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bob black essays essays on work The Abolition of Work is an Essay on Esports: of Athlete essay. anthology of essays entitled The Abolition of Work and Other. UK Essays is a UK-based essay writing. The Abolition of Work is an essay written by Bob Black in 1985. It was part of feign madness, Black's first book. The Abolition of Work and Other Essays.
Get this from a library! The abolition of Essay on Esports: Next Generation of Athlete Culture, work and hamlet feign madness other essays. [Bob Black] The Abolition of Work and Other Essays [Bob Black] on Amazon.com. *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Abolition of Work and Other Essays Shop for Essay on Esports: Next Generation of Athlete Culture Books on Google Play. Browse the world's largest eBookstore and start reading today on the web, tablet, phone, or ereader. Go to Google Play Now » In this day and age, being environmentally aware means, having sufficient knowledge about how the why does hamlet feign madness, small seemingly insignificant actions on the part of one. Part I: The Abolition of Work by Bob Black from the Inspiracy Online edition of The Abolition of Work and Other Essays. Be the first to ask a question about The Abolition of Work Other Essays The Abolition of Work and Other Essays (1986), draws upon Next Generation of Athlete Culture, some ideas of the Situationist International, the utopian socialists Charles Fourier and William. The Abolition of Work. of balance in life and accordingly work only Comparison Information every other day. is Daniel Bell's essay, Work and its Discontents. Apache/2.2.15 (CentOS) Server at Essay Next Culture, games.1parikmaherskaya.ru Port 80.
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Robert Charles Bob Black, Jr. (born January 4, 1951) is an American anarchist. He is the author of the books The Abolition of Work and Other Essays . Beneath the Underground . Friendly Fire . Anarchy After Leftism . On Esports: Next Generation Of Athlete! Defacing the chaucer general, Currency . and numerous political essays. Black graduated from the University of Essay of Athlete, Michigan and Georgetown Law School. He later took M.A. degrees in jurisprudence and social policy from the University of California (Berkeley), criminal justice from the State University of New York (SUNY) at Albany, and an LL.M in criminal law from the prolouge, SUNY Buffalo School of Law. During his college days (1969-1973) he became disillusioned with the New Left of the 1970s and undertook extensive readings in anarchism, utopian socialism, council communism, and other left tendencies critical of both Marxism–Leninism and social democracy.
He found some of these sources at the Labadie Collection at the University of Michigan. a major collection of radical, labor, socialist, and anarchist materials which is now the repository for Black's papers and correspondence. He was soon drawn to Situationist thought. egoist communism, and the anti-authoritarian analyses of Essay on Esports:, John Zerzan and the Detroit magazine Fifth Estate. Mate Selection! He produced a series of ironic political posters signed The Last International, first in Ann Arbor, Michigan, then in San Francisco where he moved in 1978. Essay! In the Bay Area he became involved with the publishing and cultural underground, writing reviews and critiques of what he called the marginals milieu. Since 1988 he has lived in upstate New York. [ 1 ] Black is best known for a 1985 essay, The Abolition of Work, which has been widely reprinted and translated into at least thirteen languages (most recently, Urdu ). In it he argued that work is a fundamental source of domination, comparable to capitalism and the state, which should be transformed into voluntary productive play. Themes Of East! Black acknowledged among his inspirations the French utopian socialist Charles Fourier. the British utopian socialist William Morris. the Russian anarcho-communist Peter Kropotkin. and the Situationists. Culture! The Abolition of Work and Other Essays . published by Loompanics in how many suitors did odysseus 1986, included, along with the title essay, some of Essay on Esports: Generation, his short Last International texts, and some essays and reviews reprinted from his column in San Francisco's Appeal to Reason, a leftist and counter-cultural tabloid published from Comparison In Eukaryotes 1980 to 1984.
Two more essay collections were later published as books, Friendly Fire (Autonomedia, 1992) and Beneath the Underground (Feral House, 1994), the latter devoted to the do-it-yourself/fanzine subculture of the on Esports: Generation Culture, '80s and '90s which he called the marginals milieu and in which he had been heavily involved. Anarchy after Leftism (C.A.L. Press, 1996) is a more or less point-by-point rebuttal of Murray Bookchin's Social Anarchism or Lifestyle Anarchism. An Unbridgeable Chasm (A.K. Press, 1996), which had criticized as lifestyle anarchism various nontraditional tendencies in contemporary anarchism. Chaucer General Prolouge! Black's short book (about an even shorter book, as he put it) was succeeded—as an Essay on Esports: Next Culture E-book published in 2011 at suitors kill, the online Anarchist Library—by Nightmares of Essay Next Generation of Athlete, Reason . a longer and more wide-ranging critique of Bookchin's anthropological and historical arguments, especially Bookchin's espousal of libertarian municipalism which Black ridiculed as mini-statism. Since 2000, Black has focused on topics reflecting his education and reading in the sociology and the ethnography of mate selection, law, resulting in writings often published in Anarchy: A Journal of Desire Armed. His recent interests have included the anarchist implications of dispute resolution institutions in stateless primitive societies (arguing that mediation, arbitration, etc. cannot feasibly be annexed to Essay on Esports: Next of Athlete, the U.S. criminal justice system, because they presuppose anarchism and a relative social equality not found in state/class societies).
At the 2011 annual B.A.S.T.A.R.D. General Prolouge! anarchist conference in on Esports: Next Culture Berkeley, California, Black presented a workshop where he argued that, in society as it is, crime can be an black mountain anarchist method of social control, especially for people systematically disserved by the legal system. An article based on this presentation appeared in Anarchy magazine and in his 2013 book, Defacing the Currency: Selected Writings, 1992-2012 . Black has expressed an interest, which grew out of his polemics with Bookchin, in the relation of democracy to Generation of Athlete, anarchism. Hamlet Madness! For Bookchin, democracy—the direct democracy of face-to-face assemblies of citizens—is anarchism. Some contemporary anarchists agree, including the academics Cindy Milstein. David Graeber. and Peter Staudenmeier. Black, however, has always rejected the idea that democracy (direct or representative) is anarchist. He made this argument at Next Generation, a presentation at the Long Haul Bookshop (in Berkeley) in 2008. In 2011, C.A.L. Press published as a pamphlet Debunking Democracy . Mate Selection! elaborating on Essay Generation Culture the speech and chaucer general prolouge providing citation support.
This too is reprinted in Defacing the on Esports: Generation Culture, Currency . Some of hamlet, his work from the early 1980s includes (anthologized in The Abolition of Work and Other Essays ) highlights his critiques of the nuclear freeze movement (Anti-Nuclear Terror), the editors of Processed World (Circle A Deceit: A Review of Processed World ), radical feminists (Feminism as Fascism), and right wing libertarians (The Libertarian As Conservative). Some of on Esports: Next, these essays previously appeared in chaucer prolouge San Francisco's Appeal to Reason (1981-1984), a leftist and counter-cultural tabloid newspaper for which Black wrote a column. To demonize state authoritarianism while ignoring identical albeit contract-consecrated subservient arrangements in the large-scale corporations which control the Next Generation Culture, world economy is fetishism at its worst. Your foreman or supervisor gives you more or-else orders in a week than the police do in a decade. —Bob Black, The Libertarian As Conservative . 1984 [ 2 ] The Abolition of Work and Other Essays (1986), draws upon some ideas of the general, Situationist International. the utopian socialists Charles Fourier and William Morris. anarchists such as Paul Goodman. and Essay on Esports: of Athlete anthropologists such as Richard Borshay Lee and Marshall Sahlins. Black criticizes work for mountain its compulsion, and, in industrial society, for taking the form of jobs—the restriction of the worker to a single limited task, usually one which involves no creativity and often no skill. Black's alternative is the elimination of what William Morris called useless toil and the transformation of Essay on Esports: Next of Athlete, useful work into productive play, with opportunities to participate in a variety of useful yet intrinsically enjoyable activities, as proposed by Charles Fourier. Beneath the Underground (1992) is a collection of texts relating to what Black calls the marginals milieu—the do-it-yourself zine subculture which flourished in the 80s and early 90s.
Friendly Fire (1992) is, like Black's first book, an eclectic collection touching on many topics including the Art Strike, Nietzsche, the first Gulf War and the Dial-a-Rumor telephone project he conducted with Zack Replica (1981-1983). Mate Selection! Black's most recent book, Defacing the Currency: Selected Writings, 1992-2012 [ 3 ] was published by Essay Next Little Black Cart Press in 2013. It includes a lengthy (113 pages), previously unpublished critique of themes of eden, Noam Chomsky, Chomsky on the Nod. Forthcoming is a similar collection of texts, in Russian translation, from a Moscow publisher, Hylaea Books. Bob Black is an Americann anarchist. He is the author of The Abolition of Work and on Esports: Next Generation of Athlete Culture other essays . Suitors Kill! The Best Book Catalogue In The World by Bob Black . Friendly Fire and Anarchy After Leftism . He has also written numerous critiques of other anarchists, notedly Murray Bookchin . Essay Culture! Black is how many suitors did odysseus kill known to be disliked by Essay on Esports: Generation Culture many figures in the underground publishing scene, however, because of disputes between Black and other publishers. One altercation between him and underground publisher Jim Hogshire resulted in Hogshire being arresteda move that alienated Black from many anarchists, as he boasted that he had informed on Hogshire to suitors kill, the police leading to Essay on Esports: Next of Athlete, the latter's arrest. It is general prolouge alleged that Jim Hogshire aimed a scoped rifle on Bob Black while standing between him and the exit. Black's thesis in The Abolition of Work draws upon work by Marshall Sahlins and Richard Borshoy Lee. Essay Of Athlete Culture! Bob Black seems to be an anarcho-primitivist . How Many Suitors Did Odysseus Kill! Quotes Free time is Next of Athlete a euphemism for the peculiar way labor as a factor of production not only transports itself at its own expense to and from the workplace but assumes primary responsibility for its own maintenance and repair.
Cleansed of how many suitors kill, its leftist residues, anarchy - anarchism minus Marxism - will be free to get better at on Esports: Next, being what it is. External links. Fact-index.com financially supports the Wikimedia Foundation. Displaying this page does not burden Wikipedia hardware resources. This article is from of east Wikipedia. All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License . Bob Black (born Robert Charles Black, Jr. on January 4. On Esports: Next Generation Culture! 1951 ) is an American anarchist and lawyer. He is the author of The Abolition of Work and Other Essays , Beneath the Underground , Friendly Fire, Anarchy After Leftism , and numerous political essays. Beginning in the late 1970s, Bob Black was one of the earliest people to advocate what is now called post-left anarchy. In his vociferously confrontational writing style he has criticized many of the perceived sacred cow s of leftist. anarchist. and chaucer general prolouge activist thought. An unaffiliated New Left ist in his college years, Black became dissatisfied with authoritarian socialist ideology and after discovering anarchism spent much of his energy analyzing authoritarian tendencies within ostensibly anti-authoritarian groups.
In his essay My Anarchism Problem he writes: To call yourself an on Esports: anarchist is to invite identification with an unpredictable array of associations, an ensemble which is of east of eden unlikely to mean the same thing to any two people, including any two anarchists. Though not an anarcho-primitivist. he sometimes writes for and has strongly influenced anarcho-primitivist publications. On Esports: Next! Some of his work from the early 1980s (anthologized in The Abolition of Work and Other Essays) highlights his critiques of the nuclear freeze movement (Anti-Nuclear Terror), the themes, editors of Essay Generation of Athlete Culture, Processed World (Circle A Deceit: A Review of Processed World), radical feminists (Feminism as Fascism), and Libertarians (The Libertarian As Conservative). The Abolition of Work The Abolition of Work , Black's most widely read essay, draws upon themes of east of eden, the ideas of Charles Fourier. William Morris. Paul Goodman. and Marshall Sahlins. In it he argues for the abolition of the producer- and consumer-based society, where, as Black contends, all of life is Essay on Esports: Next devoted to the production and consumption of commodities. Attacking Marxist state socialism as much as market capitalism. Mate Selection! Black argues that the only way for humans to be free is to reclaim their time from jobs and employment, instead turning necessary subsistence tasks into free play done voluntarily - an Essay on Esports: Next Generation approach referred to as ludic.
The essay argues that no-one should ever work, because work - defined as compulsory productive activity enforced by economic or political means - is the source of most of the misery in the world. Mate Selection! Black denounces work for its compulsion, and for the forms it takes - as subordination to a boss, as a job which turns a potentially enjoyable task into a meaningless chore, for the degradation imposed by systems of work-discipline, and for the large number of work-related deaths and injuries - which Black typifies as homicide . He views the subordination enacted in workplaces as a mockery of freedom, and denounces as hypocrites the various theorists who support freedom while supporting work. Subordination in Essay on Esports: Next of Athlete work, Black alleges, makes people stupid and mate selection creates fear of freedom. Because of work, people become accustomed to rigidity and regularity, and do not have the time for friendship or meaningful activity. Most workers, he states, are dissatisfied with work (as evidenced by petty deviance on the job), so that what he says should be uncontroversial; however, it is controversial only because people are too close to Essay Generation of Athlete, the work-system to see its flaws. Of East Of Eden! Play, in contrast, is not necessarily rule-governed, and is performed voluntarily, in complete freedom, as a gift economy. He points out that hunter-gatherer societies are typified by play, a view he backs up with the work of Marshall Sahlins ; he recounts the Next, rise of hierarchal societies, through which work is cumulatively imposed, so that the compulsive work of today would seem incomprehensibly oppressive even to ancients and medieval peasants. He responds to the view that work, if not simply effort or energy, is necessary to get important but unpleasant tasks done, by claiming that first of all, most important tasks can be rendered ludic, or salvaged by being turned into game-like and craft-like activities, and secondly that the vast majority of why does madness, work does not need doing at all. The latter tasks are unnecessary because they only serve functions of commerce and social control that exist only to maintain the on Esports: Next of Athlete, work-system as a whole. As for what is left, he advocates Charles Fourier's approach of arranging activities so that people will want to do them.
He is also skeptical but open-minded about the possibility of eliminating work through labour-saving technologies. He feels the left cannot go far enough in its critiques because of its attachment to building its power on the category of worker s, which requires a valorization of work. Themes Of East Of Eden! Anarchy After Leftism, and the Bookchin controversy. Beginning in 1997, Black became involved in a debate sparked by the work of anarchist and founder of the Institute for Social Ecology Murray Bookchin. an outspoken critic of the post-left anarchist tendency. Bookchin wrote and published Social Anarchism or Lifestyle Anarchism: An Unbridgeable Chasm, labeling post-left anarchists and others as lifestyle anarchists - thus following up a theme developed in Philosophy of Social Ecology. Though he does not refer directly to Generation Culture, Black's work (an omission which Black interprets as symptomatic), Bookchin clearly has Black's rejection of work as an implicit target when he criticises authors such as John Zerzan and how many kill Dave Watson, whom he controversially labels part of the same tendency. For Bookchin, lifestyle anarchism is individualistic and childish.
Lifestyle anarchists demand anarchy now, imagining they can create a new society through individual lifestyle changes. In his view this is of Athlete Culture a kind of fake-dissident consumerism which ultimately has no impact on Comparison of Genetic Information And Prokaryotes Essay the functioning of capitalism because it fails to recognise the realities of the Generation of Athlete Culture, present. He grounds this polemic in a social-realist critique of why does madness, relativism, which he associates with lifestyle anarchism as well as postmodernism (to which he claims it is related). Essay! Ludic approaches, he claims, lead to social indifference and egotism similar to that of capitalism. Against this approach, he advocates a variety of anarchism in themes of east which social struggles take precedence over individual actions, with the evolution of the struggle emerging dialectically as in classical Marxist theory. The unbridgeable chasm of the book's title is Essay on Esports: Next Generation of Athlete between individual autonomy - which for Bookchin is a bourgeois illusion - and social freedom, which implies direct democracy. municipalism, and leftist concerns with social opportunities. In practice his agenda takes the Information In Eukaryotes, form of a combination of elements of on Esports: Next of Athlete, anarchist communism with a support for local-government and NGO initiatives which he refers to of Genetic Information In Eukaryotes And Prokaryotes Essay, as Libertarian Municipalism. He claims that lifestyle anarchism goes against the fundamental tenets of anarchism, accusing it of Essay on Esports: Next, being decadent and kill petty-bourgeois and an outgrowth of American decadence and a period of Essay on Esports: Generation, declining struggle, and general speaks in nostalgic terms of the Left that was as, for all its flaws, vastly superior to what has come since. On Esports: Generation! In response, Black published Anarchy After Leftism which later became an important post-left work. Mountain! The text is Essay Next a combination of point-by-point, almost legalistic dissection of themes of eden, Bookchin's argument, with bitter theoretical polemic, and even personal insult against Bookchin (whom he refers to as the Dean throughout).
Black accuses Bookchin of moralism, which in post-left anarchism, refers to the imposition of Next, abstract categories on reality in ways which twist and chaucer prolouge repress desires (as distinct from ethics, which is an Essay on Esports: ethos of Information And Prokaryotes, living similar to Friedrich Nietzsche 's call for an ethic beyond good and on Esports: Next of Athlete evil), and of puritanism, a variant of this. Why Does! He attacks Bookchin for his Stalinist origins, and his failure to on Esports: Generation Culture, renounce his own past affiliations with what he himself had denounced as lifestylist themes (such as the slogans of themes of east, May 1968). He claims that the categories of lifestyle anarchism and individualist anarchism are straw-men. He alleges that Bookchin adopts a work ethic , and that his favored themes, such as the denunciation of Yuppies. actually repeat themes in mass consumer culture, and that he fails to analyze the social basis of capitalist selfishness; instead, Black calls for an enlightened selfishness which is simultaneously social, as in Max Stirner 's work . Essay On Esports: Next Generation Culture! Bookchin, Black claims, has misunderstood the critique of work as asocial, when in fact it proposes non-compulsive social relations. He argues that Bookchin believes labour to be essential to humans, and thus is opposed to the abolition of work. And he takes him to case for ignoring Black's own writings on why does hamlet feign work, for idealizing technology, and for misunderstanding the history of work. He denounces Bookchin's alleged failure to form links with the leftist groups he now praises, and for denouncing others for failings (such as not having a mass audience, and receiving favourable reviews from yuppie magazines) of on Esports: Next of Athlete, which he is himself guilty. Information And Prokaryotes Essay! He accuses Bookchin of self-contradiction, such as calling the same people bourgeois and lumpen, or individualist and fascist. He alleges that Bookchin's social freedom is Generation Culture metaphorical and has no real content of freedom. Black! He criticizes Bookchin's appropriation of the anarchist tradition, arguing against his dismissal of Essay Next Generation Culture, authors such as Stirner and Paul Goodman. rebuking Bookchin for implicitly identifying such authors with anarcho-capitalism, and mountain quarry defending what he calls an on Esports: Next epistemic break made by the likes of Stirner and Nietzsche.
He alleges that the post-left disdain for theory is chaucer general prolouge simply Bookchin's way of saying they ignore his own theories. He offers a detailed response to Bookchin's accusation of an association of eco-anarchism with fascism via a supposed common root in German romanticism, critizising both the derivation of the link (which he terms McCarthyist ) and Next Generation the portrayal of romanticism itself, suggesting that Bookchin's sources such as Mikhail Bakunin are no more politically correct than those he denounces, and accusing him of echoing fascist rhetoric and propaganda. Black Mountain! He provides evidence to dispute Bookchin's association of terrorism with individualist rather than social anarchism. He points to carnivalesque aspects of the Spanish Revolution to on Esports: Next Generation of Athlete Culture, undermine Bookchin's dualism. Black then rehearses the post-left critique of organization, drawing on mate selection his knowledge of anarchist history in an attempt to Essay on Esports: Next Generation of Athlete, rebut Bookchin's accusation that anti-organizationalism is based in ignorance. He claims among other things that direct democracy is impossible in urban settings, that it degenerates into bureaucracy, and that organizationalist anarchists such as the hamlet, Confederacion Nacional del Trabajo sold out to state power. He argues that Bookchin is not an anarchist at all, but rather, a municipal statist or city-statist committed to Essay Next Generation Culture, local government by a local state - smattering his discussion with further point-by-point objections (for instance, over whether New York is an organic community given the alleged high crime-rate and whether confederated municipalities are compatible with direct democracy ). He also takes up Bookchin's opposition to relativism. arguing that this is madness confirmed by science, especially anthropology - proceeding to produce evidence that Bookchin's work has received hostile reviews in social-science journals, thus attacking his scientific credentials, and to denounce dialectics as unscientific. Of Athlete! He then argues point-by-point with Bookchin's criticisms of primitivism, debating issues such as life-expectancy statistics and alleged ecological destruction by hunter-gatherers. And he concludes with a clarion-call for an anarchist paradigm-shift based on post-left themes, celebrating this as the anarchy after leftism of the title. Bookchin never replied to Black's critiques, which he continued in such essays as Withered Anarchism, An American in Paris, and Murray Bookchin and the Witch-Doctors. Bookchin later repudiated anarchism in mate selection favor of a form of direct democracy he calls communalism Controversy concerning the Church of the Essay Next Generation, SubGenius.
On one occasion, a member of the Church of the SubGenius. John Hagen-Brenner, sent Black an improvised explosive device consisting of an audio cassette holder wired with four cadium-type batteries, four flashbulbs, and five firecrackers [ http://www.spunk.org/library/writers/black/sp001674.html ]. as described in the charging document filed in Federal District Court. Why Does Hamlet! According to Black, he thought the package looked suspicious, then on impulse threw it against the wall. There was a flash (the flashcubes) and a puff of smoke, but the firecrackers did not go off. [ http://www.spunk.org/library/writers/black/sp001674.html ] Black turned the device in to the police. Next Of Athlete Culture! Black believes that the device was sent to him because of criticism he had made of the feign, Church, and Next Generation of Athlete Culture he has repeatedly brought up the incident in his writings concerning the Church. Suitors Kill! Ivan Stang and other members of the Church have denied any involvement in this incident, and no one else was charged. * [ http://www.spunk.org/library/writers/black/ Collection of essays by Bob Black ] * [ http://inspiracy.com/black/ The entire text of Bob Black’s 1986 collection The Abolition of Work and Other Essays at Inspiracy ] * [ http://www.zpub.com/notes/black.html The Abolition of Work ] * [ http://www.inspiracy.com/minitrue/index.html Gerry Reith archive at Inspiracy ] * [ http://futurenexus.blogspot.com Future Nexus ] * [ http://www.seesharppress.com/listen.html Listen Anarchist! ] a critique by Next Generation of Athlete Chaz Bufe. Wikimedia Foundation. 2010 . Bob Black, The Abolition of Work (1985) No one should ever work. Work is the source of nearly all the misery in the world. Almost any evil you'd care to name comes from general prolouge working or from living in a world designed for work.
In order to stop suffering, we have to stop working. On Esports: Of Athlete Culture! That doesn't mean we have to stop doing things. It does mean creating a new way of life based on play; in other words, a ludic conviviality, commensality, and maybe even art. How Many Suitors Did Odysseus Kill! There is more to play than child's play, as worthy as that is. I call for a collective adventure in generalized joy and on Esports: Culture freely interdependent exuberance. Themes Of East Of Eden! Play isn't passive. Doubtless we all need a lot more time for Essay Next sheer sloth and slack than we ever enjoy now, regardless of income or occupation, but once recovered from did odysseus kill employment-induced exhaustion nearly all of us want to act.
Oblomovism [1 ] and Stakhanovism [2 ] are two sides of the same debased coin. The ludic life is totally incompatible with existing reality. So much the worse for reality, the Next of Athlete, gravity hole that sucks the vitality from the little in life that still distinguishes it from why does mere survival. Curiously or maybe not – all the old ideologies are conservative because they believe in work. Some of them, like Marxism and most brands of anarchism, believe in work all the more fiercely because they believe in so little else. Liberals say we should end employment discrimination.
I say we should end employment. Conservatives support right-to-work laws. Following Karl Marx's wayward son-in-law Paul Lafargue [3 ] I support the right to be lazy. Leftists favor full employment. Essay On Esports: Next Of Athlete! Like the surrealists – except that I'm not kidding – I favor full un employment.
Trotskyists agitate for permanent revolution. Suitors Did Odysseus! I agitate for permanent revelry. But if all the ideologues (as they do) advocate work – and not only because they plan to make other people do theirs – they are strangely reluctant to say so. They will carry on endlessly about wages, hours, working conditions, exploitation, productivity, profitability. They'll gladly talk about anything but work itself. These experts who offer to do our thinking for us rarely share their conclusions about work, for all its saliency in the lives of all of us. Among themselves they quibble over Essay Generation of Athlete, the details. Unions and management agree that we ought to sell the time of our lives in exchange for mate selection survival, although they haggle over the price. Marxists think we should be bossed by bureaucrats.
Libertarians think we should be bossed by businessmen. Feminists don't care which form bossing takes so long as the on Esports: Next Generation of Athlete Culture, bosses are women. Clearly these ideology-mongers have serious differences over mate selection, how to divvy up the spoils of Generation of Athlete Culture, power. Just as clearly, none of them have any objection to power as such and all of them want to keep us working. You may be wondering if I'm joking or serious. I'm joking and serious. To be ludic is not to be ludicrous. Play doesn't have to be frivolous, although frivolity isn't triviality: very often we ought to take frivolity seriously. I'd like life to be a game – but a game with high stakes.
I want to play for keeps . Comparison In Eukaryotes And Prokaryotes Essay! The alternative to work isn't just idleness. To be ludic is not to Essay on Esports: of Athlete Culture, be quaaludic [4 ]. As much as I treasure the pleasure of torpor, it's never more rewarding than when it punctuates other pleasures and pastimes. Nor am I promoting the managed time-disciplined safety-valve called leisure; far from it. Leisure is nonwork for the sake of work. Leisure is the time spent recovering from work and in the frenzied but hopeless attempt to quarry, forget about work. Many people return from Essay of Athlete vacation so beat that they look forward to returning to work so they can rest up. General! The main difference between work and leisure is that work at least you get paid for your alienation and enervation. I am not playing definitional games with anybody. When I say I want to abolish work, I mean just what I say, but I want to say what I mean by defining my terms in Essay on Esports: Culture non-idiosyncratic ways.
My minimum definition of work is quarry forced labor . that is, compulsory production. Both elements are essential. Work is production enforced by economic or political means, by the carrot or the stick. (The carrot is on Esports: Next Generation of Athlete Culture just the stick by other means.) But not all creation is work. Work is never done for its own sake, it's done on account of mate selection, some product or output that the worker (or, more often, somebody else) gets out of it. This is what work necessarily is. To define it is to despise it. But work is Next Generation of Athlete usually even worse than its definition decrees. Black Mountain! The dynamic of domination intrinsic to work tends over time toward elaboration. In advanced work-riddled societies, including all industrial societies whether capitalist of Communist, work invariably acquires other attributes which accentuate its obnoxiousness. Usually – and this is even more true in Communist than capitalist countries, where the state is Essay on Esports: Next Generation almost the only employer and In Eukaryotes Essay everyone is an employee – work is employment, i.e. wage-labor, which means selling yourself on the installment plan. Thus 95% of Americans who work, work for somebody (or something) else.
In the USSR or Cuba or Yugoslavia or any other alternative model which might be adduced, the corresponding figure approaches 100%. Only the embattled Third World peasant bastions – Mexico, India, Brazil, Turkey – temporarily shelter significant concentrations of agriculturists who perpetuate the on Esports: Next Generation of Athlete, traditional arrangement of most laborers in the last several millenia, the payment of taxes (= ransom) to chaucer, the state or rent to parasitic landlords in return for Essay Next being otherwise left alone. Even this raw deal is beginning to look good. All industrial (and office) workers are employees and under the how many did odysseus, sort of surveillance which ensures servility. But modern work has worse implications. People don't just work, they have jobs. One person does one productive task all the time on an or-else basis. Next Of Athlete Culture! Even if the task has a quantum of intrinsic interest (as increasingly many jobs don't) the monotony of its obligatory exclusivity drains its ludic potential. A job that might engage the energies of some people, for a reasonably limited time, for the fun of it, is just a burden on those who have to do it for forty hours a week with no say in chaucer general how it should be done, for the profit of owners who contribute nothing to the project, and with no opportunity for sharing tasks or spreading the work among those who actually have to do it. This is the real world of on Esports: Culture, work: a world of bureaucratic blundering, of sexual harassment and discrimination, of bonehead bosses exploiting and scapegoating their subordinates who – by any rational-technical criteria – should be calling the shots.
But capitalism in the real world subordinates the did odysseus, rational maximization of productivity and profit to Essay on Esports: of Athlete Culture, the exigencies of organizational control. The degradation which most workers experience on the job is the mate selection, sum of assorted indignities which can be denominated as discipline. Essay Generation! Foucault has complexified this phenomenon but it is simple enough. Discipline consists of the totality of totalitarian controls at the workplace – surveillance, rotework, imposed work tempos, production quotas, punching -in and Comparison of Genetic Information Essay -out, etc. Discipline is what the factory and the office and Essay on Esports: Generation of Athlete the store share with the prison and the school and the mental hospital. It is something historically original and horrible. It was beyond the capacities of how many suitors kill, such demonic dictators of yore as Nero and Genghis Khan and Ivan the Essay Generation Culture, Terrible. For all their bad intentions they just didn't have the machinery to control their subjects as thoroughly as modern despots do. Discipline is the distinctively diabolical modern mode of how many suitors did odysseus kill, control, it is an innovative intrusion which must be interdicted at the earliest opportunity. Such is work.
Play is just the opposite. Play is always voluntary. What might otherwise be play is work if it's forced. This is axiomatic. Bernie de Koven has defined play as the suspension of consequences. Essay On Esports: Next Generation Of Athlete! This is unacceptable if it implies that play is inconsequential. The point is not that play is without consequences. This is to of eden, demean play. The point is that the on Esports: Next of Athlete Culture, consequences, if any, are gratuitous. Feign! Playing and Essay Next Generation of Athlete giving are closely related, they are the behavioral and transactional facets of the of Genetic Information In Eukaryotes Essay, same impulse, the on Esports: Next Generation Culture, play-instinct. They share an aristocratic disdain for results.
The player gets something out of playing; that's why he plays. But the core reward is the experience of the activity itself (whatever it is). Some otherwise attentive students of play, like Johan Huizinga ( Homo Ludens ), define it as game-playing or following rules. I respect Huizinga's erudition but emphatically reject his constraints. There are many good games (chess, baseball, Monopoly, bridge) which are rule-governed but there is much more to play than game-playing. Themes! Conversation, sex, dancing, travel – these practices aren't rule-governed but they are surely play if anything is. And rules can be played with at least as readily as anything else. Work makes a mockery of freedom. The official line is that we all have rights and live in a democracy.
Other unfortunates who aren't free like we are have to Generation Culture, live in prolouge police states. These victims obey orders or-else, no matter how arbitrary. The authorities keep them under regular surveillance. State bureaucrats control even the smaller details of everyday life. The officials who push them around are answerable only to higher-ups, public or private. Either way, dissent and disobedience are punished. Informers report regularly to the authorities. All this is supposed to be a very bad thing. And so it is, although it is on Esports: Next nothing but a description of the Comparison In Eukaryotes Essay, modern workplace.
The liberals and conservatives and libertarians who lament totalitarianism are phonies and hypocrites. There is Essay on Esports: Next Generation of Athlete more freedom in of Genetic any moderately deStalinized dictatorship than there is in the ordinary American workplace. You find the same sort of hierarchy and discipline in an office or factory as you do in a prison or monastery. In fact, as Foucault and others have shown, prisons and factories came in at about the same time, and their operators consciously borrowed from each other's control techniques. A worker is a part time slave. The boss says when to show up, when to leave, and what to do in the meantime. Essay On Esports: Generation Of Athlete! He tells you how much work to do and how fast. He is free to carry his control to humiliating extremes, regulating, if he feels like it, the clothes you wear or how often you go to the bathroom. With a few exceptions he can fire you for any reason, or no reason.
He has you spied on by snitches and supervisors, he amasses a dossier on every employee. Talking back is called insubordination, just as if a worker is a naughty child, and Comparison Information And Prokaryotes it not only gets you fired, it disqualifies you for unemployment compensation. Without necessarily endorsing it for on Esports: Next of Athlete them either, it is noteworthy that children at how many did odysseus, home and in school receive much the same treatment, justified in Essay on Esports: Generation their case by their supposed immaturity. Kill! What does this say about Essay on Esports: Next, their parents and teachers who work? The demeaning system of domination I've described rules over mountain, half the waking hours of on Esports: of Athlete Culture, a majority of women and the vast majority of men for decades, for most of black mountain, their lifespans. Essay On Esports: Generation Of Athlete! For certain purposes it's not too misleading to call our system democracy or capitalism or – better still – industrialism, but its real names are factory fascism and office oligarchy. Chaucer General! Anybody who says these people are free is lying or stupid.
You are what you do. If you do boring, stupid monotonous work, chances are you'll end up boring, stupid and monotonous. Work is a much better explanation for on Esports: Generation Culture the creeping cretinization all around us than even such significant moronizing mechanisms as television and education. People who are regimented all their lives, handed off to work from school and bracketed by the family in the beginning and the nursing home at the end, are habituated to hierarchy and general psychologically enslaved. Their aptitude for autonomy is so atrophied that their fear of freedom is among their few rationally grounded phobias.
Their obedience training at Essay on Esports: Next Generation of Athlete Culture, work carries over into general, the families they start, thus reproducing the system in more ways than one, and into politics, culture and everything else. Once you drain the vitality from people at work, they'll likely submit to on Esports: Next of Athlete, hierarchy and expertise in everything. They're used to of east, it. Generation Culture! We are so close to the world of work that we can't see what it does to chaucer, us. We have to rely on outside observers from other times or other cultures to appreciate the Essay of Athlete, extremity and the pathology of our present position.
There was a time in our own past when the why does feign, work ethic would have been incomprehensible, and perhaps Weber was on to something when he tied its appearance to a religion, Calvinism, which if it emerged today instead of four centuries ago would immediately and appropriately be labeled a cult. Be that as it may, we have only to draw upon the wisdom of antiquity to put work in perspective. The ancients saw work for on Esports: of Athlete what it is, and their view prevailed, the Calvinist cranks notwithstanding, until overthrown by industrialism – but not before receiving the endorsement of its prophets. Let's pretend for a moment that work doesn't turn people into stultified submissives. Let's pretend, in defiance of any plausible psychology and the ideology of its boosters, that it has no effect on the formation of character. And let's pretend that work isn't as boring and tiring and humiliating as we all know it really is. Even then, work would still make a mockery of all humanistic and democratic aspirations, just because it usurps so much of our time. Comparison Information! Socrates said that manual laborers make bad friends and bad citizens because they have no time to fulfill the responsibilities of friendship and citizenship. He was right. Because of work, no matter what we do we keep looking at our watches.
The only thing free about so-called free time is that it doesn't cost the boss anything. Free time is mostly devoted to getting ready for work, going to work, returning from Next of Athlete work, and recovering from work. Free time is a euphemism for the peculiar way labor as a factor of production not only transports itself at its own expense to why does madness, and from the workplace but assumes primary responsibility for Essay on Esports: Generation Culture its own maintenance and repair. Coal and steel don't do that. Lathes and typewriters don't do that. Comparison In Eukaryotes And Prokaryotes! But workers do. No wonder Edward G. Robinson [5 ] in one of his gangster movies exclaimed, Work is for Essay Next Generation Culture saps! Both Plato and Xenophon attribute to Socrates and obviously share with him an awareness of the destructive effects of work on the worker as a citizen and a human being. Herodotus identified contempt for mate selection work as an attribute of the classical Greeks at the zenith of their culture. To take only Next of Athlete one Roman example, Cicero said that whoever gives his labor for money sells himself and puts himself in the rank of mate selection, slaves. His candor is now rare, but contemporary primitive societies which we are wont to look down upon Generation Culture, have provided spokesmen who have enlightened Western anthropologists.
The Kapauku of West Irian, according to Comparison Information In Eukaryotes, Pospisil [6 ], have a conception of balance in life and accordingly work only every other day, the day of rest designed to regain the lost power and health. Our ancestors, even as late as the eighteenth century when they were far along the path to Next, our present predicament, at least were aware of what we have forgotten, the underside of chaucer, industrialization. On Esports: Next Of Athlete! Their religious devotion to St. Monday – thus establishing a de facto five-day week 150-200 years before its legal consecration – was the despair of the earliest factory owners. They took a long time in submitting to the tyranny of the bell, predecessor of the time clock. In fact it was necessary for a generation or two to of Genetic In Eukaryotes And Prokaryotes, replace adult males with women accustomed to Essay on Esports: Next Generation of Athlete, obedience and general children who could be molded to fit industrial needs. Even the exploited peasants of the ancient regime wrested substantial time back from their landlord's work. According to Lafargue, a fourth of the French peasants' calendar was devoted to Sundays and holidays, and Chayanov's [7 ] figures from villages in Czarist Russia – hardly a progressive society – likewise show a fourth or fifth of peasants' days devoted to repose. Controlling for productivity, we are obviously far behind these backward societies. The exploited muzhiks would wonder why any of us are working at all. Essay On Esports: Generation Of Athlete! So should we.
To grasp the full enormity of our deterioration, however, consider the earliest condition of mountain quarry, humanity, without government or property, when we wandered as hunter-gatherers. Hobbes surmised that life was then nasty, brutish and Essay Generation short. Others assume that life was a desperate unremitting struggle for subsistence, a war waged against a harsh Nature with death and disaster awaiting the unlucky or anyone who was unequal to the challenge of the struggle for existence. Actually, that was all a projection of fears for the collapse of hamlet, government authority over Next of Athlete Culture, communities unaccustomed to doing without it, like the England of chaucer prolouge, Hobbes during the Civil War. Hobbes' compatriots had already encountered alternative forms of society which illustrated other ways of life – in North America, particularly – but already these were too remote from their experience to be understandable. (The lower orders, closer to the condition of the Indians, understood it better and often found it attractive. Throughout the seventeenth century, English settlers defected to Indian tribes or, captured in war, refused to return. But the Indians no more defected to white settlements than Germans climb the Berlin Wall from the west.) The survival of the fittest version – the Thomas Huxley version – of Darwinism was a better account of economic conditions in Victorian England than it was of Essay on Esports: of Athlete, natural selection, as the anarchist Kropotkin showed in his book Mutual Aid, A Factor of Evolution . (Kropotkin was a scientist – a geographer – who'd had ample involuntary opportunity for fieldwork whilst exiled in Siberia: he knew what he was talking about.) Like most social and political theory, the story Hobbes and themes of eden his successors told was really unacknowledged autobiography. The anthropologist Marshall Sahlins, surveying the data on contemporary hunter-gatherers, exploded the Hobbesian myth in an article entitled The Original Affluent Society. They work a lot less than we do, and their work is hard to distinguish from what we regard as play. Sahlins concluded that hunters and Generation of Athlete Culture gatherers work less than we do; and rather than a continuous travail, the food quest is intermittent, leisure abundant, and there is a greater amount of sleep in the daytime per capita per year than in any other condition of society. They worked an average of how many suitors kill, four hours a day, assuming they were working at all.
Their labor, as it appears to us, was skilled labor which exercised their physical and intellectual capacities; unskilled labor on any large scale, as Sahlins says, is impossible except under industrialism. Thus it satisfied Friedrich Schiller's definition of play, the only occasion on which man realizes his complete humanity by giving full play to both sides of his twofold nature, thinking and feeling. As he put it: The animal works when deprivation is the mainspring of its activity, and it plays when the fullness of of Athlete Culture, its strength is this mainspring, when superabundant life is its own stimulus to activity. Comparison Information Essay! (A modern version – dubiously developmental – is Abraham Maslow's counterposition of deficiency and growth motivation.) Play and freedom are, as regards production, coextensive. Even Marx, who belongs (for all his good intentions) in the productivist pantheon, observed that the realm of Essay Generation of Athlete Culture, freedom does not commence until the point is passed where labor under the compulsion of necessity and external utility is required. He never could quite bring himself to identify this happy circumstance as what it is, the chaucer general, abolition of work – it's rather anomalous, after all, to be pro-worker and anti-work – but we can. The aspiration to on Esports: of Athlete, go backwards or forwards to a life without work is evident in how many suitors every serious social or cultural history of pre-industrial Europe, among them M. Dorothy George's England In Transition and Peter Burke's Popular Culture in Early Modern Europe . Also pertinent is Daniel Bell's essay, Work and its Discontents, the first text, I believe, to refer to the revolt against work in on Esports: Next Generation Culture so many words and, had it been understood, an important correction to mountain, the complacency ordinarily associated with the volume in which it was collected, The End of Ideology . Neither critics nor celebrants have noticed that Bell's end-of-ideology thesis signaled not the end of social unrest but the beginning of a new, uncharted phase unconstrained and uninformed by ideology. It was Seymour Lipset (in Political Man ), not Bell, who announced at the same time that the fundamental problems of the Industrial Revolution have been solved, only a few years before the post- or meta-industrial discontents of on Esports: Next Generation Culture, college students drove Lipset from UC Berkeley to the relative (and temporary) tranquility of black quarry, Harvard. As Bell notes, Adam Smith in The Wealth of Nations . for all his enthusiasm for the market and the division of labor, was more alert to (and more honest about) the seamy side of work than Ayn Rand or the Chicago economists or any of Smith's modern epigones.
As Smith observed: The understandings of the greater part of men are necessarily formed by their ordinary employments. The man whose life is spent in Generation of Athlete Culture performing a few simple operations. has no occasion to exert his understanding. How Many! He generally becomes as stupid and ignorant as it is Essay on Esports: Next Generation of Athlete Culture possible for a human creature to become. Here, in a few blunt words, is my critique of work. Of Eden! Bell, writing in 1956, the Golden Age of Eisenhower imbecility and American self-satisfaction, identified the unorganized, unorganizable malaise of the Essay on Esports: Generation of Athlete Culture, 1970's and since, the one no political tendency is able to harness, the black mountain quarry, one identified in HEW's report Work in America . the one which cannot be exploited and so is on Esports: Next ignored.
That problem is the revolt against work. It does not figure in any text by any laissez-faire economist – Milton Friedman, Murray Rothbard, Richard Posner – because, in their terms, as they used to say on Star Trek, it does not compute. If these objections, informed by the love of liberty, fail to persuade humanists of a utilitarian or even paternalist turn, there are others which they cannot disregard. Work is why does hamlet madness hazardous to your health, to borrow a book title. In fact, work is Essay on Esports: Next Generation mass murder or genocide. Directly or indirectly, work will kill most of the mate selection, people who read these words. On Esports: Next Culture! Between 14,000 and 25,000 workers are killed annually in this country on the job.
Over two million are disabled. Themes Of East Of Eden! Twenty to twenty-five million are injured every year. And these figures are based on a very conservative estimation of what constitutes a work-related injury. Thus they don't count the half million cases of occupational disease every year. I looked at one medical textbook on on Esports: Next of Athlete Culture occupational diseases which was 1,200 pages long. Even this barely scratches the surface. The available statistics count the obvious cases like the 100,000 miners who have black lung disease, of whom 4,000 die every year, a much higher fatality rate than for AIDS, for instance, which gets so much media attention. This reflects the unvoiced assumption that AIDS afflicts perverts who could control their depravity whereas coal-mining is mate selection a sacrosanct activity beyond question. What the statistics don't show is that tens of Next, millions of people have their lifespans shortened by work – which is all that homicide means, after all. Consider the doctors who work themselves to death in their 50's.
Consider all the other workaholics. Black Quarry! Even if you aren't killed or crippled while actually working, you very well might be while going to of Athlete, work, coming from work, looking for work, or trying to themes of east of eden, forget about work. The vast majority of victims of the automobile are either doing one of these work-obligatory activities or else fall afoul of those who do them. To this augmented body-count must be added the victims of on Esports: Generation of Athlete Culture, auto-industrial pollution and of eden work-induced alcoholism and drug addiction. Both cancer and heart disease are modern afflictions normally traceable, directly, or indirectly, to work. Work, then, institutionalizes homicide as a way of life. People think the Cambodians were crazy for exterminating themselves, but are we any different? The Pol Pot regime at least had a vision, however blurred, of an egalitarian society.
We kill people in the six-figure range (at least) in Essay Generation Culture order to sell Big Macs and Cadillacs to the survivors. Our forty or fifty thousand annual highway fatalities are victims, not martyrs. General Prolouge! They died for nothing – or rather, they died for work. But work is nothing to die for. Bad news for liberals: regulatory tinkering is useless in this life-and-death context. The federal Occupational Safety and Health Administration was designed to police the core part of the problem, workplace safety. Even before Reagan and the Supreme Court stifled it, OSHA was a farce. At previous and (by current standards) generous Carter-era funding levels, a workplace could expect a random visit from an OSHA inspector once every 46 years. State control of the economy is no solution. Work is, if anything, more dangerous in the state-socialist countries than it is here. Thousands of Russian workers were killed or injured building the Moscow subway.
Stories reverberate about covered-up Soviet nuclear disasters which make Times Beach and Three-Mile Island look like elementary-school air-raid drills. On the on Esports: Generation Culture, other hand, deregulation, currently fashionable, won't help and will probably hurt. From a health and safety standpoint, among others, work was at its worst in the days when the economy most closely approximated laissez-faire. Historians like Eugene Genovese have argued persuasively that – as antebellum slavery apologists insisted – factory wage-workers in the Northern American states and in Europe were worse off than Southern plantation slaves. No rearrangement of relations among bureaucrats and businessmen seems to make much difference at black mountain quarry, the point of production. Serious enforcement of Essay Generation of Athlete, even the themes, rather vague standards enforceable in theory by OSHA would probably bring the economy to on Esports: Next Generation of Athlete, a standstill. The enforcers apparently appreciate this, since they don't even try to crack down on most malefactors.
What I've said so far ought not to be controversial. Many workers are fed up with work. There are high and rising rates of absenteeism, turnover, employee theft and sabotage, wildcat strikes, and overall goldbricking on the job. There may be some movement toward a conscious and not just visceral rejection of Essay, work. And yet the prevalent feeling, universal among bosses and Essay on Esports: Generation Culture their agents and also widespread among workers themselves is that work itself is inevitable and necessary. I disagree. It is now possible to abolish work and replace it, insofar as it serves useful purposes, with a multitude of new kinds of free activities. Information And Prokaryotes Essay! To abolish work requires going at it from two directions, quantitative and qualitative.
On the one hand, on the quantitative side, we have to on Esports: Next Generation, cut down massively on general the amount of work being done. At present most work is on Esports: Generation Culture useless or worse and we should simply get rid of it. On the other hand – and Information And Prokaryotes Essay I think this is the crux of the matter and the revolutionary new departure – we have to take what useful work remains and transform it into a pleasing variety of game-like and craft-like pastimes, indistinguishable from Next of Athlete Culture other pleasurable pastimes, except that they happen to yield useful end-products. Surely that shouldn't make them less enticing to do. Then all the artificial barriers of power and chaucer prolouge property could come down. Creation could become recreation. And we could all stop being afraid of each other. I don't suggest that most work is salvageable in this way.
But then most work isn't worth trying to save. Only a small and diminishing fraction of work serves any useful purpose independent of the defense and reproduction of the work-system and its political and legal appendages. Twenty years ago, Paul and Percival Goodman estimated that just five percent of the work then being done – presumably the figure, if accurate, is lower now – would satisfy our minimal needs for food, clothing, and Essay on Esports: of Athlete shelter. Hamlet Feign Madness! Theirs was only an educated guess but the Essay Next Generation Culture, main point is quite clear: directly or indirectly, most work serves the unproductive purposes of commerce or social control. Right off the bat we can liberate tens of millions of salesmen, soldiers, managers, cops, stockbrokers, clergymen, bankers, lawyers, teachers, landlords, security guards, ad-men and everyone who works for them.
There is a snowball effect since every time you idle some bigshot you liberate his flunkeys and underlings also. Thus the economy implodes. Forty percent of the chaucer general prolouge, workforce are white-collar workers, most of whom have some of the most tedious and idiotic jobs ever concocted. Entire industries, insurance and Essay on Esports: Next banking and real estate for instance, consist of nothing but useless paper-shuffling. It is no accident that the tertiary sector, the service sector, is growing while the secondary sector (industry) stagnates and the primary sector (agriculture) nearly disappears. Feign! Because work is unnecessary except to those whose power it secures, workers are shifted from on Esports: Next Generation Culture relatively useful to relatively useless occupations as a measure to assure public order. Anything is better than nothing. That's why you can't go home just because you finish early.
They want your time, enough of did odysseus, it to Essay Next Generation of Athlete, make you theirs, even if they have no use for most of it. Otherwise why hasn't the average work week gone down by more than a few minutes in the past fifty years? Next we can take a meat-cleaver to production work itself. No more war production, nuclear power, junk food, feminine hygiene deodorant – and above all, no more auto industry to prolouge, speak of. An occasional Stanley Steamer or Model-T might be all right, but the Essay Generation, auto-eroticism on which such pestholes as Detroit and Los Angeles depend on is out of the question. Prolouge! Already, without even trying, we've virtually solved the energy crisis, the environmental crisis and assorted other insoluble social problems. Finally, we must do away with far and away the Next, largest occupation, the one with the why does madness, longest hours, the lowest pay and some of the most tedious tasks around. I refer to housewives doing housework and Essay Next child-rearing. By abolishing wage-labor and achieving full unemployment we undermine the sexual division of labor. The nuclear family as we know it is an inevitable adaptation to the division of chaucer general, labor imposed by modern wage-work.
Like it or not, as things have been for the last century or two it is economically rational for the man to bring home the bacon, for the woman to do the shitwork to provide him with a haven in a heartless world, and for the children to be marched off to youth concentration camps called schools, primarily to keep them out of Essay on Esports: Next of Athlete Culture, Mom's hair but still under control, but incidentally to acquire the habits of obedience and punctuality so necessary for workers. If you would be rid of patriarchy, get rid of the nuclear family whose unpaid shadow work, as Ivan Illich says, makes possible the work-system that makes it necessary. Bound up with this no-nukes strategy is the Comparison In Eukaryotes And Prokaryotes Essay, abolition of Essay on Esports: Next Generation of Athlete, childhood and the closing of the schools. Mate Selection! There are more full-time students than full-time workers in this country. We need children as teachers, not students. They have a lot to contribute to the ludic revolution because they're better at playing than grown-ups are.
Adults and children are not identical but they will become equal through interdependence. Only play can bridge the generation gap. Essay On Esports: Of Athlete Culture! I haven't as yet even mentioned the mate selection, possibility of Generation of Athlete, cutting way down on of east of eden the little work that remains by automating and cybernizing it. All the scientists and engineers and technicians freed from bothering with war research and Essay on Esports: Next Generation Culture planned obsolescence would have a good time devising means to eliminate fatigue and tedium and danger from activities like mining. Undoubtedly they'll find other projects to amuse themselves with. Perhaps they'll set up world-wide all-inclusive multi-media communications systems or found space colonies. Perhaps.
I myself am no gadget freak. I wouldn't care to live in a pushbutton paradise. I don't want robot slaves to do everything; I want to do things myself. There is, I think, a place for labor-saving technology, but a modest place. The historical and pre-historical record is not encouraging. When productive technology went from hunting-gathering to agriculture and on to industry, work increased while skills and self-determination diminished. Themes Of East! The further evolution of industrialism has accentuated what Harry Braverman called the degradation of on Esports: Generation of Athlete Culture, work. Intelligent observers have always been aware of this. John Stuart Mill wrote that all the labor-saving inventions ever devised haven't saved a moment's labor. Karl Marx wrote that it would be possible to write a history of the mate selection, inventions, made since 1830, for the sole purpose of on Esports: Next Generation of Athlete, supplying capital with weapons against the revolts of the working class.
The enthusiastic technophiles – Saint-Simon, Comte, Lenin, B. F. Skinner – have always been unabashed authoritarians also; which is to Comparison Information And Prokaryotes, say, technocrats. We should be more than skeptical about the promises of the computer mystics. They work like dogs; chances are, if they have their way, so will the rest of of Athlete, us. But if they have any particularized contributions more readily subordinated to human purposes than the run of high tech, let's give them a hearing. What I really want to see is work turned into play. A first step is to discard the notions of a job and an occupation. Even activities that already have some ludic content lose most of it by being reduced to jobs which certain people, and only those people are forced to of eden, do to the exclusion of all else. Is it not odd that farm workers toil painfully in the fields while their air-conditioned masters go home every weekend and putter about in their gardens? Under a system of permanent revelry, we will witness the Golden Age of the dilettante which will put the Renaissance to shame. There won't be any more jobs, just things to do and people to Essay on Esports: Next, do them. The secret of prolouge, turning work into play, as Charles Fourier demonstrated, is to Culture, arrange useful activities to take advantage of whatever it is that various people at prolouge, various times in fact enjoy doing.
To make it possible for some people to on Esports: Next Generation of Athlete, do the things they could enjoy it will be enough just to eradicate the suitors did odysseus kill, irrationalities and distortions which afflict these activities when they are reduced to work. I, for instance, would enjoy doing some (not too much) teaching, but I don't want coerced students and I don't care to suck up to pathetic pedants for tenure. On Esports: Generation Of Athlete Culture! Second, there are some things that people like to do from time to time, but not for too long, and certainly not all the time. You might enjoy baby-sitting for a few hours in order to general, share the company of kids, but not as much as their parents do. The parents meanwhile, profoundly appreciate the time to themselves that you free up for them, although they'd get fretful if parted from their progeny for too long. These differences among individuals are what make a life of free play possible. The same principle applies to many other areas of Essay Next Generation Culture, activity, especially the mountain quarry, primal ones. Thus many people enjoy cooking when they can practice it seriously at their leisure, but not when they're just fueling up human bodies for work. Third – other things being equal – some things that are unsatisfying if done by yourself or in unpleasant surroundings or at the orders of an overlord are enjoyable, at least for a while, if these circumstances are changed. This is probably true, to some extent, of Essay Generation of Athlete, all work.
People deploy their otherwise wasted ingenuity to make a game of the least inviting drudge-jobs as best they can. Activities that appeal to some people don't always appeal to all others, but everyone at least potentially has a variety of Comparison of Genetic Information And Prokaryotes Essay, interests and an interest in variety. Generation Of Athlete Culture! As the saying goes, anything once. Fourier was the master at speculating how aberrant and of east perverse penchants could be put to use in Essay on Esports: post-civilized society, what he called Harmony. He thought the Emperor Nero would have turned out all right if as a child he could have indulged his taste for quarry bloodshed by Essay Next Generation of Athlete working in a slaughterhouse. General Prolouge! Small children who notoriously relish wallowing in filth could be organized in Little Hordes to clean toilets and empty the garbage, with medals awarded to the outstanding. I am not arguing for these precise examples but for Generation the underlying principle, which I think makes perfect sense as one dimension of an overall revolutionary transformation. Bear in mind that we don't have to take today's work just as we find it and match it up with the Comparison Information And Prokaryotes, proper people, some of Essay Generation of Athlete Culture, whom would have to be perverse indeed. If technology has a role in kill all this it is less to on Esports: Next, automate work out of existence than to open up new realms for re/creation. To some extent we may want to return to handicrafts, which William Morris considered a probable and desirable upshot of communist revolution. Art would be taken back from the snobs and collectors, abolished as a specialized department catering to an elite audience, and its qualities of beauty and creation restored to integral life from hamlet which they were stolen by work.
It's a sobering thought that the Grecian urns we write odes about and showcase in museums were used in their own time to store olive oil. I doubt our everyday artifacts will fare as well in Essay on Esports: Next the future, if there is one. The point is that there's no such thing as progress in the world of why does feign, work; if anything it's just the opposite. We shouldn't hesitate to pilfer the past for what it has to offer, the ancients lose nothing yet we are enriched. The reinvention of Essay of Athlete, daily life means marching off the mountain, edge of our maps. There is, it is true, more suggestive speculation than most people suspect.
Besides Fourier and Morris – and even a hint, here and there, in Marx – there are the writings of of Athlete, Kropotkin, the syndicalists Pataud and Pouget, anarcho-communists old (Berkman) and new (Bookchin). Quarry! The Goodman brothers' Communitas is exemplary for illustrating what forms follow from given functions (purposes), and there is something to be gleaned from the often hazy heralds of alternative/appropriate/intermediate/convivial technology, like Schumacher and especially Illich, once you disconnect their fog machines. The situationists – as represented by Vaneigem's Revolution of Daily Life and in the Situationist International Anthology – are so ruthlessly lucid as to be exhilarating, even if they never did quite square the endorsement of the rule of the worker's councils with the abolition of work. Better their incongruity, though than any extant version of leftism, whose devotees look to be the last champions of work, for if there were no work there would be no workers, and without workers, who would the left have to organize? So the abolitionists would be largely on their own. No one can say what would result from unleashing the creative power stultified by work. Next Generation Culture! Anything can happen. The tiresome debater's problem of freedom vs. necessity, with its theological overtones, resolves itself practically once the suitors did odysseus, production of use-values is coextensive with the consumption of delightful play-activity. Life will become a game, or rather many games, but not – as it is now – a zero/sum game.
An optimal sexual encounter is the paradigm of productive play, The participants potentiate each other's pleasures, nobody keeps score, and everybody wins. Next Generation Of Athlete Culture! The more you give, the themes, more you get. In the of Athlete, ludic life, the chaucer general, best of sex will diffuse into the better part of Next Culture, daily life. Generalized play leads to the libidinization of life. Sex, in turn, can become less urgent and desperate, more playful. If we play our cards right, we can all get more out of life than we put into it; but only Comparison of Genetic Information Essay if we play for keeps. No one should ever work.
Workers of the world. relax! [1 ] Oblomovism, means a passive behaviour like that of the protagonist of Goncharov's novel Oblomov (1859). [2 ] Stakhanovism from Stakhanov, a coal-miner in the Soviet Union (1930-1940) whose productivity was well above the norm. He was presented by soviet propaganda as a hero whose example had to be followed by all the workers in view of the construction of a socialist society. [3 ] Paul Lafargue (1842-1911) was socialist activist and writer and the author of Le droit a la paresse (The Right to be Lazy) in which he wrote against Essay on Esports: Next of Athlete Culture, the mystique of chaucer general, work uphold by Next many socialists. [4 ] Quaaludic, from Quaalude, a brand name for the sedative drug Methaqualone, known as Mandrax in Britain. [5 ] Edward G. Robinson (1893-1973) was an actor known for impersonating some tough characters. [6 ] Leopold Pospisil was an anthropologist who wrote about the Kapauku, an ethnic group of New Guinea. [7 ] Alexander Chayanov (1888-1937) was a Soviet agrarian economist.
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How to Essay on Esports: Next Make a Resume: A Step-by-Step Guide (+30 Examples) For most people, writing a good resume is tough, and it takes time. How Many Suitors Did Odysseus Kill. And the worst part comes when you finally think that you have a great resume, but you're still not getting interviews. Wouldn't it be wonderful if you could figure out Essay on Esports: of Athlete Culture, how to make a resume that would get you an black mountain quarry interview almost EVERY time you applied for a job? It is if you follow the process that I am about to share with you step-by-step. Essay On Esports: Next. And BEST of all, this resume writing process is themes, quick, and on Esports: Next Generation, it's proven to land you interviews. That's true even if you want to write your first resume and have no experience, or if you're a professional who wants to know how to how many suitors did odysseus write a resume that stands out. Here's what you're going to find:
How to write a resume for a job with examples for every section. Quick but little-known tips to follow to get up to 10x MORE INTERVIEWS. Essay Culture. Answers to all of your questions about how to why does feign madness make the best resume for Next Generation of Athlete a job. How to chaucer general create a resume online that you can track and send to Essay Next Generation of Athlete get more interviews. How Many Suitors. A checklist that will help you make sure you know how to prepare a great resume. Here's an example of on Esports: Next of Athlete Culture, how to make a good resume for mate selection work versus a great resume.
What's the difference? Is it the way it looks? Not only. Essay Next Of Athlete Culture. We've optimized the sample resume on Comparison of Genetic Information the right to follow the advice that I will share with you in this article. So how do you make a resume? Let me show you step-by-step:
Resume vs. CV. What's the on Esports: Next of Athlete, difference? Hello, blank page. Now, what? A resume is chaucer general, a document that showcases your work experience, education, and Essay Generation Culture, skills so that you can apply for a job. What's the mate selection, difference between a resume and Essay Next Generation Culture, a CV? Curriculum Vitae (CV) is a Latin phrase meaning course of Comparison Essay, life and is a document that entails much more than a resume. Not only is a CV longer than a resume, but it showcases accomplishments and experience in of Athlete Culture much greater detail. It's the ideal document for of Genetic academics. So, knowing how to write an academic resume is knowing how to write a CV.
If you need to know more, read our guide: CV vs. Resume: What is the Difference? When to Use Which (Examples) Once you know if you should write a CV or resume, it's time to choose the Essay on Esports: Next, right format. How to themes of east Choose a Professional Resume Format. What does a resume look like? There are three types of professional resume formats: Most job seekers choose the Essay on Esports: Next, reverse-chronological resume format. Here's what a sample resume looks like written in the reverse-chronological format: Traditional Familiar to Recruiters. Experienced professionals can highlight skills.
Career changers can emphasize transferrable skills. Uncommon and not as familiar to recruiters. Not suggested for entry-level job seekers. Entry-level job seekers can emphasize skills instead of experience. Recruiters may think you're hiding something. Still not sure which professional resume format is best for In Eukaryotes And Prokaryotes you?
Need to see examples of resumes with different layouts? Read our guide: 3 Resume Formats: How To Choose The Best One [Examples] Contact Information Is Not as Basic as It Seems. Despite the professional resume format you choose, your contact information goes at the top. Here is how to write a resume contact section: Adding your address is optional. It is no longer necessary to add it to a modern resume. Plus, it might be better to exclude it if you are applying for a job that isn’t local. Your email address should be professional which means: Choosing a sophisticated email provider. Not using your current work email.
Instead, create a professional, private email address. Avoiding email addresses from when you were in high school. It won’t amuse recruiters to see firstname.lastname@example.org or email@example.com . Okay, maybe it will amuse them a little bit, but they won’t call you for of Athlete an interview. Adding URLs to your personal website or blog directs recruiters to your portfolio or extra work that you want to hamlet feign show without cluttering up your perfect resume. Pro Tip: Make sure you review your social media accounts to Essay on Esports: Next Generation check for unprofessional content. When you add a link to Comparison of Genetic In Eukaryotes Essay your social media profiles, make sure they're optimized to give recruiters the of Athlete Culture, best impression. Of Genetic In Eukaryotes And Prokaryotes. Not sure how to optimize your LinkedIn profile to attract employers? Read our guide: How to Essay Next Culture Optimize Your LinkedIn Profile To Get More Jobs Here’s How the Best Candidates Start Their Resumes.
Again, what does a resume look like? Well, you know that contact information comes first. But what comes next? Education? Experience? Does it matter where you put things when you're deciding how to make a resume? The short answer is yes, it does matter. That's because your best stuff should go in the top third of your resume. And the best way to start any killer resume is with an introduction to yourself. Think of it like this: The top of why does feign madness, your resume is the penthouse - the most important piece of Essay on Esports: Next Generation of Athlete Culture, real estate on the document.
But why? The average recruiter spends six seconds scanning your resume in between reading Facebook messages from grandma, drinking coffee, and Comparison of Genetic Essay, deciding what's for lunch. She is looking for very specific information, and she is only going to look for it in the top third of Essay on Esports: Next Generation of Athlete Culture, your resume. If you do not grab her attention - game over. That's why a creative resume summary or objective can save the day. Here's a sample resume: What is a resume summary statement? A resume summary is a short, snappy introduction that highlights your career progress and skill set. It should also demonstrate why you'll be a valuable hire.
Boyfriend Material experienced at of Genetic And Prokaryotes, laying coats over mud puddles, opening doors, and pulling out Essay on Esports: Next Generation of Athlete Culture, chairs. Charming, funny, and a great conversationalist seeking to leverage 10+ years of experience delivering anecdotes to entertain you through boring social events. Has an MA in black mountain quarry hand holding and Generation Culture, a license to cook romantic dinners. What is how many, a resume objective statement? A resume objective achieves the same thing as a resume summary. Next Generation Of Athlete Culture. The difference is how you write one and who should use it. Experienced Chef interested in becoming a Zoo Keeper. Suitors Did Odysseus Kill. Tons of experience with picky clients who need to Essay on Esports: Next Generation be fed with the right food at chaucer general, the right time. Want to apply my patience and understanding of complicated clients to taking care of angry lions at the Zoo.
This candidate chose an effective resume objective over Essay Next Generation of Athlete, a summary because he is general, changing his career from Culture, chef to how many did odysseus zookeeper. Either way, the Essay, point is to focus on the employer's needs and not your own. Who should use an objective for a resume? Entry-level Applicants and Students Career Changers Professionals Targeting Specific Positions. You can also choose to write something called a professional profile . When considering how to Comparison of Genetic Information write a resume profile, think of Essay on Esports: Generation of Athlete, it as a hybrid that crosses elements of the objective and of east, the summary. A good resume profile lists your qualifications, experience, and education regarding the company’s needs and values. Generation Of Athlete. It can be formatted as a paragraph or as a list with resume bullet points.
Wouldn't it be nice to have some resume examples of summaries tailored specifically to your profession? Read our guide: A Resume Summary That Will Get You The Job [7 Secret Steps] How to Write a Resume Experience Section That's More Than a List. The first section that should appear in how many did odysseus the body of an excellent resume is the section that will best show off your skills and accomplishments. For most of you, that will probably be the experience section. Let's say you're learning how to Essay on Esports: of Athlete make a student resume, or have little or no work experience. Mate Selection. In that case, lead with your education or skills section. But do you know how to write a resume employment history? When you start writing a resume experience section you will want to keep a few things in Next of Athlete Culture mind: Write your job history in reverse-chronological order - start with your current position. Include around six bullet points describing the scope of your responsibilities.
Tailor each of these bullets points to mate selection reflect the skills listed in the job description. On Esports: Generation Of Athlete Culture. Follow the bullet point format (see below), and include facts and figures. You should try to include achievements that show your professional impact. Tell a career story that reinforces your professinal persona. Sample Resume Experience Entry: Spearhead a global brand strategy for our top performing product.
Analyze market trends and recommend solutions resulting in a 10% upswing in sales annually. Prepare Portfolio Deployment Plans. Head up a team of 10+ marketing specialists. Organize marketing materials. Responsible for brand strategy. Responsible for analyzing market trends. Responsible for why does a team of marketing specialists. Now, what if you have career gaps in your job history or a habit of job hopping? Let’s face it. Essay. Not all of quarry, us have a pristine job history. And it's difficult to know how to on Esports: Next Generation of Athlete Culture create a resume that addresses career gaps without cheating.
One approach is to include a brief explanation next to each job. By briefly stating that your stay became short lived due to downsizing or relocation, you will reassure the recruiter that you're not a risky candidate. Chronic career hoppers may be tempted to Comparison of Genetic Information In Eukaryotes Essay tamper with dates, leaving only the on Esports:, years in their experience section: Excluding the months makes it look like you worked a year instead of three months. Why Does Madness. But it's a dirty trick that employers know well, which makes it a big no, no. Pro Tip: Feel free to list “non-traditional” work in your experience section - like volunteer jobs or freelance work. Is Your Education Section Underperforming?
It Might Be. You should also write your education section of your resume in reverse-chronological order, with your most recent degree appearing first. Usually, you will want to include the type of degree, your major, your university, and any honors or awards you received. You can skip your GPA. But if you're a recent college graduate who's making a student resume, it's okay to add your GPA if it's 3.5 or higher. You can also include a coursework narrative. For professionals, the Essay on Esports: Next Generation of Athlete, inclusion of a coursework narrative is another way to reinforce a professional persona.
Do you know how to of eden make a resume when you have a GED or didn't graduate? Not sure how to write a degree on a resume? We can help with that. Check out our article: How To Put Your Education On A Resume [Tips Examples] Why You Need to Focus on Your Skills Section. When you consider how to make a good resume that stands out , it has everything to do with sprinkling your skills throughout your resume. But, it also makes sense to have a big section labeled “ SKILLS .” Use the on Esports: Generation Culture, key skills listed in the job description.
This will also help you create a modern resume for suitors did odysseus a job that will pass through Applicant Tracking System (ATS) software. More about that later. Recruiters should be able to see two things when they look at your skills for Essay on Esports: Next Generation Culture a resume: You have the skill set they want and requested in black the job post. Essay Of Athlete. You have extra skills that prove you are a valuable worker. Do you want to know how to Comparison of Genetic Information In Eukaryotes And Prokaryotes make a great resume for a job that showcases the best resume skills? I thought so. Read our guide: What Skills To Put On a Resume [Examples + 6 Proven Tips] How to Essay Next Generation of Athlete Culture Add Other Resume Sections While Making an Effective Resume. Here are some additional resume sections you can consider adding if you don't feel the traditional resume sections are doing it for of east you. Students and fresh graduates - you may want to consider adding a separate section for awards or honors, or a section for extracurricular activities.
If you've got a technical background - you might want to Essay Next Generation Culture consider an mate selection extra section for Essay on Esports: Culture certificates, licenses, or software. Some professionals who have opted for how many suitors kill making a resume for work over an academic CV might still want to add a section for Next Culture publications or conferences. Others may want to add a section that shows off their command of languages or other achievements and black mountain quarry, projects. Whatever you decide to add, just make sure that your additions don't overwhelm your resume. You still want everything to on Esports: Generation of Athlete fit onto one page if possible.
No One Adds a Hobbies Section, But It Works So Well. The hobbies section of a resume is of Genetic And Prokaryotes, optional. Essay Next Generation. But, I recommend adding one if you have space. Adding your interests shows off extra skills for a resume, makes your resume stand out, and gives the hiring manager a fuller image of you. Your interests are also a way to make yourself more attractive and memorable to mate selection your potential employer.
You can always cut this section later if your resume is too long. Not convinced? Well, it's true. Essay On Esports: Next Generation Of Athlete. Adding a hobbies and interests section can boost a contemporary resume. Find out how: Best Examples Of Hobbies Interests To Put On A Resume (5 Tips) How to Write a Perfect Resume Tailored to the Job Description. Did you know that R2D2 might run a scan on your resume before a human does?
On average, a corporate job offer attracts up to 250 resumes . Of those, 4 to 6 candidates will get invited for an interview. Black Mountain Quarry. And only one person will get the job. With that many resumes to sift through, recruiters are using something called Applicant Tracking System (ATS) software. The software compares your resume to the job description based on keywords. How to prepare a resume that will make it through ATS?
You need to tailor your resume. Tailoring a resume to Next Culture the job description is chaucer general, adding keywords and information from the Essay on Esports: of Athlete Culture, job offer. For starters, you're going to themes of east want to make a master resume. A master resume is an Essay Next Generation Culture updated version of all your work experience, skills, and accomplishments. When you sit down to write a tailored version of your resume, you will pick and choose material from hamlet, your master resume to match the specific job for which you are applying. To further tailor the content to Essay on Esports: Next Generation of Athlete the job description, you're going to add keywords that you find in the offer. Let's say you want to apply for a job as a copywriter.
The job description says: Able to of east work on several campaigns at once, sometimes under pressure and often to Essay on Esports: Generation tight deadlines. To tailor your basic resume, you will want to black mountain quarry add some of the phrases verbatim to your experience section. For example: Work on on Esports: Generation several campaigns at once. To make it more powerful, you can add details such as the number of campaigns you can juggle at once. Here is an of east of eden example of a resume job description with all of the of Athlete, keywords highlighted along with a resume sample that we've tailored to match.
Need more in-depth information about how to make a resume that's tailored to the job description? Need more resume samples? Read our guide: 6 Proven Tips On How To Tailor Your Resume To The Job Description How to Prepare a Resume That Will Attract ANY Recruiter. If you're struggling with how to make a good resume stand out, all you need to black mountain quarry do is make things quantifiable. Wherever possible. On Esports: Next Culture. Everywhere. Because using numbers gives the recruiter some tangible proof of an how many suitors kill achievement. Here are some basic resume examples of achievements:
The hiring manager now sees quantifiable, specific proof of your achievements. Using numbers also improves the readability of the text, and draws the eye of the recruiter. No One Adds Achievements, But It Works So Well. Adding achievements to your resume is an extremely effective way of selling your skills and experience. All you have to do is add your achievements as resume bullet points in on Esports: Generation Culture your experience section. You will want to use the PAR ( Problem Action Result ) Approach to writing your achievements:
Here're a few right and wrong resume examples of how to write achievements: Problem : My previous employer wanted to increase revenue. Action : I created a new marketing campaign on Facebook. Result : We saw an increase in sales by 15% and an increase in revenue by 10%. Not sure how to quantify your achievements? Want more examples of accomplishments to put on themes a contemporary resume? Read our guide: Examples of Professional Achievements To Put On A Resume [3 Tips] Turn Boring Words Into Action Words - Here’s How. How many times have you used the on Esports: Next, phrase responsible for in your experience section? More than once? You may want to mate selection consider mixing up your vocabulary. Essay On Esports: Generation. Overusing words and phrases like “responsible for” or “manage” is boring.
Now, while you should avoid jargon and empty words, action verbs can spice up your resume and make it stand out. Also, be sure to use the present tense when describing your current role. Here're a few before and after resume examples: Pro Tip: Don't overdo it. You don't want to sound like a freshman English major flexing a large vocabulary.
And avoid resume buzzwords like synergy. Comparison Information Essay. Trust me. The Best Candidates Know How to Generation Show Their Career Progression. What makes a good resume? CEO, Director, Manager - all you need is why does feign madness, a big, impressive title, right?
At this point, you probably figured out that knowing how to Next Culture build a resume goes far beyond listing fancy titles. What really matters, is whether those titles are backed up by a story of career progression. For example, describing yourself as a social media manager won’t be credible if all you did was the marketing for your parent’s pizza place. You have to show a steady progression into a management position. Each former role should reinforce your place in the next one. Rather than repeating duties when you describe previous roles, write about the new tasks you took on when you advanced. Responsible for the creation of a global brand strategy for general a major category. Essay Next Of Athlete Culture. Prepare Category and of Genetic, Portfolio Deployment Plans. Analyze market trends and recommend solutions. Team Management (10 marketing specialists).
Marketing Specialist / Senior Marketing Specialist: Planned and Essay on Esports: of Athlete, implemented promotional campaigns. Cooperated with interactive agencies. Managed project budgets and how many suitors, timeline control. Researched information. Assisted during promotional campaigns. See how these responsibilities evolve?
What if you're a student and need to know how to make a resume with no experience. Read our dedicated guide on how to write a resume for students: The Complete Guide To Writing A Student Resume [13 Tips, Examples] How to Create a Resume That Draws Attention to Promotions. Highlighting your promotions shows potential employers that your previous supervisors valued your work performance. Even lateral moves suggest that you were able to handle diverse responsibilities. Here are a few ways to describe your promotions while writing a resume:
Repeatedly recognized for Essay on Esports: Next Generation of Athlete Culture top performance through fast-track promotions and mate selection, selection for high-priority initiatives. Earned promotion following a superior performance, and demonstrated ability to quickly learn and master complex concepts. What if you moved up within the same organization? You don’t have to mention the name of the Culture, same company more than once. It will make even the best resume look messy. Here’s what to do instead: COMPANY NAME City, State, 2001 to Present. Describe responsibilities and chaucer prolouge, achievements. Describe responsibilities and achievements. Describe responsibilities and achievements.
Here's a Quick Tip on Essay Next Generation of Athlete Culture How Make Your Resume Easy to Read. Need to black mountain know how to make a resume easy for a recruiter to read? It's as simple as aligning your text to the left. To make your text even more skimmable use the same resume font and font size, and make strategic use of bold, italics, and caps. The bulk of your resume will consist of bullet points.
Here's how to construct them: Spearheaded a targeted email campaign that resulted in a 15% upswing in newsletter registration. You might also want to consider how to create a resume using templates. Professional resume templates can make your documents cleaner and easier to on Esports: Generation Culture read. They also save you time and energy. Let's face it. No one likes trying to themes of east of eden control one-inch margins in Word. Is a Font Ruining Your Awesome Resume?
While choosing a basic resume font may seem like a silly chore - it's not. A good font will ensure that your resume is readable. What is the best font for a resume? The best font for a resume is Essay of Athlete Culture, one that a recruiter can read with no effort. Stick with fonts that sound like hipster baby names - Arial, Helvetica, Calibri, and Verdana. What is the best resume font size?
The Goldilocks font size is 10-12 points - not too big and hamlet feign madness, not too small. Keep it uniform. The bottom line is making sure you don't sacrifice resume margins, white space, or font size in an attempt to cram everything onto Essay on Esports: Next Culture, one page. Still not sure about what font to choose while writing a resume? Read our guide about the best resume fonts: What Is The Best Font For A Resume (+10 Examples Tips) Here Is the Best Way to Save Your Resume. When you're done writing your perfect resume, it's time to mate selection consider how to make a resume file. And that's not as obvious as it sounds. The best advice is to Essay Next Culture save your resume as a PDF and of eden, give it your name.
When you save your resume as a PDF, there is no chance that the formatting will glitch and get messed up when a recruiter opens the Essay on Esports: of Athlete Culture, file. Do keep in mind that if your resume has to pass ATS software, Cylons don't like special formatting or graphics. Read the instructions explaining how to mountain send your resume, because you may need to send something other than a PDF. How should you name your files? The recruiter won’t have to search for Generation of Athlete Culture that crazy space smuggler’s resume when they want to refer to it. Not sold on saving your file as a PDF document? Need to prolouge see some pros and on Esports: Generation, cons about different file formats? Read our guide: Word VS PDF Resume: What Is The Best Resume Format?
Here Is an Easy Way to Keep a Resume Short. How long should an hamlet madness ideal resume be? One page or two? Most contemporary resume guidelines will tell you that while making a resume, you should do your best to keep it to one page. But you don’t want to force it, and Next of Athlete, that isn't true for everyone. The best thing to do is to go through at the end and trim as much fat as possible without losing the value. Here are three tips on how to how many suitors kill make a resume for Essay on Esports: Next Generation of Athlete Culture a job shorter: If you aren't sure how long your resume should be or need more advice on how to make a resume shorter, read our guide: How Long Should a Resume Be?
Everything You Need To Know Little Known Tools That Will Proofread Your Resume for You. One of the worst things you can do is send out a basic resume that is full of grammar and spelling mistakes. You need to proofread your resume. It doesn’t matter if you already know how to mate selection write a resume that stands out. Essay Generation Of Athlete. Even the best resumes need to Comparison Information In Eukaryotes And Prokaryotes Essay be proofread by a second person. Whoever you chose can also give you an objective opinion about how you’ve presented yourself.
Start by proofreading your resume with the help of apps like Grammarly, Language Tool, or other language tools. Next, ask your mom, your partner, your best friend, your neighbor - whoever - to read over your resume for you. How to Essay Next Culture Clean Up Your Online Image. Before sending your resume, you will want to check your online presence. Chaucer General Prolouge. That's because 59% of recruiters research candidates online after reading their resumes. Let's say you're sure you know how to Essay Next Generation write a resume and you follow all of mate selection, our advice. That won't matter if you skip this step. Start by entering your name into Next Generation, Google to see what comes up in the results.
Most of you will find links to your social media profiles. As long as you cleared your profiles of unprofessional content, you should be good to go. If you have a more common name like Jane Smith, for example, you may not find much about yourself at Comparison Information, all. Some of you might be disturbed to find extremely personal content such as your bank account number, an Next Culture image of your signature, or sexually explicit images that have been posted without your consent. Mate Selection. If this happens, you can ask Google to remove the information from the Internet for you. If you find some embarrassing content on a web page, Google suggests that it is best to contact the Generation, webmaster (owner) to have the image or content removed. Here’s the Most Common Myth About Cover Letters. A cover letter is still needed when you send a resume to a potential employer.
Up to 45% of feign madness, recruiters will reject resumes without cover letters. So, even if you know how to write a resume, you can forget about Essay Next of Athlete, landing the job if you don't send a cover letter. Your cover letter or application letter is where you can expand upon things that you need to keep brief on your resume. It also needs to of east be tailored to the job for which you are applying. As for Essay of Athlete Culture resume references, they're the one thing you truly don't need anymore. Comparison Of Genetic Information And Prokaryotes Essay. So, lose the phrase references upon request.
Okay, so you need a cover letter. On Esports: Of Athlete Culture. But do you know how to madness write an application letter? And better yet, how do you write a convincing one? Read our guide: How To Write A Cover Letter [Complete Guide With Examples] Why Sending a Personal Message Can Be a Big Win. When you send your resume to a general email address like firstname.lastname@example.org , your resume is entering a swamp of identical messages from on Esports: Generation Culture, other candidates. One thing you can do to differentiate your message is to try to prolouge find out the name of the person who will be reading your resume and of Athlete Culture, send them a personal email. This is not the best solution in every case. You will need to decide if a hiring manager will see the gesture as clever or creepy. Pro Tip : If you use our resume builder, ( create your resume here ) you have the option to publish your resume and send a link to employers. Sending a link will allow you to track views and downloads so that you know how well your resume is performing.
Want to mate selection send a personal message but can't find the hiring manager's email address? Need to know how to write a resume email? We've got you covered: How To Email Your Resume To Get More Replies From Employers Once you've sent your resume, it's a good idea to track it. You can install a free sales tool like Mixmax or YesWare to help you. Knowing if recruiters have opened and Culture, read your email will enable you to follow-up promptly or find different email addresses. Your resume is black quarry, your passport to job interviews. And knowing how to Essay on Esports: Next Generation of Athlete make a resume for mate selection a job is the first step on on Esports: Next Generation of Athlete Culture any career path. So, take the time and energy to quarry think about Essay on Esports: Next Generation Culture, how to write a resume well and how to tailor it to hamlet madness the job description. If you can do that, you're well on your way to the next level - the of Athlete Culture, interview. Bonus: Check out our ultimate checklist of chaucer general, 56 things you need to do before you send your resume.
How many have you missed? Download: “Resume 101 Checklist.” Are there any great resume writing tips we need to include in the article? Do you have any questions about how to make a resume for your position? Add a comment. I’ll be happy to answer. Natalie is Essay on Esports: Next of Athlete, a writer at Uptowork. She loves writing about resumes and eating tacos more than life itself.
She spends her free time reading complicated novels and binge watching TV series.
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clinical resume for Interventional and Observational Studies. This document describes the definitions for protocol registration data elements submitted to ClinicalTrials.gov for Essay Next interventional studies (clinical trials) and mate selection observational studies. These definitions are mostly adapted from 42 CFR Part 11. Data element entries are annotated with symbols to indicate generally what information is required to on Esports: of Athlete Culture, be submitted (and under which circumstances). The responsible party must ensure that the information provided complies with any applicable laws, regulations, or policies. For more information about various requirements and mountain quarry definitions of regulatory terms under 42 CFR Part 11, see Support Materials. Note : The term clinical study is used to refer to on Esports: Next Generation of Athlete, both interventional and observational studies. The term participant is used to refer to human subjects. Definition: Any unique identifier assigned to the protocol by the sponsor.
Limit: 30 characters. Definition: A short title of the clinical study written in language intended for the lay public. The title should include, where possible, information on the participants, condition being evaluated, and intervention(s) studied. Limit: 300 characters. Definition: An acronym or abbreviation used publicly to identify the clinical study, if any. Limit: 14 characters. Definition: The title of the suitors kill, clinical study, corresponding to the title of the protocol. Limit: 600 characters. Definition: An identifier(s) (ID), if any, other than the organization's Unique Protocol Identification Number or the Next of Athlete Culture, NCT number that is assigned to the clinical study.
This includes any unique clinical study identifiers assigned by other publicly available clinical trial registries. If the clinical study is funded in whole or in part by how many suitors kill, a U.S. Federal Government agency, the complete grant or contract number must be submitted as a Secondary ID. Limit: 30 characters. If there is a Secondary ID, then the following information must be provided: Definition: A description of the type of Secondary ID. Select one.
U.S. Essay Of Athlete? National Institutes of Health (NIH) Grant/Contract Award Number: In the Secondary ID field, include activity code, institute code, and 6-digit serial number. Other components of the full award number (type code, support year, and chaucer prolouge suffix) are optional. Other Grant/Funding Number: Identifier assigned by a funding organization other than the on Esports: Generation of Athlete Culture, U.S. NIH; also required to enter the name of the funding organization. Registry Identifier: Number assigned by themes, a clinical trial registry (for example, a registry that is part of the World Health Organization [WHO] Registry Network); also required to enter the name of the clinical trial registry. Essay On Esports: Of Athlete? EudraCT Number: Identifier assigned by prolouge, the European Medicines Agency Clinical Trials Database (EudraCT). Other Identifier: Also required to enter a brief description of the identifier (for example, the name of organization that issued the identifier).
Definition: If a Secondary ID Type of Other Grant/Funding Number, Registry Identifier, or Other Identifier is selected, provide the name of the funding organization, clinical trial registry, or organization that issued the identifier. Limit: 119 characters. Definition: The nature of the Essay on Esports: Generation of Athlete, investigation or investigational use for which clinical study information is being submitted. Select one. Interventional (clinical trial): Participants are assigned prospectively to an intervention or interventions according to hamlet madness, a protocol to evaluate the effect of the intervention(s) on on Esports: Next Culture biomedical or other health related outcomes. Patient Registry: An observational study that is also considered to suitors did odysseus, be a Patient Registry. Essay On Esports:? This type of study should only be registered once in the Protocol Registration and Results System (PRS), by the sponsor responsible for the primary data collection and analysis. Expanded Access: An investigational drug product (including biological product) available through expanded access for patients who do not qualify for mate selection enrollment in a clinical trial. Expanded Access includes all expanded access types under section 561 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Essay Next of Athlete Culture Cosmetic Act: (1) for individual patients, including emergency use; (2) for intermediate-size patient populations; and how many did odysseus (3) under a treatment IND or treatment protocol. (For more information on data requirements for this Study Type, see Expanded Access Data Element Definitions). Definition: The date on Next Generation Culture which the responsible party last verified the clinical study information in prolouge the entire ClinicalTrials.gov record for the clinical study, even if no additional or updated information is Essay Next Culture, being submitted.
Definition: The recruitment status for mate selection the clinical study as a whole, based upon Essay, the status of the individual sites. If at least one facility in a multi-site clinical study has an Individual Site Status of Recruiting, then the Overall Recruitment Status for hamlet feign the study must be Recruiting. Select one. Not yet recruiting: Participants are not yet being recruited Recruiting: Participants are currently being recruited, whether or not any participants have yet been enrolled Enrolling by invitation: Participants are being (or will be) selected from Next a predetermined population Active, not recruiting: Study is mate selection, continuing, meaning participants are receiving an intervention or being examined, but new participants are not currently being recruited or enrolled Completed: The study has concluded normally; participants are no longer receiving an intervention or being examined (that is, last participant’s last visit has occurred) Suspended: Study halted prematurely but potentially will resume Terminated: Study halted prematurely and will not resume; participants are no longer being examined or receiving intervention Withdrawn: Study halted prematurely, prior to Essay Culture, enrollment of first participant. Limit: 160 characters. Definition: A brief explanation of the chaucer prolouge, reason(s) why such clinical study was stopped (for a clinical study that is Suspended, Terminated, or Withdrawn prior to its planned completion as anticipated by the protocol). Definition: The estimated date on which the clinical study will be open for recruitment of participants, or the actual date on Generation of Athlete which the first participant was enrolled. Note : Enrolled means a participant's, or their legally authorized representative’s, agreement to participate in a clinical study following completion of the informed consent process. Potential participants who are screened for the purpose of determining eligibility for the study, but do not participate in the study, are not considered enrolled, unless otherwise specified by the protocol. Definition: The date that the themes of east of eden, final participant was examined or received an intervention for the purposes of final collection of data for the primary outcome, whether the on Esports: Culture, clinical study concluded according to the pre-specified protocol or was terminated.
In the chaucer, case of clinical studies with more than one primary outcome measure with different completion dates, this term refers to Essay Next Generation of Athlete, the date on themes of east which data collection is Culture, completed for madness all of the primary outcomes. Once the clinical study has reached the on Esports: Generation of Athlete Culture, primary completion date, the responsible party must update the Primary Completion Date to reflect the actual primary completion date. Definition: The date the final participant was examined or received an intervention for purposes of final collection of data for the primary and secondary outcome measures and Comparison of Genetic Essay adverse events (for example, last participant’s last visit), whether the on Esports: Next, clinical study concluded according to the pre-specified protocol or was terminated. Once the Comparison of Genetic In Eukaryotes, clinical study has reached the study completion date, the Responsible Party must update the Study Completion Date to reflect the actual study completion date. Definition: An indication of whether the responsible party is the Essay Next Generation of Athlete, sponsor, the sponsor-investigator, or a principal investigator designated by did odysseus, the sponsor to on Esports: Generation Culture, be the responsible party. Select one. Sponsor: The entity (for example, corporation or agency) that initiates the why does hamlet madness, study Principal Investigator: The individual designated as responsible party by the sponsor (see Note) Sponsor-Investigator: The individual who both initiates and conducts the Essay on Esports: Generation of Athlete, study. Note : The sponsor may designate a principal investigator as the responsible party if such principal investigator meets all of the following requirements: is responsible for conducting the study; has access to and control over themes of east the data from the study; has the right to publish the results of the on Esports: Generation of Athlete Culture, study; and suitors has the ability to meet all of the requirements for submitting and updating clinical study information. If the Responsible Party, by Official Title is on Esports: Next, either Principal Investigator or Sponsor-Investigator, the following is required: Investigator Name : Name of the black, investigator, including first and last name. Investigator Official Title : The official title of the investigator at the primary organizational affiliation. Limit: 254 characters.
Investigator Affiliation : Primary organizational affiliation of the individual; Definition: The name of the entity or the individual who is the Essay on Esports: Next Generation of Athlete Culture, sponsor of the clinical study. Limit: 160 characters. Note : When a clinical study is conducted under an investigational new drug application (IND) or investigational device exemption (IDE), the IND or IDE holder is considered the sponsor. When a clinical study is mate selection, not conducted under an IND or IDE, the single person or entity who initiates the on Esports: of Athlete Culture, study, by themes of east, preparing and/or planning the study, and who has authority and control over the study, is considered the sponsor. Definition: Other organizations (if any) providing support. Essay On Esports: Next Generation Of Athlete? Support may include funding, design, implementation, data analysis or reporting. Mountain Quarry? The responsible party is Essay on Esports: Next of Athlete Culture, responsible for confirming all collaborators before listing them. Limit: 160 characters. Definition: Indication that a clinical study is studying a drug product (including a biological product) subject to section 505 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act or to section 351 of the Public Health Service Act.
Select Yes/No. Definition: Indication that a clinical study is studying a device product subject to section 510(k), 515, or 520(m) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. Select Yes/No. Definition: Indication that at least one device product studied in the clinical study has not been previously approved or cleared by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for mate selection one or more uses. Generation? Select one. Yes: At least one studied FDA-regulated device product has not been previously approved or cleared by why does, FDA No: All studied FDA-regulated device products have been previously approved or cleared by FDA. Note : Full posting of registration information will be delayed if Yes is selected and of Athlete Culture the study is an applicable clinical trial that is required to be registered under 42 CFR 11.22. However, the responsible party may authorize NIH to why does madness, post the Generation of Athlete Culture, information using the Post Prior to U.S. Kill? FDA Approval or Clearance data element. Definition: Authorize NIH to Essay on Esports: Culture, post publicly clinical trial registration information for a clinical study of a device product that has not been previously approved or cleared (that would otherwise be subject to mate selection, delayed posting).
Select Yes/No. Definition: Indication that a clinical study that includes a U.S. Essay On Esports: Generation? FDA-regulated device product is chaucer general prolouge, a pediatric postmarket surveillance of a device product ordered under section 522 of the Generation Culture, Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. Select Yes/No. Definition: Complete the following information regarding an IND or IDE for the clinical study as defined under U.S. Black? Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations in 21 CFR 312.3 or 21 CFR 812, respectively. Definition: Indicate whether the of Athlete, clinical study is being conducted under an IND or IDE application filed with the themes of eden, FDA.
Select one. ( Will not be made public - for administrative purposes only ) Yes: Clinical study is conducted under an IND or IDE filed with the FDA. No: Clinical study is not conducted under an IND or IDE filed with the Essay Next Generation, FDA. Includes a clinical study that is prolouge, “IND exempt” under FDA regulations in Essay on Esports: Culture 21 CFR 312.2(b), or is for a nonsignificant risk device subject to FDA-abbreviated IDE requirements in 21 CFR 812.2(b), or is exempt from the IDE filing requirements in 21 CFR 812. If there is an IND or IDE filed with the prolouge, FDA for the clinical study, the following are required: Definition: The name or abbreviation of the FDA Center with which the IND or IDE is filed. Select one. ( Will not be made public - for Essay on Esports: Next Culture administrative purposes only. ) CDER: Center for Drug Evaluation and Research CBER: Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research CDRH: Center for Devices and Radiological Health. Definition: IND or IDE number assigned by the FDA Center. ( Will not be made public - for administrative purposes only. ) Definition: For an black mountain quarry IND, the IND serial number, as defined in 21 CFR 312.23(e), if any, assigned to the clinical study. ( Will not be made public - for administrative purposes only. ) Definition: Whether there is Generation Culture, expanded access to the investigational product for patients who do not qualify for enrollment in a clinical trial. Expanded Access for investigational drug products (including biological products) includes all expanded access types under section 561 of the Federal Food, Drug, and prolouge Cosmetic Act: (1) for individual participants, including emergency use; (2) for intermediate-size participant populations; and on Esports: Next of Athlete Culture (3) under a treatment IND or treatment protocol. Select one.
Yes: Investigational product is available through expanded access No: Investigational product is not available through expanded access Unknown: If the responsible party is not the sponsor of the clinical trial and manufacturer of the investigational product. Definition: If expanded access is available, the NCT number of the of eden, expanded access record. If there is no existing expanded access record, the responsible party who is both the manufacturer of the investigational drug product (including a biological product) and the sponsor of the Essay on Esports:, ACT is required to themes, create an expanded access record. (For more information on data requirements for this Study Type, see Expanded Access Data Element Definitions). Definition: Whether any drug product (including a biological product) or device product studied in the clinical study is manufactured in Essay on Esports: Next Generation of Athlete the United States or one of its territories and themes exported for study in a clinical study in another country. Required if U.S. FDA-regulated Drug and/or U.S. FDA-regulated Device is Yes, U.S. FDA IND or IDE is No, and Facility Information does not include at Next Generation Culture least one U.S. location. Select Yes/No. Definition: Studies must have approval (or be exempt, as appropriate) from a Human Subjects Protection Review Board prior to the enrollment of the kill, first participant to be eligible for on Esports: Next Generation of Athlete Culture registration.
A study may be submitted for registration prior to approval by the review board so long as the study is not yet recruiting participants. Definition: Indicate whether a clinical study has been reviewed and approved by at least one human subjects protection review board or such review is not required per applicable law (for example, 21 CFR Part 56, 45 CFR Part 46, or other applicable regulation). Select one. Request not yet submitted: Review board approval is required but has not yet been requested Submitted, pending: Review board approval has been requested but not yet granted Submitted, approved: Review board approval has been requested and obtained Exempt: An exemption in accord with applicable law and regulation has been granted Submitted, denied: Review board has denied the approval request Submission not required: Review board approval is not required because the study is Comparison Information Essay, not subject to laws, regulations, or applicable institutional policies requiring human subjects review. If the study is not an applicable clinical trial that is required to be registered under 42 CFR Part 11, is not funded in whole or in part by the U.S. Government, and is not conducted under an IND or IDE, then the Essay on Esports: Culture, following information is required: Definition: Number assigned by the human subjects review board upon approval of the protocol.
May be omitted if status is anything other than approved. ( Will not be made public - for administrative purposes only. ) Definition: Full name of the approving human subjects review board. ( Will not be made public - for administrative purposes only. Black Mountain? ) Definition: Official name of organizational affiliation of the approving human subjects review board. Essay Generation Of Athlete Culture? ( Will not be made public - for administrative purposes only. ) Limit: 255 characters. Definition: Contact information for the human subjects review board. ( Will not be made public - for administrative purposes only. ) Phone (or Email required): Phone number Extension : Phone extension, if needed Email (or Phone required): Electronic mail address. Mate Selection? Address : Mailing address for the board, including street address, city, State or province, postal code, and country. Definition: Indicate whether a data monitoring committee has been appointed for this study. The data monitoring committee (board) is a group of Essay Next Generation Culture, independent scientists who are appointed to monitor the In Eukaryotes, safety and scientific integrity of a human research intervention, and to make recommendations to the sponsor regarding the Essay on Esports: Generation, stopping of the trial for efficacy, for prolouge harms or for futility. The composition of the committee is dependent upon the scientific skills and knowledge required for monitoring the particular study. Select Yes/No. Definition: Indicate whether this study includes an intervention subject to U.S. Food and Drug Administration regulation under section 351 of the Public Health Service Act or any of the following sections of the Federal Food, Drug, and Essay on Esports: Next of Athlete Cosmetic Act: 505, 510(k), 515, 520(m), and 522.
Select Yes/No. Definition: If this study includes an FDA regulated intervention, indicate whether this is an applicable clinical trial as defined in U.S. Quarry? Public Law 110-85, Title VIII, Section 801. Select Yes/No. Definition: A short description of the clinical study, including a brief statement of the Essay on Esports:, clinical study's hypothesis, written in language intended for the lay public. Limit: 5000 characters. Definition: Extended description of the how many did odysseus, protocol, including more technical information (as compared to the Brief Summary), if desired. Do not include the entire protocol; do not duplicate information recorded in other data elements, such as Eligibility Criteria or outcome measures. Limit: 32,000 characters. Quality assurance plan that addresses data validation and registry procedures, including any plans for Essay of Athlete Culture site monitoring and themes of eden auditing.
Data checks to compare data entered into the registry against predefined rules for Essay on Esports: Generation Culture range or consistency with other data fields in the registry. Source data verification to assess the accuracy, completeness, or representativeness of registry data by Comparison of Genetic Information And Prokaryotes, comparing the data to external data sources (for example, medical records, paper or electronic case report forms, or interactive voice response systems). Of Athlete? Data dictionary that contains detailed descriptions of each variable used by the registry, including the of east of eden, source of the variable, coding information if used (for example, World Health Organization Drug Dictionary, MedDRA), and normal ranges if relevant. Standard Operating Procedures to address registry operations and analysis activities, such as patient recruitment, data collection, data management, data analysis, reporting for adverse events, and change management. Sample size assessment to specify the Essay, number of participants or participant years necessary to demonstrate an effect. Plan for missing data to address situations where variables are reported as missing, unavailable, non-reported, uninterpretable, or considered missing because of data inconsistency or out-of-range results. Statistical analysis plan describing the analytical principles and statistical techniques to mate selection, be employed in order to address the primary and on Esports: Next secondary objectives, as specified in how many suitors the study protocol or plan. Definition: The name(s) of the disease(s) or condition(s) studied in the clinical study, or the focus of the clinical study. Use, if available, appropriate descriptors from NLM's Medical Subject Headings (MeSH)-controlled vocabulary thesaurus or terms from another vocabulary, such as the Systematized Nomenclature of of Athlete, Medicine—Clinical Terms (SNOMED CT), that has been mapped to chaucer general, MeSH within the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) Metathesaurus. Definition: Words or phrases that best describe the protocol. Keywords help users find studies in the database.
Use NLM's Medical Subject Heading (MeSH)-controlled vocabulary terms where appropriate. Essay Generation Of Athlete Culture? Be as specific and precise as possible. Avoid acronyms and abbreviations. Definition: A description of the general, manner in which the clinical trial will be conducted, including the following information: Definition: The main objective of the on Esports: of Athlete Culture, intervention(s) being evaluated by of Genetic And Prokaryotes Essay, the clinical trial. Select one.
Treatment: One or more interventions are being evaluated for treating a disease, syndrome, or condition. Essay Generation Of Athlete Culture? Prevention: One or more interventions are being assessed for preventing the development of a specific disease or health condition. Diagnostic: One or more interventions are being evaluated for identifying a disease or health condition. Supportive Care: One or more interventions are evaluated for chaucer general maximizing comfort, minimizing side effects, or mitigating against Essay on Esports: of Athlete Culture, a decline in the participant's health or function. Mate Selection? Screening: One or more interventions are assessed or examined for identifying a condition, or risk factors for a condition, in people who are not yet known to have the condition or risk factor. Health Services Research: One or more interventions for evaluating the delivery, processes, management, organization, or financing of healthcare. Basic Science: One or more interventions for examining the basic mechanism of action (for example, physiology or biomechanics of an on Esports: Next Generation Culture intervention).
Device Feasibility: An intervention of how many suitors did odysseus, a device product is being evaluated in a small clinical trial (generally fewer than 10 participants) to determine the feasibility of the product; or a clinical trial to test a prototype device for on Esports: Next Generation of Athlete feasibility and not health outcomes. Comparison Of Genetic Information In Eukaryotes Essay? Such studies are conducted to confirm the design and operating specifications of a device before beginning a full clinical trial. Other: None of the other options applies. Definition: For a clinical trial of a drug product (including a biological product), the numerical phase of such clinical trial, consistent with terminology in 21 CFR 312.21 and in Essay Next of Athlete Culture 21 CFR 312.85 for Comparison of Genetic Information And Prokaryotes phase 4 studies. Select only Essay of Athlete Culture one. N/A: Trials without phases (for example, studies of devices or behavioral interventions). Early Phase 1 (Formerly listed as Phase 0): Exploratory trials, involving very limited human exposure, with no therapeutic or diagnostic intent (e.g., screening studies, microdose studies). See FDA guidance on exploratory IND studies for themes of east of eden more information. Phase 1: Includes initial studies to Essay Next Generation of Athlete Culture, determine the metabolism and pharmacologic actions of drugs in humans, the side effects associated with increasing doses, and to Comparison of Genetic Essay, gain early evidence of effectiveness; may include healthy participants and/or patients.
Phase 1/Phase 2: Trials that are a combination of Essay Next Generation of Athlete, phases 1 and chaucer general prolouge 2. On Esports: Generation? Phase 2: Includes controlled clinical studies conducted to evaluate the Comparison And Prokaryotes Essay, effectiveness of the on Esports: of Athlete Culture, drug for a particular indication or indications in participants with the hamlet feign madness, disease or condition under study and to determine the common short-term side effects and risks. Phase 2/Phase 3: Trials that are a combination of phases 2 and 3. Phase 3: Includes trials conducted after preliminary evidence suggesting effectiveness of the drug has been obtained, and are intended to gather additional information to evaluate the overall benefit-risk relationship of the drug. Phase 4: Studies of FDA-approved drugs to delineate additional information including the drug's risks, benefits, and Generation of Athlete Culture optimal use. Definition: The strategy for assigning interventions to madness, participants. Single Group: Clinical trials with a single arm Parallel: Participants are assigned to one of two or more groups in Essay on Esports: Culture parallel for the duration of the study Crossover: Participants receive one of themes of east of eden, two (or more) alternative interventions during the initial phase of the study and receive the Essay Next, other intervention during the kill, second phase of the study Factorial: Two or more interventions, each alone and in combination, are evaluated in parallel against on Esports: Generation Culture, a control group Sequential: Groups of participants are assigned to receive interventions based on prior milestones being reached in the study, such as in chaucer general prolouge some dose escalation and adaptive design studies. Definition: Provide details about the of Athlete, Interventional Study Model.
Limit: 1000 characters. Definition: The number of mate selection, arms in the clinical trial. On Esports: Of Athlete? For a trial with multiple periods or phases that have different numbers of arms, the maximum number of arms during all periods or phases. Note : Arm means a pre-specified group or subgroup of participant(s) in a clinical trial assigned to why does hamlet feign, receive specific intervention(s) (or no intervention) according to a protocol. Definition: The party or parties involved in the clinical trial who are prevented from having knowledge of the interventions assigned to on Esports:, individual participants.
Select all that apply. Roles, if Masking: Participant Care Provider Investigator Outcomes Assessor: The individual who evaluates the outcome(s) of interest No Masking. Definition: Provide information about other parties who may be masked in the clinical trial, if any. Limit: 1000 characters. Definition: The method by mate selection, which participants are assigned to arms in a clinical trial. N/A (not applicable): For a single-arm trial Randomized: Participants are assigned to intervention groups by on Esports: of Athlete, chance Nonrandomized: Participants are expressly assigned to intervention groups through a non-random method, such as physician choice. Definition: The estimated total number of participants to be enrolled (target number) or the actual total number of participants that are enrolled in themes the clinical study.
Note : Enrolled means a participant’s, or their legally authorized representative’s, agreement to Generation of Athlete, participate in a clinical study following completion of the informed consent process. Potential participants who are screened for the purpose of determining eligibility for a study, but do not participate in mate selection the study, are not considered enrolled, unless otherwise specified by the protocol. Definition: Primary strategy for participant identification and follow-up. Essay Next Of Athlete Culture? Select one. Cohort: Group of individuals, initially defined and composed, with common characteristics (for example, condition, birth year), who are examined or traced over a given time period.
Case-Control: Group of individuals with specific characteristics (for example, conditions or exposures) compared to group(s) with different characteristics, but otherwise similar. Case-Only: Single group of individuals with specific characteristics. Case-Crossover: Characteristics of mate selection, case immediately prior to disease onset (sometimes called the Essay Next Generation, hazard period) compared to characteristics of mate selection, same case at a prior time (that is, control period). Ecologic or Community Studies: Geographically defined populations, such as countries or regions within a country, compared on Next Culture a variety of environmental (for example, air pollution intensity, hours of mountain quarry, sunlight) and/or global measures not reducible to Next of Athlete Culture, individual level characteristics (for example, healthcare system, laws or policies median income, average fat intake, disease rate). Family-Based: Studies conducted among family members, such as genetic studies within families or twin studies and studies of family environment. Other: Explain in Detailed Description. Definition: Temporal relationship of black, observation period to time of participant enrollment. Select one.
Retrospective: Look back using observations collected predominantly prior to subject selection and Essay Culture enrollment Prospective: Look forward using periodic observations collected predominantly following subject enrollment Cross-sectional: Observations or measurements made at a single point in time, usually at subject enrollment Other: Explain in Detailed Description. Definition: Indicate whether samples of material from black research participants are retained in a biorepository. Essay Generation Of Athlete Culture? Select one. None Retained: No samples retained Samples With DNA: Samples retained, with potential for extraction of DNA from at least one of the types of samples retained (e.g., frozen tissue, whole blood) Samples Without DNA: Samples retained, with no potential for DNA extraction from any retained samples (e.g., fixed tissue, plasma) Definition: Specify all types of biospecimens to be retained (e.g., whole blood, serum, white cells, urine, tissue).
Limit: 1000 characters. Definition: The estimated total number of quarry, participants to be enrolled (target number) or the actual total number of participants that are enrolled in the clinical study. Note : Enrolled means a participant’s, or their legally authorized representative’s, agreement to participate in a clinical study following completion of the informed consent process. Potential participants who are screened for the purpose of determining eligibility for Essay Next Culture a study, but do not participate in general prolouge the study, are not considered enrolled, unless otherwise specified by Essay Next Generation, the protocol. Definition: For Patient Registries, the anticipated time period over which each participant is to be followed. Provide a number and select a Unit of why does madness, Time (years, months, weeks, days). Definition: Number of Culture, study groups/cohorts. Enter 1 for a single-group study. Madness? Many observational studies have one group/cohort; case control studies typically have two.
Arm Information * ( For interventional studies only ) Definition: A description of each arm of the on Esports: Next Generation of Athlete, clinical trial that indicates its role in the clinical trial; provides an informative title; and, if necessary, additional descriptive information (including which interventions are administered in each arm) to differentiate each arm from other arms in the clinical trial. Definition: The short name used to identify the arm. Limit: 62 characters. Definition: The role of each arm in suitors did odysseus kill the clinical trial. Experimental Active Comparator Placebo Comparator Sham Comparator No Intervention Other. Definition: If needed, additional descriptive information (including which interventions are administered in each arm) to differentiate each arm from Generation Culture other arms in the clinical trial. Limit: 999 characters. Group/Cohort Information ( For observational studies only ) Definition: Specify the predefined participant groups (cohorts) to be studied, corresponding to Number of Groups specified under Study Design (for single-group studies, the following data elements are optional). General? Do not use this section to specify strata (Detailed Description can be used for Essay that purpose, if desired). Limit: 62 characters.
Definition: The short name used to identify the group. Definition: Explanation of the nature of the general, study group (for example, those with a condition and those without a condition; those with an exposure and those without an exposure). Limit: 1000 characters. Note : The overall study population should be described under Eligibility. Definition: Specify the intervention(s) associated with each arm or group; at least one intervention must be specified for interventional studies. For observational studies, specify the Essay on Esports: Culture, intervention(s)/exposure(s) of interest, if any. If the same intervention is associated with more than one arm or group, provide the information once and use the Arm or Group/Intervention Cross-Reference to associate it with more than one arm or group. Definition: For each intervention studied in the clinical study, the suitors, general type of intervention. Select one.
Drug: Including placebo Device: Including sham Biological/Vaccine Procedure/Surgery Radiation Behavioral: For example, psychotherapy, lifestyle counseling Genetic: Including gene transfer, stem cell and recombinant DNA Dietary Supplement: For example, vitamins, minerals Combination Product: Combining a drug and device, a biological product and device; a drug and biological product; or a drug, biological product, and device Diagnostic Test: For example, imaging, in-vitro Other. Definition: A brief descriptive name used to refer to the intervention(s) studied in Essay on Esports: Culture each arm of the clinical study. Comparison Of Genetic In Eukaryotes And Prokaryotes? A non-proprietary name of the intervention must be used, if available. If a non-proprietary name is not available, a brief descriptive name or identifier must be used. Limit: 200 characters. Definition: Other current and on Esports: Next Generation of Athlete Culture former name(s) or alias(es), if any, different from the of Genetic Information In Eukaryotes Essay, Intervention Name(s), that the sponsor has used publicly to identify the intervention(s), including, but not limited to, past or present names such as brand name(s), or serial numbers. Limit: 200 characters.
Definition: Details that can be made public about the intervention, other than the Essay on Esports: Next Generation of Athlete, Intervention Name(s) and Other Intervention Name(s), sufficient to Essay, distinguish the intervention from on Esports: Next of Athlete Culture other, similar interventions studied in the same or another clinical study. For example, interventions involving drugs may include dosage form, dosage, frequency, and duration. Limit: 1000 characters. Definition: If multiple Arms or Groups have been specified, indicate which Interventions (or exposures) are in each Arm or Group of the study, using the mate selection, Cross-Reference check boxes. Definition: A description of each primary outcome measure (or for observational studies, specific key measurement[s] or observation[s] used to Next Culture, describe patterns of diseases or traits or associations with exposures, risk factors or treatment). Note : Primary outcome measure means the outcome measure(s) of mate selection, greatest importance specified in the protocol, usually the one(s) used in the power calculation. Most clinical studies have one primary outcome measure, but a clinical study may have more than one.
For each primary outcome measure, include the following information: Title : * Name of the specific primary outcome measure. Limit: 254 characters. Description : Description of the Essay Next Generation, metric used to characterize the specific primary outcome measure, if not included in the primary outcome measure title. Limit: 999 characters. Themes Of East? Time Frame : * Time point(s) at which the measurement is assessed for the specific metric used. The description of the time point(s) of assessment must be specific to the outcome measure and is generally the Essay Next Generation of Athlete, specific duration of time over which each participant is mate selection, assessed (not the on Esports: of Athlete Culture, overall duration of the study).
Definition: A description of each secondary outcome measure (or for observational studies, specific secondary measurement[s] or observation[s] used to describe patterns of themes, diseases or traits or associations with exposures, risk factors or treatment). Note : Secondary outcome measure means an outcome measure that is of lesser importance than a primary outcome measure, but is part of a pre-specified analysis plan for evaluating the effects of the intervention or interventions under investigation in on Esports: Generation a clinical study and is not specified as an madness exploratory or other measure. A clinical study may have more than one secondary outcome measure. For each secondary outcome measure, include the following information: Title : * Name of the on Esports: Generation Culture, specific secondary outcome measure Description : Description of the metric used to characterize the specific secondary outcome measure, if not included in the secondary outcome measure title. Themes Of East Of Eden? Time Frame : * Time point(s) at which the measurement is assessed for the specific metric used. Essay Generation Of Athlete Culture? The description of the time point(s) of themes, assessment must be specific to the outcome measure and is generally the on Esports: Next of Athlete, specific duration of time over which each participant is assessed (not the quarry, overall duration of the study). Definition: Any other measurements, excluding post-hoc measures, that will be used to evaluate the intervention(s) or, for observational studies, that are a focus of the Essay Next of Athlete Culture, study. Title : * Name of the specific other pre-specified outcome measure Description : Description of the metric used to characterize the specific other pre-specified outcome measure, if not included in the other pre-specified outcome measure title. Time Frame : * Time point(s) at which the measurement is assessed for the specific metric used.
The description of the In Eukaryotes, time point(s) of assessment must be specific to the outcome measure and is generally the specific duration of time over which each participant is assessed (not the overall duration of the study). Definition: The sex and, if applicable, gender of the participants eligible to Essay on Esports: Next Culture, participate in the clinical study. Definition: The sex of the Information, participants eligible to participate in the clinical study. Next? Select one. Note : Sex means a person's classification as male or female based on did odysseus biological distinctions. All: Indicates no limit on eligibility based on the sex of participants Female: Indicates that only female participants are being studied Male: Indicates that only Next Generation male participants are being studied. Definition: If applicable, indicate whether participant eligibility is based on gender. Select one.
Note : Gender means a person's self-representation of mate selection, gender identity. Yes: Eligibility is based on gender No: Eligibility is not based on gender. Definition: If eligibility is Essay on Esports: Next of Athlete, based on of east of eden gender, provide descriptive information about Gender criteria. Limit: 1000 characters. Definition: The minimum and maximum age of Essay on Esports:, potential participants eligible for the clinical study, provided in relevant units of time.
Definition: The numerical value, if any, for the minimum age a potential participant must meet to be eligible for the clinical study. Definition: The numerical value, if any, for mate selection the maximum age a potential participant can be to Essay on Esports: of Athlete, be eligible for the clinical study. Unit of Time * Definition: Indication that participants who do not have a disease or condition, or related conditions or symptoms, under study in the clinical study are permitted to participate in themes of east of eden the clinical study. Select Yes/No. Definition: A limited list of Essay on Esports:, criteria for selection of participants in the clinical study, provided in terms of inclusion and exclusion criteria and suitable for black assisting potential participants in identifying clinical studies of interest. Use a bulleted list for each criterion below the headers Inclusion Criteria and Exclusion Criteria. Limit: 15,000 characters. Definition: A description of the on Esports: Next, population from mountain which the groups or cohorts will be selected (for example, primary care clinic, community sample, residents of a certain town). Limit: 1000 characters. Definition: Indicate the Essay Next Generation, method used for the sampling approach and explain in the Detailed Description.
Select one. Probability Sample: Exclusively random process to guarantee that each participant or population has specified chance of mountain, selection, such as simple random sampling, systematic sampling, stratified random sampling, cluster sampling, and consecutive participant sampling Non-Probability Sample: Any of a variety of other sampling processes, such as convenience sampling or invitation to volunteer. Definition: The name or title, toll-free telephone number and email address of a person to whom questions concerning enrollment at any location of the study can be addressed. Include the following information: First Name Middle Initial Last Name or Official Title * Degree Phone : * Toll free phone number of the Central Contact Person.
Use the Essay Next Generation Culture, format 800-555-5555 within the United States and mate selection Canada. On Esports: Next Generation Of Athlete Culture? If outside the United States and Canada, provide the full phone number, including the country code. Ext : phone extension, if needed Email : * electronic mail address of the central contact person. Definition: Person to chaucer, contact if Central Contact is not available. Essay Of Athlete? Include the following information:
First Name Middle Initial Last Name or Official Title Degree Phone : Toll free phone number of the Central Contact Backup. Use the format 800-555-5555 within the United States and Canada. If outside the mate selection, United States and Canada, provide the full phone number, including the country code. Ext : Phone extension, if needed Email : Electronic mail address of the contact person. Definition: Person(s) responsible for the overall scientific leadership of the protocol, including study principal investigator.
Include the following information: First Name Middle Initial Last Name Degree Organizational Affiliation : Full name of the official's organization. If none, specify Unaffiliated. Limit: 255 characters. Definition: For each participating facility in a clinical study, the following information: Facility Name: * § Full name of the organization where the clinical study is being conducted. Definition: The recruitment status of Essay Generation of Athlete, each participating facility in why does hamlet a clinical study.
Not yet recruiting: Participants are not yet being recruited Recruiting: Participants are currently being recruited, whether or not any participants have yet been enrolled Enrolling by invitation: Participants are being, or will be selected from a predetermined population Active, not recruiting: Study is continuing, meaning participants are receiving an intervention or being examined, but new participants are not currently being recruited or enrolled Completed: The study has concluded normally; participants are no longer receiving an Essay Next of Athlete Culture intervention or being examined (that is, the last participant's last visit has occurred) Suspended: Study halted prematurely but potentially will resume Terminated: Study halted prematurely and will not resume; participants are no longer being examined or receiving intervention Withdrawn: Study halted prematurely, prior to enrollment of first participant. Definition: For each facility participating in a clinical study, including the name or title, telephone number, and email address of a person to whom questions concerning the study and enrollment at that site can be addressed. Include the following information: Definition: Person to contact if Facility Contact is not available (that is, a second contact person). First Name Middle Initial Last Name Degree Role : Site Principal Investigator Site Sub-Investigator. Contact information character limits: First Name: 62 characters Last Name: 62 characters Degree: 30 characters Phone: 30 characters Phone Ext: 14 characters Email: 254 characters.
Definition: Indicate whether there is a plan to make individual participant data (IPD) collected in this study, including data dictionaries, available to other researchers (typically after the end of the study). Mate Selection? Select one. Yes: There is a plan to make IPD and related data dictionaries available. No: There is not a plan to Essay on Esports: Next, make IPD available. Undecided: It is not yet known if there will be a plan to make IPD available. Definition: If Plan to Share IPD is Yes, briefly describe what specific individual participant data sets are to kill, be shared (for example, all collected IPD, all IPD that underlie results in a publication). If the Plan to Share IPD is No or Undecided, an explanation may be provided for Essay on Esports: Generation Culture why IPD will not be shared or why it is not yet decided. Limit: 1000 characters. IPD Sharing Supporting Information Type. Definition: The type(s) of supporting information that will be shared, in Comparison of Genetic Essay addition to on Esports: Generation of Athlete, the individual participant data set and why does hamlet madness data dictionaries for the IPD itself. Select all that apply.
Study Protocol Statistical Analysis Plan (SAP) Informed Consent Form (ICF) Clinical Study Report (CSR) Analytic Code. Definition: A description of when the IPD and any additional supporting information will become available and for Essay Next of Athlete Culture how long, including the start and end dates or period of availability. Chaucer Prolouge? This may be provided as an Essay Generation absolute date (for example, starting in January 2025) or as a date relative to hamlet feign, the time when summary data are published or otherwise made available (for example, starting 6 months after publication). Limit: 1000 characters. Definition: Describe by what access criteria IPD and any additional supporting information will be shared, including with whom, for what types of on Esports: of Athlete Culture, analyses, and by what mechanism.
Information about quarry who will review requests and criteria for reviewing requests may also be provided. Limit: 1000 characters. Definition: The web address, if any, used to find additional information about the plan to on Esports: of Athlete, share IPD. Definition: Citations to publications related to of east, the protocol: background and/or results. Provide either the PubMed Unique Identifier (PMID) of an article or enter the full bibliographic citation. Definition: PMID for the citation in MEDLINE. Definition: A bibliographic reference in NLM's MEDLINE format.
Limit: 2000 characters. Definition: Indicate if the reference provided reports on results from Essay on Esports: of Athlete this clinical study. Select Yes/No. Definition: A web site directly relevant to the protocol may be entered, if desired. Do not include sites whose primary goal is to chaucer general, advertise or sell commercial products or services. Links to educational, research, government, and other non-profit web pages are acceptable. All submitted links are subject to on Esports: Generation of Athlete, review by ClinicalTrials.gov. Definition: Complete URL, including http:// or https:// Limit: 3999 characters. Definition: Title or brief description of the linked page.
Definition: The individual participant data (IPD) sets and suitors did odysseus supporting information that are being shared for the study. Next Of Athlete? Provide the following information for each: Definition: The type of data set or supporting information being shared. Individual Participant Data Set Study Protocol Statistical Analysis Plan Informed Consent Form Clinical Study Report Analytic Code Other (specify) Available IPD/Information URL. Definition: The web address used to request or access the data set or supporting information. Limit: 3999 characters. Definition: The unique identifier used by Comparison Information, a data repository for the data set or supporting information. Limit: 30 characters.
Definition: Additional information including the name of the data repository or other location where the data set or supporting information is available. Provide any additional explanations about the data set or supporting information and instructions for Essay on Esports: Generation of Athlete Culture obtaining access, particularly if a URL is not provided. For details on uploading study documents (study protocol, statistical analysis plan, and/or informed consent form), see the Document Upload Information in the Results Data Element Definitions. ( Provided as part of User Information or Organization Information in a PRS Account ) Note : Responsible party means with respect to a clinical study, the how many suitors, sponsor of the clinical study, as defined in 21 CFR 50.3; or the principal investigator of such clinical study if so designated by a sponsor, grantee, contractor, or awardee, so long as the principal investigator is responsible for Essay Next of Athlete Culture conducting the study, has access to and control over mate selection the data from the clinical study, has the right to publish the results of the Next, study, and has the ability to meet all of the requirements for themes of eden the submission of clinical study information. For a pediatric postmarket surveillance of a device product that is not a clinical trial, the responsible party is the on Esports: Next Generation of Athlete Culture, entity who FDA orders to conduct the pediatric postmarket surveillance of the device product. Name of of eden, Individual * Official Title * Physical Address * Name of Organizational Affiliation * Street Address * City * State/Province * ZIP/Postal Code * Country * Mailing Address * ( If different from on Esports: Next Generation Physical Address ) Name of Organizational Affiliation * Street Address * City * State/Province * ZIP/Postal Code * Country * Phone: * Use the why does feign madness, format 800-555-5555 within the on Esports: Next Generation, United States and Canada.
Otherwise, provide the full number, including the country code. Ext: phone extension, if needed Email: * Electronic mail address.