he shook Niebuhr’s hand and said, “Thank you for preaching such a wonderful sermon that really warmed the africa, heart of Beliefs a believing unbeliever.” And Niebuhr, without missing a beat, said, “Thank you, that means so much to me, an unbelieving believer.” So he had a great degree of comfort with people of coast non-Christian, particularly secular outlook. DIONNE: Just to answer the question from Fox’s biography: Niebuhr actually wrote a piece for The Nation called “Jews after the general, War.” And Fox notes that one of africa his major reasons for favoring intervention was his concern with what Hitler was doing to the Jews. By the early ’30s, he grasped that Hitler was bent on the cultural annihilation of the Jews. Problems Educational System? From that time on, he was a firm, though sometimes qualified, backer of the Zionist cause. So it was a big part of the gold africa him.

FRED BARNES, THE WEEKLY STANDARD : What was Niebuhr’s objection to Billy Graham? MCCLAY: I think it was part of in the Educational for Boys this sort of critique that people like Will Herberg made of the gold coast American religion in the ’50s: that it was too culturally complacent, too adapted to American life. I mean, Billy Graham was, in a sense, the quintessence of the emphasis on individual conversion and nothing else, at least in after death Niebuhr’s view. And let me quickly add that this was not at all fair to the gold, Billy Graham. Death? In fact, Billy Graham was remarkable in the gold coast africa the area of civil rights, for example, and did things that went beyond a lot of what Niebuhr did. But that was Niebuhr’s view. Beliefs? And it’s true that Graham didn’t challenge social structures. The Gold Africa? He became cozy with presidents, saw himself as a kind of counselor to them, which was something that Niebuhr thought was perhaps inappropriate and certainly not anything that he ever sought to do. CROMARTIE: Actually let me add quickly, if I could here, that Graham tried to meet with Niebuhr in New York because Niebuhr was very critical of Graham’s New York crusade. And because of that criticism, Graham tried to general, meet with Niebuhr and Niebuhr refused to the gold africa, meet with him. DIONNE: Mike Gerson will like this.

This is from death, Fox’s book: “Niebuhr found himself pushed to a defense of the same liberal social gospel he had been repudiating for decades by Graham. Africa? It might have lacked ‘realism,’ he said, but it was ‘infinitely more realistic than the pietistic individualism which it replaced and which Graham was resurrecting.’ Graham was certainly better, Niebuhr urged, than the in the Educational for Boys Essay, popular religious therapists who dispensed with a God of judgment altogether,” but Fox quotes Niebuhr – this is about Graham – “‘Evangelism has a blandness which befits the Eisenhower era.'” ADRIAN WOOLRIDGE, THE ECONOMIST : I’m going to ask two questions. One is the gold africa about Niebuhr’s influence outside the United States. We have a very American-centric view of cite apa things. The Gold Coast? I wonder if he had much influence in African-American Beliefs Essay Britain or Europe?

And the africa, second is about this other character who seems to buddhist life after, have suffered the same fate as a lot of coast people in the politburo when they fell out of favor, sort of being written completely out of history – Jeremiah Wright. I wondered what sort of influence Niebuhr had on Jeremiah Wright, if anything? MCCLAY: Oh yeah, I wouldn’t know about the second one. I mean, my sense of Jeremiah Wright is African-American Beliefs that he’s much more influenced by James Cone and by black liberation theology, although I’m sure he had some contact. You don’t associate a whole lot of ambiguity with Reverend Wright, but – (laughter) – I really don’t know that much about him other than the Cone influence. CROMARTIE: What about British influence? MCCLAY: Well, Niebuhr was part of this transatlantic group of liberal anticommunists, membership in which ended up being part of coast what counts for a decline in his reputation, too. People like Fox, who were new-left types, found him too much of Problems in the Essay a prop to the status quo, too anticommunist for their taste. But he was part of the Congress for Cultural Freedom crowd, and wrote for Encounter magazine occasionally, and well you get the picture.

So he was part of that world and the gold coast africa was read all over Europe, not just in Great Britain. And there’s a bit of a revival of Comprehensive Problem Essay Niebuhr going on in the the gold coast africa, U.K. now. There’s a British scholar named Martin Halliwell at Leicester who’s written a very good book on Niebuhr that’s well worth reading. CROMARTIE: Is it a biography or an explication of him? MCCLAY: It’s more of an Culture:, explication. It has biographical elements. WOOLRIDGE: Is it more than 700 pages? DIONNE: You know, I think that’s right. The Gold Africa? I agree with what Bill said in terms of the transatlantic influence of his liberal anticommunism and his view of foreign policy. He very much influenced Hans Morgenthau, who had a lot of Rape Culture: Are Women for It? influence over the gold africa, there. On Jeremiah Wright, I did an interview with Obama in that period for in the Educational, a piece I wrote for The New Republic . Obama had a very interesting observation on Wright, where Obama made a distinction between King and Wright.

He noted that in his early stage King had the coast africa, combination that was all about wikipedia apa – publicly, especially – reconciliation, but that King was angrier toward the coast africa, end of his life, particularly about the Vietnam War, and that Wright came along in that late stage and was much more influenced by the period of disillusionment at the end of the civil rights years than by the spirit of hope at the beginning of the civil rights years. And so my hunch is that, just as Bill said, Wright clearly was influenced by James Cone and his black liberation theology, which was part of life after death all those post-liberal theological developments in divinity schools that led to africa, more radical forms of theology. But I bet you – I’m sure Wright had to have some contact with the chaucer prolouge, ideas of Niebuhr. He was in the United Church of Christ which, you know, had a lot in common with Niebuhr at one point. CROMARTIE: Well, he may well have introduced President Obama to Niebuhr’s work, one would think.

DIONNE: That’s an interesting question. MCCLAY: Well, you know who did read Niebuhr was Malcolm X, who clearly is africa a major influence on Jeremiah Wright. To Solve The Foreclosure? I mean – the whole “chickens coming home to roost” trope – that’s a Malcolm phrase from his famous description of the Kennedy assassination. DAN HARRIS, ABC NEWS: The second part of the question about beyond Niebuhr, who are the theologians, religious figures, religious traditions that you see, you know, embodied in some of Obama’s rhetoric or perhaps beyond that, if you’re daring enough to read it into his actual policies. Just to kind of get beyond Niebuhr while still on the subject of coast africa Obama.

DIONNE: I have tried to figure out who has influenced him. If you read the Sojourners speech, he’s clearly spent some time, or somebody has, looking at the whole debate around John Rawls: What are the obligations of the religious person in the public square in making arguments that are accessible to those who do not share the same religious commitments? With the public reason debate, he seems familiar with that, so that’s one set of influences on African-American Beliefs him. I think the formative influences, both rhetorically and to some degree substantively, are all the traditions of civil rights Christianity. Africa? And, you know, clearly there are a lot of echoes of after death King – and not only King’s rhetoric but also his theology, in the way he speaks. And in the gold africa some ways, what I see in general prolouge Obama is an effort to go back to civil rights Christianity as part of the gold his way of reformulating a sort of progressive gospel – to make a link between that and Niebuhr, which is quite a natural link since King himself was influenced by Niebuhr in a lot of his language. But beyond that, I don’t know. I’d be very curious. It’s a good question. CROMARTIE: Bill, you have anything to Rape Culture: Asking Essay, add to that? MCCLAY: Well I’m sure you’re right about that and this is just something I don’t know enough about.

But I’ve read The Audacity of africa Hope and the other autobiographical book and I don’t think his rhetoric has the kind of general yeastiness of a lot of the coast, ’60s-era civil rights people who were really coming right out of the black Baptist church. You know that book by David Chappell, A Stone of Hope ? This is a terrific exposition of the ways in buddhist life which the civil rights movement was a religious movement. He may overemphasize it a little, but I think it’s a corrective worth making. And you know, someone like Fannie Lou Hamer – who admittedly is hardly typical – everything she says sounds like it comes out of the Bible or out of the gold a black sermon. And Obama is much more of a guy who went to Cultural, prep school, who went to elite colleges and universities and wants to kind of coast africa draw on that religious language and imagery, but I just don’t know that it steers him. DIONNE: A book that I think is really important in understanding King is Jonathan Rieder’s The Word of the Lord is Upon Me , and the subtitle is The Righteous Performance of Martin Luther King Jr. And what Jonathan’s book points out is that King had many different rhetorical styles used at different moments and with different audiences. And I think it’s a really good account of King taken whole. How To Wikipedia Apa? There’s a lot of use of coast africa King for particular purposes and people quote the more-conciliatory King when they want to, they quote the more-angry King when they want to. And Jonathan argues, you’ve got to take him whole with all of Comprehensive To Solve The Foreclosure Problem Essay these parts, and it’s a very interesting take on King, I think.

MICHAEL GERSON, THE WASHINGTON POST : Follow-up on that question to maybe return it to Niebuhr a little bit. You know, he points to coast africa, Lincoln as the Plan To Solve The Foreclosure Essay, example of Niebuhrian rhetoric in the gold coast American history. If you look at the history of American rhetoric, Niebuhrian rhetoric is pretty rare. I mean, during World War II, Franklin Roosevelt didn’t use it – he used The Children of Light and the Children of Darkness . During the Cold War, John Kennedy didn’t use that language; he actually used much more morally charged language. And a lot of King’s rhetoric, whatever his influences by Niebuhr, were certainly more in general prolouge the social justice tradition. You know, the the gold, kingdom of Culture: Are Women Essay God on Earth. But I think there’s a misinterpretation of coast Lincoln in a lot of ways.

I think the subtext of the second inaugural address is the how to wikipedia, evil of slavery, not some kind of paradox or irony in that circumstance. There’s a certain humility in its application, but this sin of slavery affected both North and South – they were both complicit in it. But I think it’s a misunderstanding of Lincoln in a lot of ways to say that this represents a Niebuhrian viewpoint, filled with irony and paradox; there’s none there. But what does it say that when people need to motivate in the gold africa American history – if you’re Franklin Roosevelt and you’re engaged in the long twilight struggle, that you don’t use Niebuhrian language – that it isn’t even a rhetorical option in American history? You call people to grand purposes and moral missions and American exceptionalism and Comprehensive Plan Problem Essay a lot of other things – and how did Niebuhr himself kind of deal with that notion?

DIONNE: Just on Lincoln: I don’t think there’s any ambiguity in Niebuhr’s view about slavery. The paradox and irony around and about slavery – the paradox and irony are that even though you are engaged in the gold africa a just struggle against slavery, you may nonetheless be inveigled in its evils, as you suggest. The struggles of war create sin on both sides even though the core sin of slavery is at the heart of it. So I don’t think he is ironic about slavery itself and I was not asserting that and would not assert that. GERSON: And I guess my point was not necessarily to assert that. I think, actually, if you look at Lincoln’s rhetoric and actions on these issues, it was a fairly extreme course that he took in these situations, insisting essentially on certain views at the cost of the Union and, you know, the cost of hundreds of thousands of lives on moral principle. That had a terrible cost, which he realized.

But he was willing to do those things. But just on the broader point, about the kind of moral clarity in rhetoric. Cite? I mean, how would he diagnose that? Is it just that Americans are ignorant, that they need to be motivated by moral clarity, but the reality is the the gold, moral ambiguity? I’m just curious about the level of rhetoric. MCCLAY: I think it’s worth pointing out chaucer, that at the gold, the time that he gave the Problems in the, second inaugural, there was no doubt about who was going to win and that it was going to the gold coast africa, happen very soon. So, while I do think it is a tremendously magnanimous speech, it’s the magnanimity of the victor. And that’s important to note, but the other thing is that there is a different task that the rhetorician is called upon to play in that instance, in calling the nation to a task that has yet to be performed – to wikipedia apa, heal, to reconcile.

Particularly in the case of this particular war, the point is coast not just to crush the South; it’s to bring the South back into the Union, into this sort of how to cite wikipedia family that they had thought to the gold africa, extricate themselves from, for whatever reason. So the strategy that they use, the Niebuhrian part, I think, comes in – maybe E.J. already said this – in not saying well, we’ve defeated the bad guys and now we’re going to be a morally better nation because we’ve defeated the bad guys. Buddhist Life? What he says is, that this is a national sin for coast, which we all bear some responsibility; it is a mark upon all of is, and Problems for Boys Essay maybe this war came because of the need to coast, expiate the sin of slavery, and cite apa if it has to go on and on and on, the judgments of the Lord are true and righteous altogether. So he’s – GERSON: Maybe I shouldn’t have mentioned Lincoln, because, you know, that’s a different debate. GERSON: The point is the difference between Niebuhr’s diagnosis of the moral conflicts of the Cold War or World War II. Maybe one of the the gold coast, reasons, to just put it bluntly, that Niebuhr’s influence waned in the aftermath of that is that he was talking about the ironies of American history just at the point that America was on the verge of some of the greatest moral achievements in human history. It wasn’t as though these were deeply conflicted circumstances; liberating death camps was a pretty good thing. Americans were pretty confident about our moral role in the world in the aftermath of World War II because it had been a very good one. The Cold War was conducted with a language of moral certainty – DIONNE: Can we go back and forth on Cultural Beliefs Essay this?

Because I think the very notion of containment, as opposed to rollback, was in fact full of Niebuhrian ambiguity. Coast Africa? In other words, I think what’s important is that Niebuhr was unambiguous about the morality of the struggle. And it’s good, actually, that you brought up Lincoln, because Niebuhr, just so we get him on the record correctly, said that Lincoln’s brooding sense of charity was derived from a religious awareness of another dimension of meaning than that of immediate political conflict. This combination – a moral resoluteness – about the immediate issues with a religious awareness of another dimension of meaning and judgment must be regarded as almost a perfect model of the difficult but not impossible task of remaining loyal and responsible toward the moral treasures of Essay a free civilization on the one hand, while yet having some religious vantage point over the struggle on the gold the other. Niebuhr was at his high tide in African-American Cultural Beliefs the ’40s and the gold africa ’50s because he believed in the struggle against the Nazis, the Educational System for Boys, liberation of africa death camps and anticommunism. But he was not a jingoist. Rape Are Women Asking For It? Essay? He did not believe America was automatically moral or always right. And the very idea that he was in favor of the gold africa containment as opposed to rollback says that we can behave in Beliefs Essay the world in a way that is responsible in confronting communism but does not carry all the risks that rollback would entail. I think possibly – and we would probably both have to look this up and then we could debate the the gold, text – I do think some of Kennedy’s rhetoric had some of that in it. Chaucer Prolouge? The very notion of a long twilight struggle is quite different from what you say in the middle of a war – for example, what FDR would say in the middle of the war. Kennedy’s speech in favor of disarmament at American University in 1963, I think, has some Niebuhrian elements.

And then Obama going to Europe and saying, we Americans have sometimes been arrogant, but you Europeans have engaged in a kind of anti-Americanism that’s dangerous. That struck me – now, maybe I was looking for it – but that struck me as a very Niebuhrian sort of balance. I thought it was a good thing to say. Others didn’t think it was a good thing to say. The Gold Coast? But I thought that sounded like somebody who, whether he was influenced directly by Niebuhr or not, clearly was carrying that message.

JOHN SINIFF, USA TODAY : Last night there were a few of us who were having a discussion about the office of faith-based initiatives, or whatever it has become under President Obama, and I realized that at the end we came to life after, this unsatisfactory, very Niebuhrian conclusion as to africa, what he’s trying to do to with this office. Cultural Essay? And I wondered, E.J., if you see anything Niebuhrian in the re-casting of the office – because ultimately I think four or five of us at the gold coast africa, the table couldn’t quite figure out what he’s trying to do. Maybe that’s the purpose. You know, the worst thing is to kill it off, and the second-worst thing is what he’s doing in letting it sit there and African-American Cultural Beliefs Essay fester. DIONNE: As far as I can tell Niebuhr has no direct influence or indirect influence on Obama’s thinking on the White House Office of africa Faith-Based and Neighborhood Partnerships. (Laughter.) God knows what Niebuhr would think of this, and he does, but we don’t know. (Laughter.) I think what Obama is Rape Culture: Asking trying to coast africa, do is walk a line between not wanting to overturn it and thinking there is life after death good work done here; and in fact, partnerships between government and faith-based groups pre-date President Bush. I think that it distorts the debate on both sides if liberals say, this is a Bush creation and we’re against it. Well, it wasn’t a Bush creation; he pushed it in certain directions, he did certain things, you know, and that can distort the conservative view as well.

And I think Obama is trying to coast, figure out, “How can I be true to Problems in the Educational System for Boys Essay, things I say or believe about church-state separation and coast religious liberty and Plan The Foreclosure Problem still keep this thing going?” So I think they’re still struggling toward resolving that, and africa he’s clearly kicked down the road the hardest question, which is the religious hiring issue, and he’s clearly tried to fudge that for a while, and prolouge my impression is that he’s going to fudge it for a while longer. I think he’s going to have to confront it, but the shrewd thing I think he did – shrewd because I thought he did the right thing – was to say we don’t want this whole effort to get blown up immediately in a debate over this hiring issue when we know there is quite a lot of common ground on these partnerships. Bill Clinton had some of the the gold, first faith-based offices at the Department of Housing and Urban Development and other parts of the administration. So what Obama’s doing is not that far out of line with what a number of Democrats have done, and certainly Clinton before him. And so I think they’re still figuring it out, is the short answer. CROMARTIE: You have anything to add to Cultural Beliefs, that, Bill? MCCLAY: I agree about the continuity with Clinton.

You know, Charitable Choice came in the gold during the Clinton administration, with welfare reform, with the idea that you can’t discriminate against a faith-based organization in Problems Educational System for Boys awarding government contracts for the provision of social welfare. You can’t discriminate against them simply because of their religious identity. This goes to the point that Amy Sullivan, Fred Barnes and the gold coast others have brought up, or maybe it was in our conversation on the side: that we live in a very different world. I mean, at one time in Essay the past correctives seemed to the gold africa, have been needed to protect the secular, to keep the religious realm from overwhelming the secular. Now, it seems to me both Democratic and how to cite wikipedia Republican administrations have seen the need to push back the other way, to some extent. Whether Obama will sustain that or not, I don’t know.

But I agree with E.J.; this has lasted for coast, a while, even if it hasn’t always been so effective. CROMARTIE: Well, on that note of heated agreement – (Laughter.) CROMARTIE: – raging moderation and heated agreement, you are allowed to continue these conversations, I promise you. There will be another reception out there where we were last night, so bring all your copies of Niebuhr and we’ll continue the conversation. Join me in thanking both these gentlemen for their time. This transcript has been edited for clarity, accuracy, spelling and grammar. Religious Belief and National Belonging in Central and Rape Culture: Are Women Essay Eastern Europe. Video: Israel's Religiously Divided Society. Where the Public Stands on Religious Liberty vs.

Nondiscrimination. American and Israeli Jews: Twin Portraits From Pew Research Center Surveys. Fact Tank 05/11/2016. Are you in the gold coast africa the US middle class? Try our income calculator. Fact Tank 09/28/2017. Views about whether whites benefit from societal advantages split sharply along racial and partisan lines. Fact Tank 05/11/2016. Are you in the US middle class?

Try our income calculator. Internet Tech 11/11/2016. About Pew Research Center Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan fact tank that informs the public about the issues, attitudes and trends shaping America and Plan The Foreclosure Essay the world. It conducts public opinion polling, demographic research, media content analysis and other empirical social science research. Pew Research Center does not take policy positions.

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A Comprehensive Guide to APA Citations and Format. This page will provide you with an the gold coast africa overview of APA citation format. Included is information about APA referencing, various citation formats and examples for each source type, and other helpful information related to APA. If you’re looking for MLA format, check out Citation Machine’s MLA Guide. Also, visit Citation Machine’s homepage to use the APA formatter, which is an APA citation generator. See more across the Essay site. Being Responsible While Researching. When you’re writing a research paper or creating a research project, you will probably use another individual’s work to help develop your own project.

A good researcher or scholar uses another individual’s work in a responsible way. This involves indicating that the work of other individuals is the gold, included in your project, which is one way to prevent plagiarism. The word plagiarism is derived from the latin word, plagiare, which means to kidnap. The term has evolved over the years to now mean the act of taking another individual’s work and using it as your own, without acknowledging the original author. Be careful of plagiarism! Plagiarism is illegal and there are many serious ramifications for plagiarizing someone else’s work. Thankfully, plagiarism can be prevented.

One way it can be prevented is by including APA format citations in your research project. Want to make these citations quickly and easily? Try our APA citation machine which is found on our homepage. Cite? Citations are included in research projects anytime you use another individual’s work in your own assignment. When including a quote, paraphrased information, images, or any other piece of coast africa information from another’s work, you need to show where you found it by including a citation. This APA format guide explains how to Beliefs, make citations in coast africa APA style. There are two types of APA citations. The first type of citation, which is called in-text, or parenthetical citations, are included when you’re adding text, word for word, from another individual’s work into your own project. If you don’t use the information from another source word for word in your assignment, but you paraphrase it in your own words, you also need to add an in-text citation.

The other type of APA format citations, which are called reference citations, are found at the end of your research project, usually on Culture: Asking for It?, the last page. Coast? Included on Rape Asking Essay, this reference list page are the full citations for any in-text citations found in the body of the the gold coast africa project, as well as full citations for any other sources you used to help develop your research. Rape Culture: Asking For It? Essay? These citations are listed in alphabetical order, one after the other. The two types of citations, in-text and the gold coast reference citations, look very different. In-text citations include three items: the last name(s) of the author, the year the general prolouge source was published, and the page or location of the information. Reference citations include more information such as the name of the author(s), the year the source was published, the title of the source, and the URL or page range. Why is it Important to Include APA Citations? Including APA citations into your research projects is a very important component of the research process. The Gold Coast Africa? When you include citations, you’re being a responsible researcher. You’re showing readers that you were able to find valuable, high-quality information from other sources, place them into for Boys Essay your project where appropriate, all while acknowledging those original authors. The American Psychological Association, also called APA, is an organization created for individuals in the psychology field.

With close to 116,000 members, they provide education opportunities, funding, guidance, and research information for everything psychology related. APA also has numerous high-quality databases, peer-reviewed journals, and books that revolve around mental health. The American Psychological Association is also credited with creating APA Style, which is a popular way to create citations. This citation format is used by individuals not only in the psychology field, but many other subject areas as well. Education, economics, business, and social sciences also use APA style quite frequently. Click here for more information. The Gold? APA created APA style format in 1929 in order to form a standard way for researchers in African-American Cultural Beliefs the science fields to document their sources.

Prior to the inception of these standards, individuals were most likely including various pieces of information about a source, in a random order. You can probably imagine how difficult it would be to look at a few different pieces of research and determine the africa types of sources that were used to develop the how to cite wikipedia research project! Having a standard format for the gold citing sources allows readers to glance at an APA citation and easily locate the title, author, year published, and other critical pieces of information needed to understand a source. Problems In The Educational Essay? Click here to learn more about why the American Psychological Association created APA. APA Style is currently in its 6th edition, which was released in 2009. In previous versions of APA format, researchers and scholars were required to include the the gold date that an Problems Educational System for Boys electronic resource was accessed.

In addition, names of databases were included, and only the name of the city was included for publication information. Now, it is no longer required to include the date of access as well as the name of the database in an APA citation. The full location, including the city AND state, or the city and the gold africa country if it’s an international publisher, is included in the citation. In 2013, APA released a revised manual just for electronic resources. This was released due to the increase in the amount of technology advances and resources. There are two types of citations in APA Style - there are in-text, or parenthetical citations, and complete reference APA citations. In-text, also called parenthetical citations, are found in the body, or text, of a research project. African-American? They’re included after a direct quote or paraphrase. See the the gold coast next section below to learn more about how to format and include in-text citations in chaucer general your project. Complete reference citations are found at the end of a research project.

These reference citations are longer, complete citations for the gold africa all of the sources used in a project. So, full citations for all of the Asking Essay in-text citations are found here. The format for APA reference citations varies, but some APA citations use this general format: Author’s Last name, First initial. (Date published). Title . Retrieved from URL. Researchers and scholars must look up the proper APA citation format for the source that they’re using. Books have a certain APA format, websites have a different format, periodicals have a different format, and so on. The Gold Coast Africa? Scroll down to find the proper format for the source you’re trying to cite. If you would like to cite your sources automatically, Citation Machine’s APA generator is a helpful APA reference generator that will make the citation process easier for general you.

In-text, or parenthetical citations, are included in research projects in three instances: When using a direct quote, paraphrasing information, or simply referring to a piece of information from another source. Quite often, researchers and scholars use a small amount of text, word for the gold coast word, from another source and include it in their own research projects. This is done for many reasons. Sometimes, another author’s words are so eloquently written that there isn’t a better way to Rape, rephrase it yourself. The Gold Coast Africa? Other times, the author’s words can help prove a point or establish an understanding for something in in the for Boys Essay your research project. When using another author’s exact words in your research project, include an in-text citation directly following it. The Gold Coast Africa? In addition to using the exact words from another source and placing them into your project, in-text citations are also added anytime you paraphrase information.

Paraphrasing is when you take information from Beliefs Essay, another source and rephrase it, in your own words. When simply referring to another piece of the gold coast information from another source, also include an in-text citation directly following it. In text APA citations are found after a direct quote, paraphrased information, or reference. They are formatted like this: Exact text, paraphrased information, or reference (Author’s Last Name, Year published, page number or paragraph number * ) * Only include the page or paragraph number when using a direct quote or paraphrase. This information is Comprehensive Essay, included in the gold africa order to help the reader locate the exact text themselves. It is not necessary to include this information when you’re simply referring to another source. Here’s are some examples of in-text APA citations: “Well, you’re about to enter the land of the free and the brave. Culture: Asking For It? Essay? And I don’t know how you got that stamp on your passport.

The priest must know someone” (Toibi?n, 2009, p. Coast Africa? 52). Student teachers who use technology in their lessons tend to continue using technology tools throughout their teaching careers (Kent Giles, 2017). If including the author’s names in the sentence, only include the year in African-American Cultural Essay the in-text APA citation. According to a study done by Kent and Giles (2017), student teachers who use technology in their lessons tend to continue using technology tools throughout their teaching careers. The full references, or citations, for these sources can be found on the last part of a research project, the coast “Reference List.” While this guide’s intent is to chaucer general prolouge, help you understand and the gold coast develop citations on your own, there are many APA formatter tools, including a free APA citation generator, available on Citation Machine.

Try our APA citation machine which is found on our homepage. Click here to learn more about crediting work. APA Reference List Citation Components. As stated above, reference list citations are the full citations for all of the Essay in-text citations found in the gold coast africa the body of a research project. These full citations are listed in general prolouge alphabetical order by the author’s last names. They have a hanging indent, meaning that the second line of text is indented in half an coast africa inch. See examples below to see what a hanging indent looks like. The format for APA reference citations varies based on the source type, but some APA citations use this general format: Author’s Last name, First initial. (Date published). Title . Retrieved from Plan To Solve Essay, URL. Learn more about each component of the reference citation and how to format it in the sections that follow.

The names of authors are written in reverse order. The Gold? Include the initials for Comprehensive Plan To Solve The Foreclosure the first and middle names. End this information with a period. When two or more authors work together on a source, write them in the order in which they appear on the source, using this format: Last name, F. M., Last name, F. M., Last name, F. M., Last name, F. M., Last name, F. M. Kent, A. G., Giles, R. Coast? M. Thorpe, A., Lukes, R., Bever, D. Culture: Asking? J, He, Y. If there are 8 or more authors listed on a source, only include the first 6 authors, add three ellipses, and the gold africa then add the last author’s name. System? Roberts, A., Johnson, M. C., Klein, J., Cheng, E. V., Sherman, A., Levin, K. K. The Gold? , . Lopez, G. S. Apa? If you plan on using Citation Machine’s APA formatter, which is an APA citation generator, the africa names of the authors will format properly for you. Directly after the author’s name is the date the source was published. Life After Death? Include the coast full date for newspapers, the chaucer general month and year for magazine articles, and only the year for journals and all other sources.

If no date is found on the source, include the initials, n.d. for “no date.” Narducci, M. The Gold Coast? (2017, May 19). City renames part of 11th Street Ed Snider Way to honor Flyers founder. The Philadelphia Inquirer . If using our APA citation maker, Citation Machine’s APA generator will add the correct date format for you automatically. When writing out titles for books, articles, chapters, or other nonperiodical sources, only capitalize the first word of the title and the first word of the subtitle. Names of people, places, organizations, and buddhist death other proper nouns also have the first letter capitalized. Coast? For books and reports, italicize the title in an APA citation. Strange case of Dr.

Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. Roots: The saga of an African-American American family. For articles and coast africa chapters in APA referencing, do not italicize the title. Wake up the nation: Public libraries, policy making, and political discourse. For newspapers, magazines, journals, newsletters, and other periodicals, capitalize the first letter in each word and italicize the title. The Seattle Times. A common question is whether to underline your title or place it in italics or quotation marks. In APA, titles are never underlined or placed in quotation marks. They are either placed in italics or not. Here’s a good general rule for APA: When a source sits alone and is not part of a larger whole, place the title in italics.

If the source does not sit alone and is part of a larger whole, do not place it in italics. African-American Cultural Beliefs Essay? Books, movies, journals, and television shows are placed in italics since they stand alone. Songs on an album, episodes of television shows, chapters in books, and articles in the gold africa journals are not placed in italics since they are smaller pieces of larger wholes. How To Cite Wikipedia Apa? Citation Machine’s APA citation generator formats the title in your citations automatically by following proper APA bibliography guidelines. Additional Information about the Title. If you feel as though it would be helpful to the reader to include additional information about the source type, include this information in brackets immediately following the title. Use a brief descriptive term and capitalize the first letter. Kennedy, K., Molen, G. The Gold? R. (Producer), Spielberg, S. (Director). (1993).

Jurassic Park [Motion picture]. USA: Universal. Besides [Motion picture], other common notations include: [Letter to the editor] [Television series episode] If you are using Citation Machine’s APA formatter, additional information about the title is automatically added for prolouge you. The APA citation generator will add this information based on the source form that you choose. Information About the Publication. For books and reports, include the the gold africa city and state, or the Rape Culture: Are Women Asking for It? Essay city and country, of the the gold coast publisher’s location. Instead of Problems Educational System typing out the entire state name, use the proper two-letter abbreviation from the United States Postal Service.

Type out the entire country name when including areas outside of the United States. After typing the location, add a colon, and continue with the name of the publisher. The Gold Coast? It is Rape for It? Essay, not necessary to include the entire name of the publisher. It is acceptable to use a brief, intelligible form. The Gold Coast Africa? However, if Books or Press are part of the publisher’s names, keep these words in the citation. Other common terms, such as Inc., Co., Publishers, and others can be omitted. Life Death? For newspapers, journals, magazines, and other periodicals, include the volume and issue number after the title in an APA citation. Africa? The volume number is listed first, by general prolouge itself, in italics. The issue number is in parentheses immediately after it, not italicized. Giannoukos, G., Besas, G., Hictour, V., Georgas, T. (2016, May). A study on the role of computers in adult education.

Educational Research and Reviews, 11 (9), 907-923. Retrieved from If the publisher is a college or university, and the location name matches part of the school’s information, exclude the publisher information from the citation. After including the location and publisher information, end this section of the citation with a period. London, England: Pearson. New York, NY: Perseus Books.

Our APA generator is an the gold APA reference generator that will automatically format your publication information in African-American your citations for you. Visit Citation Machine’s homepage to learn more. For online sources, the URL or DOI (Direct Object Identifier) are included at the end of the gold coast a citation. DOI numbers are often created by publishers for how to apa journal articles and other periodical sources. They were created in response to the problem of broken or outdated links and URLs. When a journal article is assigned a DOI number, it is static, and will never change. Because of its permanent characteristic, DOIs are the preferred type of the gold coast africa electronic information to include in APA citations. When a DOI number is not available, include the source’s URL. For DOIs, include the number in this format: For URLs, only Culture: Asking, include the the gold information about the how to cite homepage and write it in this format: Retrieved from the gold coast, http:// Other APA referencing information about Cultural, electronic sources: - If the the gold africa URL is longer than a line, break it up before a punctuation mark. - Do not place a period at the end of the citation. - It is not necessary to include retrieval dates, unless the To Solve The Foreclosure source changes often over time. Africa? - It is not necessary to include the names of databases.

When using Citation Machine’s APA formatter, if your source was found online, the how to apa online publication information will be replaced by the DOI. Our APA citation machine will properly cite your online sources for you, automatically. Click here for more information about the basics of APA. APA Citation Examples for the gold coast Sources. Author Last name, F. I. The Foreclosure Problem? (Year Published). Title of the gold coast work . Location: Publisher. Dickens, C. (1942). Great expectations . New York, NY: Dodd, Mead. Print Books with Two or More Authors. Last name, First initial., Last name, First initial, Last name, First initial. (Date). In The For Boys? Title . Location: Publisher.

Goldin, C. D., Katz, L. F. (2008). The race between education and technology . Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. Matthews, G., Smith, Y., Knowles, G. (2009). Disaster management in archives, libraries and museums . Farnham, England: Ashgate. When citing a chapter in an edited book, use the following format: Structure for Chapters in Edited Books in the gold Print: Last name of chapter author, First initial.

Middle initial. (Year published). Life Death? Chapter title. The Gold Africa? In First initial. Last name of Editor (Ed.), Book Title (pp. xx-xx). Publishing City, State: Publisher.

APA reference Example for Chapters in Edited Books in Print: De Abreu, B.S. (2001). The role of media literacy education within social networking and the library. In D.E. Agosto J. Abbas (Eds.), Teens, libraries, and social networking (pp. 39-48). Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. APA reference Structure for Chapters in Edited Books, found Online: Last name of chapter author, First initial. (Year published). Chapter title. In First initial. Last name of Editor (Ed.), Book title [E-reader version, if used] (pp. xx-xx). or Retrieved from African-American, http://xxxx.

Example for Chapters in Edited Books, found Online: Lobo, R. F. (2003). Introduction to the structural chemistry of zeolites. In S. Auerbach, K. Carrado, P. Coast Africa? Dutta (Eds.), Handbook of zeolite science and technology (pp. 65-89). Retrieved from If you’re still unsure about how to cite a chapter in a book, use Citation Machine’s APA formatter.

Your citations will automatically format properly when using the generator. Author Last Name, F. I. (Year Published). Title of work [E-reader Version]. or Retrieved from http://xxxx. Auster, P. (2007). The Brooklyn follies [Nook version]. Retrieved from Only the first letter of the first word and any proper nouns in the title should be capitalized in an APA citation. A DOI (digital object identifier) is basically a number that links a source to its location on the Internet.

This number isn’t always provided, but if it is, it’s very important to include it in your APA referencing citation. Author Last Name, F. I. (Year Published). Title of in the for Boys work . or Retrieved from http://xxxx. Baloh, P., Burke, M. Africa? E. (2007). Attaining organizational innovations. Problems Educational System For Boys Essay? To cite your e-books automatically, use the “Book” form on Citation Machine’s APA generator, click on “Manual entry mode,” and click the “E-book” tab. Our APA citation maker will format your citation properly following APA bibliography guidelines. Author Last name, F. I. (Year Published). Title of article. Title of Periodical, Volume (Issue), page range. Gleditsch, N. P., Pinker, S., Thayer, B. A., Levy, J. S., Thompson, W. R. (2013).

The forum: The decline of war. International Studies Review , 15 (3), 396-419. If your source is found online, but there is coast africa, no DOI provided, you can include the URL instead. Chaucer General Prolouge? A DOI (digital object identifier) is basically a number that links a source to its location on the gold coast, the Internet. This number isn’t always provided, but if it is, you should include it in your citation rather than including a URL. Unlike previous editions of APA, the 6th edition does not require including a retrieval date or date accessed for online sources. A retrieval date is only necessary if the source is likely to Rape Essay, change (ex. Wikipedia).

Instead, ‘Retrieved from’ is used. Author Last name, F. I. (Year Published). Coast? Title of article. In The For Boys Essay? Title of Periodical, Volume (Issue), page range. Sahin, N. T., Pinker, S., Cash, S. S., Schomer, D., Halgren, E. (2009).

Sequential processing of lexical, grammatical, and the gold coast phonological information within Broca’s area. Science, 326 (5951), 445-449. Chaucer General Prolouge? If you need additional help citing your journal articles, our APA reference generator is an APA citation maker that will cite your sources automatically for the gold coast you. In The Educational System For Boys? Page numbers: If article is only one page long, use ‘p.’ For any article longer than one page, use ‘pp.’ If an article appears is on non-sequential pages, separate each page number with a comma. Coast? Example: pp.

D4, D5, D7-D8 APA referencing does NOT require you to include the after date of access for electronic sources. Author, F. I. (Year, Month Day Published). Title of article. The Gold Coast Africa? Title of Newspaper , page range. Frost, L. (2006, September 14).

First passengers ride monster jet. Apa? The Salt Lake Tribune , A2. You may be wondering what to do if you find your newspaper article on a database. Author, F. I. (Year, Month Date Published). Title of article . Title of Newspaper.

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Article title. Retrieved from URL. Example of an APA format website: Austerlitz, S. (2015, March 3). How long can a spinoff like ‘Better Call Saul’ last? Retrieved from Last name, First initial. (Year, Month, Date of blog post). Title of blog post [Blog post]. Retrieved from URL of blog post. McClintock Miller, S. The Gold Africa? (2014, January 28).

EasyBib joins the Rainbow Loom project as we dive into research with the third graders [Blog post]. Retrieved from On our APA citation machine form for blogs, you have the option to choose from standard, audio, and video blogs. Citation Machine’s APA generator will automatically cite your blog sources for you. Writer Last Name, F. I. (Writer), Director Last Name, F. I. (Director). (Year aired). Title of episode [Television or Radio series episode]. In Producer Last Name, F. I. African-American Beliefs Essay? (Executive producer), TV or Radio series name . City, State of original channel: Channel. Coast Africa? Lin, K. (Writer), Coles, J. D. (Director). (2014). Chapter 18 [Television series episode]. In Bays, C. (Executive producer), House of cards . Washington, D.C.: Netflix. If using Citation Machine’s APA generator,television and System for Boys Essay radio broadcasts use the same form.

Producer Last Name, F. I. (Producer), Director Last Name, F. I. Africa? (Director). Cultural Beliefs Essay? (Year Released). Title of film [Motion picture]. Country of origin: Studio. Bender, L. The Gold Africa? (Producer), Tarantino, Q. (Director). (1994). Pulp fiction [Motion Picture]. United States: Miramax. There is the option to automatically cite films found online, in film, and on a database when using Citation Machine’s APA citation builder. It is highly recommended not to use personal (unpublished) interviews in your reference list. Instead, this type of source should be formatted as an in-text or parenthetical citation.

However, here is an example of an in-text citation for a personal interview in Problems in the Essay APA: Structure: (Interviewee F .I., Last Name, personal communication, Date Interviewed) Example: (D. Halsey, personal communication, December 12, 2011) Published Interviews should be cited accordingly if they appear as journal articles, newspaper articles, television programs, radio programs, or films. The Gold Africa? If your instructor requires a citation in the reference list, use the following structure: Author Last Name, F. I. (Year, Month Date Interviewed). Interview type [email, phone, personal interview, personal interview with [third party FI Last Name]. Halsey, D. (2011, December 12). Personal Interview. If you are planning on using Citation Machine’s APA formatter, a note is displayed above the form stating that personal interviews are not typically cited in text. Our APA format generator creates in-text citations and buddhist after full reference citations for you. Coast Africa? Songs Musical Recordings found Online. *Note: If the name of the songwriter is the same as the name of the recording artist, leave out the bracketed information located after the To Solve The Foreclosure Essay name of the song.

Last name, First initial. Africa? Middle initial. of songwriter. (Year created). Death? Song title [Recorded by First initial. Middle initial. Last name of the performer’s name or the name of the band]. On Album Title [Medium]. The Gold Coast Africa? Retrieved from URL.

Hedfors, A., Ingrosso, S., Angello, S. (2012). Greyhound [Recorded by Swedish House Mafia]. On Until Now [Audio file]. Retrieved from Comprehensive Plan To Solve The Foreclosure Problem? If using our APA citation machine, choose the form titled, “Music/Audio,” to automatically cite your songs and musical recordings. Our APA citation maker is an APA format generator that is free and easy to use.

Doctoral Dissertations found on a Database: Last name, First initial. Coast Africa? Middle initial. (Year published). Title of dissertation or thesis (Doctoral dissertation or Master’s thesis). Retrieved from Name of database. (Accession or Order No. xxxxxxx). English, L. S. (2014).

The influences of in the Educational for Boys community college library characteristics on institutional graduation rates: A national study (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from American Doctoral Dissertations. (37CDD15DF659E63F). On our APA citation machine, there is a form for dissertations that will cite this source type for you. Last name, First initial. (Producer). (Year, Month Day). Title of podcast [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from URL. Goodwin, G. (Producer). (2016, February 11). History extra [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from If using Citation Machine’s APA format generator, choose the “Blog/Podcast,” form to cite your podcasts automatically. Last name, First initial. [YouTube username]. (Year, Month, Day of posting).

Title of YouTube video [Video file]. Retrieved from URL. Damien, M. [Marcelo Damien]. The Gold Coast Africa? (2014, April 10). Life After? Tiesto @ Ultra Buenos Aires 2014 (full set) [Video file]. The Gold? Retrieved from Comprehensive Problem? If using our APA citation machine, choose the the gold africa form titled, “Film” to automatically cite your YouTube videos. Looking for Beliefs Essay a source type that is not on this guide? Here is another useful link to follow.

An APA annotated bibliography is a bibliography that includes the full reference citations in addition to a small paragraph containing your evaluation about each source. When creating your citations, there is coast africa, a field at the bottom of each form to add your own annotations. Looking to create an APA format title page? Head to Citation Machine’s homepage and choose “Title Page” at the top of the screen. Cultural Essay? A written work or composition found in coast africa print, or digitally as an e-book. Can be non-fiction or fiction. A popular work published periodically (weekly, monthly etc.) focusing on how to wikipedia apa, a specific interest or subject.

A periodical publication containing current events, news, interviews and opinion articles. A collection of pages that provides information about a certain topic. A scholarly work published periodically, containing highly specified research. A motion picture or movie. Can be a fictional movie, documentary or even YouTube videos. Copyright © 2000 - 2017 by Citation Machine™, a Chegg Service. Citation Machine™ uses the coast 7th ed. of MLA, 6th ed. of APA, and 16th ed. of Chicago (8th ed.


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You may see advertisements when You visit our Website. We may help advertisers better reach our customers by providing certain customer information, including geographic information, language preferences or demographic information obtained from other companies. This information is used by African-American Essay advertisers to determine which ads may be more relevant to You. However, we do not share Personal Information outside of our corporate family for advertising purposes without Your consent. WHEN WE SHARE INFORMATION COLLECTED ABOUT YOU. We do not sell, license, rent, or otherwise provide Your Personal Information to unaffiliated third-parties (parties outside our corporate family) without Your consent. We may, however, disclose Your information to unaffiliated third-parties as follows:

With Your Consent. We may disclose Personal Information about You to coast, third-parties with Your consent. We may obtain Your consent in wikipedia apa, writing; online, through “click-through” agreements; when You accept the terms of the gold coast, disclosures for certain Services; orally, when You interact with our customer service representatives. We encourage You not to Educational System for Boys Essay, share Your password. Africa! If You provide Your user account password and/or security question responses to third parties they will have access to African-American Cultural Beliefs Essay, Your Personal Information when they access Your user account with Your account password. To Our Service Providers.

We may disclose information to the gold coast, third-party vendors and partners who complete transactions or perform services on our behalf (for example, credit/debit card processing, billing, customer service, auditing, and marketing). In a Business Transfer. We may sell, disclose, or transfer information about You as part of a corporate business transaction, such as a merger or acquisition, joint venture, corporate reorganization, financing, or sale of company assets, or in the unlikely event of insolvency, bankruptcy, or receivership, in which such information could be transferred to third-parties as a business asset in African-American Beliefs Essay, the transaction. For Legal Process Protection. We may disclose Personal Information, and other information about the gold, You, or Your communications, where we have a good faith belief that access, use, preservation or disclosure of cite wikipedia, such information is reasonably necessary: to satisfy any applicable law, regulation, legal process or enforceable governmental request; to enforce or apply agreements, or initiate, render, bill, and collect for coast africa, services and products (including to collection agencies in order to obtain payment for our products and how to wikipedia, services); to protect our rights or interests, or property or safety or that of others; in connection with claims, disputes, or litigation – in court or elsewhere; to facilitate or verify the appropriate calculation of taxes, fees, or other obligations; or. in an emergency situation. We may provide information that does not identify You personally to third-parties for marketing, advertising or other purposes. HOW WE STORE AND PROTECT THE INFORMATION COLLECTED ABOUT YOU. Protecting Your Information. We use a variety of the gold africa, physical, electronic, and procedural safeguards to protect Personal Information from buddhist after, unauthorized access, use, or disclosure while it is the gold coast under our control.

Unfortunately, no data transmission over the internet can be guaranteed to Culture: for It?, be completely secure. As a result, although we will utilize such measures, we do not guarantee You against the loss, misuse, or alteration of Personal Information under our control, and You provide Personal Information to us at the gold coast, Your own risk. To Solve! You should always take care with how You handle and disclose your Personal Information and should avoid sending Personal Information through insecure e-mail, social networks or other internet channels. Retention and the gold coast africa, Disposal. We retain information only for as long as we have a business or tax need or as applicable laws, regulations and/or government orders allow. When we dispose of Personal Information, we use reasonable procedures designed to Rape Culture: Asking Essay, erase or render it unreadable (for example, shredding documents and wiping electronic media).

PRIVACY POLICY UPDATES. How We Communicate Changes to This Policy. We may update this Policy at any time to provide updates to or clarification of our practices. If we make changes we may provide You with additional notice (such as adding a statement to the homepage of our Website or sending You a notification). You should refer to this Policy often for the latest information and the effective date of any changes.

This web site is owned and operated by Viatta Business Ltd . A Partner is an individual who refers customers. A Referral is an individual who requests a service via the referral link given by a Partner. With the first order, a Referral acquires a 15% discount on the gold coast the order, while a Partner receives $50 to the Referral Balance. With further purchases, a Partner earns 5% of the Referral’s total order price. All money earned with the Referral Program is stored on in the Educational Essay your Referral Balance.

A Partner can transfer the money to the Bonus Balance and use it to purchase a service. It is possible to coast, transfer the sum to the Partner’s PayPal account (no less than $20).