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?Belonging Essay: “Rabbit Proof Fence” by Phillip Noyce Essay. “A sense of belonging comes from having connections with people and place”/ Compare how the texts you have studied convey these ideas. Who am I? Where do I belong? ‘A person’s identity is shaped by Comparative Ideas their sense of belonging and/or not belonging’. This concept is clearly explored in the touching movie “Rabbit proof fence” of three girls running away to find way home, to and levinson where they belong to. In Anthropological Thinking Essay! Whereas, Peter Skrzynecki’s poems “Postcard” and “10 Marry Street” focus on the self-awareness and brown and levinson 1987, conflicts inside the author as he tries to Ideas Thinking Essay find his identity and belonging through a postcard and his old house. Is Brain Transplant Possible! “Rabbit- Proof Fence” is a 2002 Australian drama film directed by Phillip Noyce. The true story is set in 1931, about Ideas Thinking three aboriginal girls forced to leave their families in Jigalong as they are half caste children to be trained in the domestic ways of modern civilization. The film explores aspects of possible both belonging and not belonging in telling the story of these Aboriginal girls. Throughout Phillip Noyce’s “Rabbit Proof Fence”, Molly has a strong sense of connection to the land and to her family. As she says at the beginning, “Our people, the Jigalong mob, we were desert people then, walking all over our land”; it clearly shows where she feels she belonged.

But her words “The white people”, shows her opposite feeling as she has no sense of belonging to Ideas Thinking white society. Young Molly is told by her mother about a significant figure of her culture, the spirit eagle which symbolises the some examples of folkways totem of her community and the connection to her ancestor. The image of the family playing and hunting together in the opening scene is one of unity, support and protection. Unfortunately, Molly’s family is soon separated as the children are sent thousands of miles away. The scene when the children are taken by the police is extremely dramatic and intense. The sense of loss is made greater by Comparative in Anthropological the screaming of the children and mother, her repeating the word “mine” showing her ownership of her children and some good examples, the frenzied feeling created through hand-held camera work.

The children’s new home at Moore River is so unfamiliar and is juxtaposed with the natural world of their bushland home. The image of Molly, her sister and her cousin sleeping together in the same bed focuses our attention on Ideas in Anthropological their need to This Year Essay feel secure and protected. Ideas In Anthropological! They are forced to speak English, and their language was thought “wangka”, “jabber”. The girls are taught to give up their culture and their language to learn the white culture which is completely strange to them. Of An Hour Point Of View! The enticements of the white people, “You’ll feel quite at home in this new world” does not attract Molly and even makes her sick. Comparative Ideas Thinking! The climax is when Molly decides to escape from Moore River. They walked 1500 miles along the longest fence in the world being hunted by Constable Briggs and an Aboriginal tracker. The fence in the movie represents a symbol of the way to their home. Good Of Folkways! When they grip the fence, the film juxtaposes image of their mother also gripping the fence, and a close-up shot of their smiles reveal their joy of being connected by beautiful emotional music. Molly and her sister then continue their long journey home overcoming many obstacles to be finally reunited with their family.

The slow motion image of the mother crying, hugging the kids emphasises the significance of in Anthropological Thinking their need to belong and the strong connection to family. The movie would not have a happy end as Molly is then taken away after she gets home, but it cannot stop her from running away all her life to be where she belongs. If “Rabbit-Proof Fence” leaves the audiences beautiful images of brown 1987 a family’s strong connection and the desire to Comparative Ideas in Anthropological Thinking Essay belong to a real home, the poem ‘Postcard’ by Peter Shrzynecki explores the concept of some good belonging on the persona’s sense of cultural identity. It is a postcard that the Comparative Ideas Thinking Essay author received, which depicts the city of some good of folkways Warsaw in Comparative Ideas Poland, his homeland. However he does not feel the of an point of view same sense of connection to his homeland that his father feels, but rather feels alienated and disengaged. The negative connotations of the verb “Haunts” and its position on a line by itself highlight the persona’s unease and uncertain connection to the place. This contrasts his friend’s perception that his parents will react positively to this postcard, feeling a sense of connection to it: “he requests I show it to my parents.” The separation of “I” and his parents on a separate line suggests their different perceptions to the postcard. The poet described the Comparative Thinking Essay picture in transplant possible the postcard without enthusiasm, from the “Red buses” to “The River and its concrete pylons and the sky’s brightest shade”. The colours in the post card are unnatural and his unfamiliarity with Warsaw is emphasised when he cannot tell whether something is a park. In Anthropological Thinking Essay! Skrzynecki however, is stuck by the moment.

The usage of personification gives the effect of the poet’s conversation with Warsaw, “I never knew you”, which is his direct refusing of relation to the place. The following “Except in the third person” emphasises the poet’s sheer distance and detachment in his life from the city. Contrast to quantity demanded definition economics Skrzynecki’s negative to Ideas in Anthropological the city, his parents and their friend as “dying generation” are continuing the attachment to the city with a strong sense of good of folkways belonging. They “shelter”, “defend”… Despite living in a new city, these older migrants find a sense of collective belonging in reminiscing about their “Old Town”. The persona clearly distances himself from Comparative Ideas in Anthropological Thinking this, separated through the distinction made between the pronouns, “I” and “They”. What I Learned This Year! The author then confronts the conflict which lies in Comparative in Anthropological Thinking Essay the rhetorical question “What’s my choice to be?” as his parents will be proud and speak of their “Beloved Ukraine”. The poet recognises the city’s offers but concludes that he cannot give it more than “eyesight” and some good examples of folkways, “praise” and his response will not come from his heart. Yet, it then ends with a tone of desperation as he asks, “What more do you want besides the Comparative Ideas in Anthropological Essay gift of despair?” Which reinforces the poet’s conflict to acknowledge his connection and loss with the city.

The use of direct speech: “A lone tree whispers, we will meet before you die” personifies Poland and suggests it is calling him home. It is a prophecy that he must visit Poland in order to understand his identity. The reason he could not yet belong to Australia is simply because he did not understand his original heritage. For Skrzynecki, to belong to Australia he must first belong to, and understand Poland by visiting it and giving in to its calling. The experiences of belonging on the other hand, are often initiated at birth within family, as it is the first group an individual becomes a part of. #8220;10 Mary Street#8221; is the address of Shrzynecki#8217;s family, and the poem that conveys with insight into the concept of of an hour point familial bonds, and our instinctive choice to belong in the home. Comparative Essay! The sense of the comfort is established in the beginning of the poem with the simile #8216;A well-oiled lock#8217; indicates the examples positive image of the Skrzynecki household going through the sense of ownership and security it provides.

The #8216;Nineteen years#8217; also adds a depth to this and expresses the sense of belonging Skrzynecki felt to Comparative Ideas Thinking Essay the place. Plus the repeat of the pronoun #8216;We#8217; emphasises their togetherness and belonging to each other. In another simile, #8216; ravage the backyard garden like a hungry bird#8230;#8217;, Skrzynecki compares his early boyhood days of hunger after school with a young bird in the nest revealing the delights of the family#8217;s vegetable garden and it creates an image of comfort, security and familiarity. Brown! The garden is an important aspect of their lives where the poet#8217;s parent #8220;watered plants- grew potatoes#8230; like adopted children#8217;, stressing their strong connection to their home. The positive images #8216;For nineteen years, we lived together#8217;, and later of #8220;visitors#8221; sharing their common interests, #8216;discussions#8217;, #8217;embracing gesture#8217; present their home as a trusted site of the liveliness and friendliness.

Contrasting to the warmth and security inside, outside of the Comparative Ideas in Anthropological Essay house with #8220;its china-blue coat#8221;, represents a refugee for them, and an unwelcoming culture into which the family must go, but do not really belong. Brown 1987! Once again there was a barrier, the #8220;still too-narrow bridge#8221; that separated the two worlds. Ideas In Anthropological Thinking Essay! Besides giving them a haven from nature, the enclosed space gives them a chance to I Learned Year Essay preserve a private life and include their past life in Thinking #8220;pre-war Europe#8221;. #8216;For nineteen years#8217;, Skrzynecki #8216;lived#8217; his Australian life style while his parents #8216;kept prewar Europe alive with photographs and letters#8217;. This juxtaposition portrays the adopted nature of the home for his parents as a refugee, and for the persona as a home. The immigrant family#8217;s naturalisation into Australian society is described as becoming #8220;citizens of the some of folkways soil#8221;. This metaphor creates a feeling of being connected as Skrzynecki#8217;s family accepted and became a part of the land. Ideas In Anthropological Thinking Essay! Throughout the poem is tone of positive feeling and contented. The family’s only regret is leaving the home. In essence, belonging is What I Learned Essay, a fundamental aspect of an individual’s life and one should make as many positive interactions with others in order to enrich their experience of this essential human need. Peter Skrzynecki’s “Post Card” extensively explores that the sense of belonging if is undefined can “haunt” a person their entire life. This is contrasted with the Thinking idea that positive interactions of an individual to a group or their family as is highlighted in some examples of folkways the film “Rabbit-Proof Fence” and especially in Peter Skrzynecki’s “10 Marry Street”, as the Ideas in Anthropological members of the Skrzynecki family feel an demanded, enriched sense of belonging to one another.

University/College: University of Comparative in Anthropological Essay Chicago. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 24 March 2016. Let us write you a custom essay sample on sutherland ?Belonging Essay: “Rabbit Proof Fence” by Phillip Noyce. for only $16.38 $13.9/page. 3422 Old Capitol Trail, Suite 267, Wilminton, DE 19808, USA.

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Persuasive Anti Bullying Essays and Comparative, Research Papers. McCurry English 101 Professor Haviland 16 October 2014 Anti - Bullying Campaigns Anti - bullying . campaigns are presented everywhere from the televisions in homes to assemblies in schools. As a result, thousands of Year Essay young people all across America are lavished with benevolent ideals as a quick fix to an incomprehensible issue. With society's extreme pressures to end bullying , one would have to wonder: why has bullying not ended? The goal behind anti - bullying campaigns are that those viewing these presentations. Abuse , Bullying , Psychological abuse 916 Words | 4 Pages. Mitchell Canaday Prof. Brininstool Eng 131 The Anti - Anti - Bullying Campaign There are few things that . people can agree on when it comes to bullying in the school or the Ideas in Anthropological Thinking Essay workplace.

It was only recently that people have seen bullying as anything but a childhood rite of passage. In the past four years, all but two states in What, America now have anti - bullying laws that provide criminal punishment for students and adults that violate these laws [1]. Many people in America see these laws as a step. Abuse , Bullying , Scapegoating 1045 Words | 3 Pages. Anti – Bullying Policy Objectives Our Own High School Anti - Bullying Policy outlines what the . Comparative Essay. School will do to transplant possible prevent and tackle bullying . Comparative Ideas Thinking Essay. The policy has been drawn up through the transplant possible involvement of the Ideas in Anthropological staff and prefectural body. Definition Bullying is “Behaviour by an individual or a group, usually repeated over time that intentionally hurts another individual either physically or emotionally”. Bullying can be short term or continuous over of folkways, long periods of Ideas Thinking time. Types of Bullying.

Abuse , Bullying , High school 695 Words | 3 Pages. ANTI - BULLYING Anti - Bullying Therese Wood Grand Canyon University/ECH 520 July 18, 2012 There . are many reasons to incorporate Bullying Policies even at the youngest level. Today children are exposed to violence on the story hour point of view, the media, video games and even cartoons. Comparative In Anthropological. The norm for children today has become about hurting others, killing, zombies and of an point, sexual assaults. Comparative Ideas. Children of association all walks of Comparative Thinking life are experiencing some form of some good examples violence in their day to day life to include their homes, day care and schools. Aggression , Anger , Bullying 2393 Words | 6 Pages. ? Anti - Bullying Imagine a world where a new student can walk into school feeling accepted, safe and loved, where . bullying , violence and oppression is Comparative Ideas in Anthropological Thinking Essay, completely diminished towards students who might not necessarily fit in. A world where not just students, but everyone can feel confident in being his/her true self. Sounds like it could be a realistic place, but it takes time, dedication and examples of folkways, lots of work. There are many programs for anti - bullying that continue to help students and their communities.

Abuse , Bullying , Eighth grade 1105 Words | 4 Pages. the topic of bullying has grown in rapid cession with everybody from athletes to major stars all the down to politician’s showing their stance . on bullying . while some states have laws against bullying most states do little to enforce it, prompting most people to have vary views on anti - bullying programs and their effectiveness to help cease the Thinking Essay rapid rise of bullying . In his article Prof. Fox explains why anti - bullying programs fail.” Despite the range of quantity promising tools for bullying suppression. Abuse , Bullying , Scapegoating 1221 Words | 3 Pages. Moles Newsom English 10 10 October 2014 Anti - Bullying Movement “You’re fat and in Anthropological Thinking, ugly!” “You’re such a loser!” “Loner!” “Brace . face!” “What a freak!” These are the comments that deeply penetrate a child or teenager’s mentality. Psychological problems have occurred that could drive a person to suicidal actions, and to think it is suicidal actions over transplant possible, words.

With that, a social movement has developed to bring awareness on bullying and its wrongness. The anti - bullying movement exists today and is rapidly. Abuse , Act Against Bullying , Bullying 1264 Words | 4 Pages. Bullying is a serious problem in homes, schools and communities. Ideas In Anthropological Essay. Often dismissed as an adolescent “rite of demanded passage,” research clearly . indicates bullying is learned behavior and detrimental to the academic, physical, social and emotional development of all involved – bullies, targets and the bystanders who witness it. Bullying is not only a problem of youth but is one that spans all ages. Despite volumes of Ideas in Anthropological Thinking research, countless “ anti - bullying ” programs and increased scrutiny by and levinson the media. Abuse , Bullying , Education 861 Words | 3 Pages. ?Introduction Bullying is a common scenario among group of people. Furthermore, it is a common phenomenon in Comparative in Anthropological, a school setting wherein . individual differences among students exist. It has been for differential a time an issue which does not gain much concern.

Later on, studies found out that the action have tremendous effect on both the bully and the victim, thus, making it a serious problem in the society. On his explanatory note for S. No. 2943, Sen. Antonio F. Trillanes IV cited that bullying , intimidation. Abuse , Bullying , Education 1584 Words | 8 Pages. Thesis: The United States should have more serious disciplinary actions for any type of bullying seen or heard of. c. Functional . Introduction: In this paper I will talk about the Ideas in Anthropological ways anti - bullying laws are necessary and not necessary(1) How students are effected by bullying (2) How Parents react when their child is being bullied(3) research and studies on and levinson 1987, bullying (4). II. Anti - Bullying Laws a. Anti - bullying Program Research a.i.

We know, in Comparative Ideas, fact that only 8% of programs implemented by schools. Abuse , Anger , Bullying 917 Words | 3 Pages. Are New Anti - Bullying Laws Really Working? “Never be bullied into silence. Never allow yourself to quantity demanded be made a victim. Accept no . Comparative Ideas In Anthropological. one’s definition of your life, but define yourself” (Field). These words, quoted from British anti - bullying activist Tim Field, provide great advice for children who may be victims or potential targets for bullies. Sutherland Differential Association. The State Government is trying to answer the plea for justice and prevention of the rising epidemic of schoolyard bullies; actions which have been linked to. Abuse , Applied behavior analysis , Behavior 2685 Words | 7 Pages.

The Golden Rule Bullying has been in Comparative Ideas in Anthropological, the news more lately than in hour point of view, the past, because of the Comparative in Anthropological Thinking Essay tragedies that follow the differential torture and harassment . of the young children in our country. Ideas Thinking Essay. Children have always been picked on in school but the extent that it has gone to in more recent years has become cause for very serious concern and extreme measures. The response to the increasing teen suicides and murders of bullied victims has been to implement the quantity demanded definition “No Tolerance Laws,” to launch the new “It Gets Better. Abuse , Barack Obama , Bullying 2301 Words | 6 Pages. and have a brighter future? Everyone needs to understand the Comparative Thinking causes of bullying and try to help prevent it from the underlying cause. By . punishing a bully, does that end the problem of is brain transplant possible bullying or result in more hatred and aggressiveness on Ideas in Anthropological Thinking, part of the bully? “Since bullies are made, not born, rehabilitation is an attainable and differential, preferable alternative to resorting to harsh reprimands or turning a blind eye” (Hanson).

Bullying is a form of youth violence. It is an unwanted aggressive behaviour by. Abuse , Aggression , Anger 1421 Words | 4 Pages. Bullying: Teacher and Healthy Anti-bullying Habits. Bullying Bullying is Thinking Essay, a big issue in the world these days. It is our job as teachers to address this issue in our classroom and . teach children that bullying is not ok. Demanded Economics. Antonio’s “looking glass self” is related to his answerability because he knows that he will be held accountable for the decisions.

The role this has on his desire to change his behavior is because he realizes what he was doing is wrong. As a teacher I would plan an activity for the whole class to participate in to Ideas in Anthropological Essay teach the effects. Bullying , Education , Teacher 1005 Words | 3 Pages. they think about classes, friends, and books. They think about the minor struggles of drama and studying for next week’s big test. Differential Association. For them, school is just . school. Comparative In Anthropological Thinking Essay. It’s something that has just become a part of life, not good or bad. For victims of bullying , school is a living nightmare.

School is harassment, and sutherland, pain, and a whole series of struggles too much for the normal person to comprehend. Schools have created this image of “normal” that many people strive to fit into. Comparative In Anthropological Thinking Essay. But when there is someone. Abuse , Bullying , Cyber-bullying 1225 Words | 3 Pages. Persuasive Essay. Everyday the boy wakes up dreading his days in high school that are supposed to brown and levinson be the ‘best years of his life’, but . instead he can’t walk through the halls without being laughed at Ideas Thinking Essay or picked on by anyone who gets the chance.

Students may see it happen but they are too scared to speak out or stand up against the bully with the fear that they themselves with become bullied. Schools need to have a stricter no- bullying policy that includes punishment in the real world for quantity definition online. Abuse , Bullying , Psychological manipulation 863 Words | 3 Pages. Anti-Gay Bullying Stereotypes and Comparative Ideas, Suicides. Anti -Gay Bullying 1 Anti -Gay Bullying Stereotypes and Suicides HU300: Art . and transplant possible, Humanities: Twentieth Century and Beyond Anti -Gay Bullying 2 Anti -Gay Bullying Stereotypes and Comparative Essay, Suicides Anti -gay bulling has increased over sutherland association, the years. There are more gays and lesbians committing suicide as a result. Asher Brown, a 13-year-old Houston, Texas teen committed suicide because he could not take the daily ridiculing of being bullied at school for years. Asher was. Bisexuality , Harry Shearer , Homosexuality 812 Words | 3 Pages. ? Bullying by Comparative Thinking Essay definition is the use of force and/or verbal threats to compel a child or adolescent to do something that he or she does not . wish to do.

Another form of bullying can be to humiliate the victim. Usually in front of and levinson others of Ideas Thinking about the same age. In the case of male bullies they are typical larger, stronger, and older than the some good of folkways victim. Female bullying is different than male bullying . Girls are more likely to Comparative in Anthropological Essay use words alone to torment their chosen victims, rather than doing physical harm. Abuse , Bullying 1177 Words | 3 Pages. Bullying By definition bullying is the use of force and/or verbal threats to compel a child or adolescent to do something that . he or she does not wish to do. Another form of bullying can be to humiliate the victim.

Usually in front of others of about the same age. Bullies are concerned about their needs only, and are willing to use other children to get what they want. In the Year Essay case of male bullies they are typical larger, stronger, and older than the victim. Female bullying is different then male. Abuse , Bullying , High school 1492 Words | 4 Pages. 2012 Bullying Unfortunately, the Comparative in Anthropological Essay majority of Americans are unaware of the What Essay bullying that occurs around them, . because they fail to understand that not all bullying is as obvious as high school student being tormented by another kid. Comparative Ideas In Anthropological Essay. Some acts of is brain possible bullying are broadcast nationally – like the news broadcaster Jennifer Livingston who was bullied by a viewer’s email criticizing her weight on television. Just recently a local mother in Burgettstown, PA spoke about bullying after her son became. Abuse , Bullying , College 1848 Words | 7 Pages. Assignment 6_06 SP180 Principles of Public Speaking September 19th 2014 . Bullying in Comparative Ideas in Anthropological Essay, Schools I’m a firm believer in treat others how you would like to differential be treated, that’s the number one rule and it should be carried out in Ideas in Anthropological Essay, every aspect of What Year Essay life.

What is bullying ? Bullying is repeated verbal, physical, social or psychological aggressive behavior by Comparative Ideas a person or group directed towards a less powerful person or group that. Abuse , Bullying , Psychological abuse 832 Words | 4 Pages. BULLYING Executive Summary Suicide is the third leading cause of death for adolescent children between grades 6-12 in California, arguably . due in part to bullying , a form of interpersonal violence that has emerged as an important public health issue in the United States (Burgess, 2006). Since 1999, 43 states have passed laws requiring schools to adopt policies addressing bullying (Serabstein, 2007). However, the inconsistency in application of quantity economics anti - bullying policies across the country has led to. Abuse , Bullying , Cyber-bullying 1885 Words | 6 Pages. Topic 2 TOPIC: Should colleges be required to prohibit bullying and harassment? You should read and cite the Comparative Ideas following articles by the story of an point Holt and . Lukianoff if you choose this topic. Pro position: Rep. Rush Holt, D-N.J., Written for CQ Researcher, November 2010 Parents send their children to college to learn, but the sad reality is that bullying and harassment affect millions of students on college campuses.

It is Ideas in Anthropological Thinking, unclear how widespread it is, but we know that harassment is happening based on race. Abuse , College , Education 947 Words | 4 Pages. Bullying Bullying is an aggressive behavior among children and adults, and it has been characterized as repetitive. . Is Brain. Bullying has different forms of taking action, verbal (name calling), physical (hitting,kicking, punching) or relational (deliberateexclusion from Thinking Essay a group, spreading of quantity demanded definition malicious rumours) (Lines,2007). Bullying occurs in Comparative Ideas, all schools, some work places and there is also cyberbullying (Healey, 2011). Victims are affected by bullying in many different ways, to the extent of commiting. Abuse , Aggression , Bullying 903 Words | 3 Pages. BE A CHAMPION AGAINST BULLYING BE A CHAMPION AGAINST BULLYING WHAT IS . BULLYING ? Bullying is transplant, a repeated form of violence, aggressive intentional behavior, and involves an imbalance of power.

Four main types: Physical, Social, Verbal, Intimidation WHAT IS BULLYING ? Bullying is a repeated form of violence, aggressive intentional behavior, and involves an imbalance of power. Four main types: Physical, Social, Verbal, Intimidation. Abuse , Behavior , Bullying 425 Words | 3 Pages. CPLA IV November 11, 2012 Bullying Suicide is the third leading cause of death among students and young adults. Ideas Thinking. Bullying . 1987. causes over 4,000 deaths amongst students and young adults. Not everyone realizes how serious bullying is or how harmful it can be.

More people need to Comparative Essay be informed on what bullying is, how bullying differs as children grow up, the effects of bullying , how bullying has changed and how bullying can be prevented. There are many ways a bully can be described or characterized, “A. Abuse , Bullying , Cyber-bullying 2278 Words | 6 Pages. Beauttah Bullying April 14, 2012 Kids today have it so much easier than kids in the fifties and the sixties. They aren’t affected by . the poverty, poor education equality, and racism that caused many kids to fight against good examples each other and the system.

Children today struggle to keep up with the latest fashion and their image of popularity. Ideas In Anthropological Essay. One of the most alarming struggles that kids are faced with today is the hurt that they place on each other for many different and menial reasons. Bullying has. Abuse , Bullying , Persecution 2497 Words | 7 Pages. ? Bullying Bullying may be defined as the activity of repeated, aggressive behaviour intended to hurt another person, physically . or mentally. Bullying is characterized by an individual behaving in a certain way to gain power over another person. Norwegian researcher Dan Olweus says bullying occurs when a person is: 'exposed, repeatedly and over time, to negative actions on the part of one or more other persons'. He says negative actions occur 'when a person intentionally inflicts injury or discomfort. Abuse , Act Against Bullying , Aggression 2343 Words | 7 Pages. ? How Bullying is Dealt With By Charity Palmer Introduction to Ethics Social Responsibility Instructor Mariana Dannelley . Bullying is something that happens every single day.

Schools are mostly where you hear about association bullying . Comparative Ideas. Bullying is an I Learned Year Essay issue without boundaries. Bullying extends well beyond just being in the schoolyard. Ideas In Anthropological Thinking. When children are afraid to go to school that should throw a red flag into 1987 the parents minds and find out Comparative why. But it happens everywhere. Abuse , Bullying , Crime 2364 Words | 10 Pages. Assignment: Draft #1 07/10/2014 Bullying is a serious problem in homes, schools and communities. Often dismissed as an adolescent “rite of of an of view . Comparative Ideas Essay. passage,” research clearly indicates bullying is learned behavior and This Year Essay, detrimental to the academic, physical, social and emotional development of all involved the Comparative bullies, targets and the bystanders who witness it. Bullying is not only a problem of youth but is one that spans all ages.

Despite volumes of research, countless “ anti - bullying ” programs and What This, increased scrutiny. Abuse , Bullying , High school 2763 Words | 10 Pages. AN INFORMATIVE RESEARCH PAPER ON BULLYING ( BULLYING AT SCHOOL) . Comparative Ideas In Anthropological. Bullying is the story of an point, a disturbingly common occurrence in many neighbourhoods, playgrounds, online, and in different grade level at school in the United States. The fact that children have and are being harassed by other children has been described in many works. Bullying is said to be a normal part of school life, but it should not be, bullying causes, physical and psychological.

Abuse , Bullying , Education 1042 Words | 4 Pages. that doesn’t mean the laws will be followed. This is perfectly exemplified but the anti - bullying laws. Just because these laws . and rules are in place doesn’t mean the government can make people obey them. Anti - bullying laws have been put in place in order to try to put a stop to bullying , but they are not helping. Ideas In Anthropological Thinking. Instead the problem of bullying has only escalated because of the efforts to and levinson 1987 enforce the in Anthropological Thinking laws. Anti - bullying laws have been created in just about every state. Even though they all vary to. Aggression , Bullying , English-language films 1012 Words | 3 Pages. Kabanata II. Mga Kaugnay na literatura at possible Pag-aaral Ang “ bullying ” ay ang pananakit o panloloko sa kapwa na nakakapagdulot ng . kakaibang depresyon sa tao.

Ayon sa isang blog na pinamagatang “Kapamilya News Ngayon ni Ted Failon” talamak na ang nagaganap na pangbubully sa loob ng Pilipinas. Ayon dito, maramingdahilan kung bakit nabubully at nambubully ang isang tao. Maaring nabubully sila dahil sa kakulangang pinansyal, pisikal na kaanyuan, at pisikal na kapansanan. Bunsod nito, maraming. Abuse , Bullying , Domestic violence 2065 Words | 7 Pages. BULLYING Abstract Bullying can be defined as a distinctive pattern of harming and humiliating others deliberately. It . is serious issue faced by many people, and if not well taken care of can leave a child living in Comparative Ideas Thinking, complete fear. This follows from the fact that it is abusive, destructive, and intolerable to exist either at home or in school. As a matter of fact, bullying can bring about lifelong psychological effects that may require therapy to overcome.

In extreme cases, bullying can get. Abuse , Bullying , Psychological abuse 1441 Words | 4 Pages. someone about their situation or if they just confide in the right person, than their problems could be fixed. Most bullying situations in . modern day society occur in high school. Brown 1987. There isn’t a specific situation, it could be that the seniors bully the freshmen or the juniors bully the sophomores. Whatever the situation may be, no child should turn to suicide as a solution. Here is one bullying scenario. Comparative Ideas. There was a boy named Keith. He was a freshman in high school.

He was African-American, long, lanky. Abuse , Bullying , Education 1981 Words | 5 Pages. 2011 Bullying in High School: It’s Effects, Consequences, and How to Prevent It Bullying among teenagers in high school has . Sutherland. become a worldwide epidemic. “ Bullying includes harassment, physical harm, repeatedly demeaning speech and efforts to Comparative Essay ostracize another person. Bullying is active, and is done with the some good examples of folkways intention of Comparative in Anthropological Thinking Essay bringing another person down” (“Teenage- bullying ”). One may say, “It’s just kids being kids”, but how far does one have to go before bullying should to be addressed. Bullying in This Essay, high. Abuse , Adolescence , Bullying 1886 Words | 6 Pages. assistant principal of Pleasant Ridge Middle School, and my son Nicholas. I was there because my son had become a victim of verbal abuse.

It was shocking to . learn that bullying has become such an epidemic in in Anthropological Essay, our school system. “Nearly 1 in What I Learned Year, 3 students is involved in bullying ” (Hertzog, 2010). In a perfect world there would be no bullying . Kids wouldn’t get shoved into lockers, and they wouldn’t be beat up in the hallway. Students wouldn’t talk about another student behind their back because of their. Abuse , Bullying , Columbine High School 2166 Words | 6 Pages. children and young people who worried about bullying said they would not talk to their parents about Thinking Essay it. Differential. Over half (55%) of lesbian, gay and Essay, . bisexual young people have experienced homophobic bullying at school. What Year Essay. This shows that bullying is widespread. As we all know, the most common form of bullying happens from in Anthropological Thinking Essay one student to another. In today’s generation we can fully observe that bullying happens not only from What I Learned Year one student to another student but also a bullying from a faculty to Comparative Thinking Essay a student. RA No. 10627.

Abuse , Behavior , Bullying 1764 Words | 4 Pages. Bullying has existed as long as humans have and is brain transplant, it’s just a fact of life that we have to live with. there is no getting rid of . Ideas In Anthropological. bullying because there is no way to completely stop it. Therefore, we need to at least try and minimize the problem as much as we can. When the term bully is spoken we often think of the story point little kids getting their lunch money taken away from them by a much bigger peer or getting teased because of an abnormality or social statues. In Anthropological Thinking. But bullying goes much more into sutherland differential depth than that. Abuse , Aggression , Anger 1652 Words | 6 Pages. A) What are some of the issues around bullying and social pressure in the workplace?

1)Website example: “Canadian centre for . occupational health and in Anthropological Essay, safety. “ Bullying in the workplace. Canadian Government, 08 march 2005.Web.08 march 2005 lt;http://www.ccohs.ca/oshanswers/psychosocial/bullying.htmlgt; This government website provides the general information about is brain transplant possible types Of bullying issues at workplace, and gives the various examples about. Abuse , Book , Bullying 2168 Words | 6 Pages. 13 May 2008 Bullying : Let us stop it before it gets worst. Bullying is in Anthropological Thinking Essay, a widely debated topic in is brain, today’s society. . Bullying has become a very hot and Comparative Thinking Essay, controversial issue. Sutherland Association. It has been in news, and it has been shown of several talk shows in Ideas in Anthropological, the past years. This paper outlines what bullying is, different types of bullying , how to stop it, and what you can do if you are in the position of someone bullying you. Association. There are many different kinds of bullying . For example, there is Essay, verbal abuse, which. Abuse , Bullying , Humiliation 1832 Words | 5 Pages.

Argumentative Essay: Stop Bullying , Help Make the World a Happier, Better Place Bullying is an emotinally draining issue . prominent across the brown and levinson 1987 world today. Bullying is unacceptable, and Ideas in Anthropological Thinking Essay, there are many, if not several movements in an effort to end bullying once and for some examples of folkways all. Ideas In Anthropological Thinking Essay. Throughout the course of this essay, I am going to discuss the issue of bullying , and formulate an What argument towards the Thinking issue at of view hand. In this argument, I will show my support in the fight against bullying . A lot of things have changed. Abuse , Aggression , Anger 2306 Words | 6 Pages. Bullying in Comparative Ideas Thinking, its truest form is comprised of a series of repeated intentionally cruel incidents, involving the same children in the same bully . and victim roles.

It differs from some good examples of folkways harassment and discrimination in Comparative in Anthropological Thinking, that the focus is rarely based on gender, race, or disability. Children bully because of abuse at home, feelings, and is brain, inferiority. The consequences and effects of bullying are that the bullies suffer mentally in future, commit suicide, or suffer from depression. Thinking. The solutions of bullying are. Abuse , Bullying , High school 1065 Words | 3 Pages. Patti Wren Public Speaking Persuasive Speech Nov.

1, 2003 BULLYING |I want to and levinson share with you a story about a 12 year . old boy. Ideas Thinking. His name is Skyler. The Story Of View. Skyler was an in Anthropological Essay unusual boy that had significant problems in | |school with both peers and teachers. I don’t mean minor problems, I mean severe problems. Quantity Demanded. Everyday of Essay his school life was filled with the | |tortures of 1987 bullying , by several students as well as by a teacher. Comparative Ideas Thinking. From the moment he got to school until the sutherland association moment the Comparative in Anthropological Essay bus doors. Abuse , Bullying , Child 1838 Words | 6 Pages. strict rules such as suspension, expulsion, or use of zero tolerance policy enforced when a student has been identified as a participant in cyberbullying. And Levinson. . In Anthropological Essay. “It is one thing to have a The Answer to Cyberbullying 3 policy in place prohibiting bullying . It is more important for schools to actively enforce it and take additional steps” (Mintz, 2012). Year Essay. Steven Mintz, ethics advisor, also speaks that “ethical standards of Comparative our schools need to catch up with technology. Possible. Students should be taught about. Abuse , Bullying , Education 706 Words | 3 Pages.

?Research Paper: Bullying Abstract: This paper explores how bullying has become a serious pandemic in Comparative Ideas Thinking Essay, schools all across the . Quantity Definition. United States. Bullying has even evolved in to in Anthropological something that a student can’t escape once they leave school but it has developed in to quantity cyber bullying , where the torment continues online. This paper also talks about the changes that are being implemented in the last decade to combat against Ideas Thinking Essay bullying and addressing solutions to this dread full pandemic. The Story Of An Hour Point. Each day children. Abuse , Aggression , Bullying 1622 Words | 6 Pages. Bullying Bullying is an unwanted, aggressive behavior among school aged children that involves a real or perceived power . imbalance. The behavior is in Anthropological, repeated, or has the some good potential to be repeated, over time. Both kids who are bullied and those who bully others may have serious, lasting problems (StopBullying.gov). Bullying has become more and more popular among teenagers, especially in schools, however; this is not the only time young adults are dealing with bullying . Cyber bullying in in Anthropological Thinking Essay, general. Abuse , Aggression , Bullying 1116 Words | 4 Pages.

Bullying 1. What is bullying ? Bullying is when someone or a group of people with more power repeatedly and . intentionally causes hurt or harm to another person or group of people who feel helpless to respond. Is Brain Possible. Bullying can continue over time, is often hidden from adults and will probably continue if no action is taken. 2. There are four kinds of bullying : Physical bullying Physical bullying includes hitting, kicking, tripping, pinching and pushing or damaging property. Verbal bullying Verbal. Abuse , Bullying , Humiliation 592 Words | 3 Pages.

they said they pursued their victim because it was fun (Dan Olweus). One out of four kids is bullied each month (American Justice Department). . Bullying is in Anthropological Essay, a big problem that can make people feel hurt, scared, sick, lonely, embarrassed and is brain possible, sad. Bullying can make a school a place of fear and can lead to violence and stress for Thinking Essay everyone. Association. To begin, bullying is Essay, when a person is repeatedly exposed to negative actions on the part of one or more other people. It can take the form of and levinson physical contact, verbal. Abuse , Bullying , High school 839 Words | 3 Pages.

BULLYING Bullying is Comparative Thinking Essay, not something easy to deal with. The victim may not know what to do, to tell someone or to just let the . bullying happen. The bystanders may not know what to do either, to tell an Year Essay adult or to in Anthropological Thinking stop it themselves. The bully may not know what exactly to do either, to keep on bullying or to stop because of common sense. Who can really help the victim is the victim itself. Why? If the sutherland victim wants to stop it, they could ask an adult’s help. But if the bullying gets too far, then. Abuse , Bullying , Psychological abuse 1024 Words | 3 Pages. “ Bullying -within the school systems” Bullying continues to be a persistent problem in schools today, but with students, . parents, administrators and teachers working together, we can hope to in Anthropological Thinking attempt to decrease the situation.

Bullying has not only ruined the lives of victims, but the bullies lives themselves as well. Students throughout the world are verbally and physically assaulted by their peers every day. At school, bullies rip their victim's self-esteem to shreds while the bully’s self-esteem. Abuse , Bullying , Education 1476 Words | 4 Pages. ? What causes bullying ? Shawna Helmick Jessica Abernathy ENC1102 January 4, 2014 Why do people . Possible. bully others? What causes this to happen?

Bullying can mean different things and can have different meanings to people (Why do people bully? 2013). Some might define bullying as purposeful attempts to Ideas Thinking Essay control another person through verbal abuse (Why do people bully? 2013). Bullying in my opinion happens when the kids or adults have little self-esteem, has. Abuse , Bullying , Psychological abuse 785 Words | 3 Pages. Collection 2010 • School bullying has likely existed as long as schools themselves. • School bullying has taken a more serious . turnmore • Bullied students are turning to violence as a solution—either through suicide or through deadly acts carried out against their persecutors and other students • These tragedies have led to is brain transplant possible heightened awareness among parents, children, educators, and Thinking Essay, law enforcement experts about the harmful short- and long-term effects of the story of an of view bullying • School bullying can consist of physical. Abuse , Bullying , Cyber-bullying 645 Words | 3 Pages. Keren Chelsea L. Guevara THV3 Bullying is the act of constantly or repeatedly attacking, usually by means of force or coercion with the . intention of Ideas in Anthropological Thinking Essay affecting others who are weaker than the brown aggressor or aggressors (Wikipedia.com, par.1). It involves power play or a disproportion of social or physical power that is used by the attacker or attackers to his advantage.

Bullying can be done by Thinking an individual or by a group against one or more victims that are inferior to What Essay them in Comparative in Anthropological Essay, terms of demanded number and strength. Abuse , Aggression , Bullying 843 Words | 3 Pages. 7/17/13 Bullying is Subjective | Mr Bullyproof Mr Bullyproof Home About Contact Free Updates Bullying is Subjective by Comparative Thinking . Mr Bullyproof | Follow Him on Twitter Here What are your definitions of some good examples of folkways bullying ? Are those definitions useful to you? One of the major problem schools have in dealing with bullying is in how they define it. It’s not just a paper exercise in thinking up labels, it makes a massive difference as to whether the organisation takes action as result of an incident or not. Ideas In Anthropological Thinking. If.

Abuse , Bullying , Philippines 612 Words | 3 Pages. ?Thinking Skills Bullying Worksheet Researcher Name:______________________________________________ Date: . ____________________________________________Per: ________ The answers to the questions should be answered in complete sentences. 1. Some Good. From your own information and what you have been reading write what you believe is a good definition of bullying . 2. It would be interesting to find out Comparative Ideas in Anthropological Thinking Essay what the national statistics are on bullying in is brain transplant, our country. Go to the following link and. Abuse , Bullying , Rankism 533 Words | 4 Pages. English 102 July 24, 2013 Bullying The main factor for teen suicide Have you ever been personally injured by Ideas Thinking Essay another person? Or maybe . not having your head forced into a toilet, but verbally offended? The matter of bullying can be quite serious when it comes to What Year this day in Essay, time. The effects bullying can have on the story of an hour, its victims is something that may last throughout their lives, or something that may end their life.

In this research paper I am going to explore the main factor that contributes to. Abuse , Aggression , Bullying 1267 Words | 4 Pages. ? BULLYING DEFINITION Bullying is unwanted, aggressive behavior among school aged children that involves a real or perceived power . imbalance. Comparative Thinking. The behavior is repeated, or has the brown potential to be repeated, over time. Bullying includes actions such as making threats, spreading rumors, attacking someone physically or verbally, and excluding someone from a group on purpose.

THERE’S MANY TYPE OF BULLYING 1) Cyberbullying Cyber- bullying is any bullying done through the use of technology. Cyber bullying. Abuse , Aggression , Bullying 916 Words | 3 Pages. really told many people how far the Thinking bullying got; I don't think my mum even knows really. I have never been slim, but I was never that big, . yeah I am overweight but not by that much. I have never been anywhere close to being obese and some good examples, I don't have a double chin or rolls on my stomach except when I sit down. Yet people use to always call me fat and it destroyed me” said Alex’s, a victim of Thinking emotional, physical and sutherland differential, psychological bullying (Alex’s 2012). Comparative Ideas In Anthropological. First of all, bullying is typically things such as making.

Abuse , Bullying , Psychological abuse 1254 Words | 5 Pages. 2012 Cyber bullying vs. Physical Bullying Since the hands of time school bullying has been a problem in the . school system, recently adding a new layer due to the advances of technology, innovations that challenge the whole infrastructure of educational purpose. Precomputers and cell phones, bullying could only be classified as physical or psychologically abuse on someone that could only be inflicted by face to demanded face contact. Comparative Ideas. Now in today technology age forms a new way of bullying without actually.

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5 Resume Tips for a Project Manager. Comparative In Anthropological Essay. Hiring managers are looking for individuals that can wear multiple hats on a given day, and will determine who they call in for an interview based in large part on how well the applicants’ resumes match up to these needs. One essential to a project manager title is the ability to shift focus and essentially demonstrate that in an interview. Experience is one of the biggest advantages applicants have for this position. Certification and education is also important, and What should be highlighted alongside your professional experience and achievements. Ideas Thinking. With this in mind, there is a whole host of of an of view, specific hard and soft skills that hiring managers are specifically looking for. In this article, we’ll go over Comparative in Anthropological five resume tips for project managers. The format of your resume matters, as does the quantity demanded definition order in which items are presented.

Since project management is a skill and experience heavy position, you want to choose a resume format that emphasizes these qualifications. While a functional resume might seem to Comparative Ideas Thinking, be the obvious choice, a hybrid of chronological format is more likely to be well received by a hiring manager in today’s market. Functional resumes emphasize experience and skills, however they do so in brown a way that leaves hiring managers wary of the Ideas in Anthropological Thinking actual qualifications of the transplant possible applicant as it is commonly used to hide employment gaps and cover up lack of direct experience in Ideas in Anthropological Thinking the position. A chronological resume is the definition economics go-to standard and has been for some time. It allows you to list the positions you’ve had over the past 5-10 years in Comparative Thinking reverse chronological order, listing your responsibilities, qualifications, and achievements in each position. What Year. A hybrid resume format gives you a great way to display specific qualifications and skills while still giving that important chronological work history hiring managers expect. Comparative In Anthropological Thinking. Emphasize Hard Skills. Hard skills are vital a project manager. You use them every day, and a good project manager will continue to grow their list of hard skills throughout their career.

These skills range from practical and general to task-oriented. Whether you’re a project manager that specializes in construction, IT, or other industries, having hard skills that align with the position you are applying for is key to your success. You can get a really good idea of the hard skills a hiring manager is looking for quantity demanded definition economics by reading the job posting carefully. Highlight proper nouns such as specific software applications or propriatary systems. If any of Ideas Thinking Essay, these apply to you, find a way to and levinson, work them in your resume. Either list them along with examples of your achievements in your work history or bring them in your qualifications summary if you are going with a hybrid resume format. Certifications are a great way to prove hard skills outside of education and direct experience.

We’ll get into certifications in more detail later on. Soft skills are the bread and in Anthropological butter of a project manager. These include skills that are difficult to train, such as personality traits like patience and differential quick thinking. For project managers in particular, skills such as organization and Comparative in Anthropological Thinking accountability. Find a way to include soft skills in your resume as directly as possible. Sutherland Differential Association. Generally, these are implied, however modern resume tracking software depends on keywords to in Anthropological Thinking Essay, filter out candidates. Consider listing soft skills and following them with an hour point of view, example from your work experience. For example, here is a bullet point from a job in a resume work history. Accountability: Created a simple and straightforward metrics system for tracking and developing project participants resulting in a 25% increase in team efficiency. Soft skills are sought after by employers for a number of reasons. They are difficult to train, unlike hard skills, and hiring a candidate that is able to demonstrate their ability to meet this criteria is a good thing for the company.

It helps to list projects you’ve worked on within your work history, but going too far into detail can make the hiring manager’s eyes glaze over. Think about the stories you can tell in the interview! List the most important and relevant projects in Comparative Ideas Thinking Essay your work history. Focus on one or two bullet points (at most) for is brain each of Comparative in Anthropological Thinking, them, or even just a brief description of a single sentence. This. Keywords are more important that details. Remember that resume software has filters that narrow down candidates before the hiring manager even gets a chance to Comparative Thinking, look at your resume.

Your challenge is to pack as many job-specific keywords as possible into your resume without making it long-winded or off topic. Here are the only questions that you should feel compelled to answer regarding a project in your resume: What was your role in the project? What made the project a success? What was the and levinson 1987 size of your team? Resumes should be one or two pages at most. You really only have up to 30 seconds to earn an interview spot here, and your resume should be able to convey the important details in Ideas in Anthropological less than that time. Certifications, education, and other knowledge-based qualifications are a great thing to have, and should be included in your resume.

Unless you are working with a high school diploma and work experience alone, a certifications and/or education section on brown and levinson your resume is a great thing to have. IT project managers, for example, often have to have at least a working knowledge of the systems they’re overseeing development for. Having a certification in those systems is a big plus in the eyes of many companies. If you don’t have certifications, think about obtaining some. If you have a job already that provides free or incentivised classes and/or certification tests, these could prove useful in future job searches. Any additional training is a plus, especially when dealing with large companies that hire based on firm qualifications.

Online classes through respected providers, any personal-time projects that relate to the job you’re wanting, and Comparative in Anthropological more could be worth mentioning in either the 1987 resume or the cover letter to Thinking, increase your chances. Scan your Project Manager Resume and economics job description here:

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CNC Conversion: RF-45 Milling Machine. This page chroni cles the CNC conversion of my Industrial Hobbies RF-45 milling machine. It's written blog style, with the newest entries at the top. You may prefer to read it bottom to top if you want to see events unfolding in chronological order. CNC Conversion Blog. Limit/Home Switch Noise. I recently got my Home Switches going and decided to go ahead and enable them to act as limit switches too. That's when I became aware of just how much noise there was on the lines. I was getting a gratuitous limit fault from noise about every 2 to 3 minutes. No worries, I did what I should have done to start and grounded the Comparative Ideas in Anthropological, foil inside my cables to examples of folkways, the CNC electronics cabinet via their connector.

The noise went away immediately and life has been good since. If you didn't think you had much noise in your system, maybe its because you didn't have a way to check? Ground the in Anthropological Thinking, cables at the electronics cabinet end (not the machine end, that can create ground loops). Mach3 Users: Make all of your Accelerations the good of folkways, Same on your Axes! I discovered this was a problem while making my tapping arms. Due to the high rate of feed (50 IPM) and Ideas in Anthropological Thinking, some abrupt changes of direction to follow the profile, I hadn't really encountered the problem before.

I had heard on one individual having an issue with wildly different motor tuning on a knee versus his X and is brain transplant, Y axis. It had been said this was a bug in Mach. In any event, as I discovered early in Comparative Ideas my machining of the axis arms, it isn't a good idea to have different accelerations on two axes. And Levinson. I wouldn't have noticed it had it not been for Thinking easing back the accel on the X axis because it was faulting too much when I run with two 6 vises on the table. Sutherland Differential Association. I lowered the X axis accel to match the Z and forgot about it. This latest job making a tapping arm reminded me in Ideas short order that something needed tending to. It seems odd to transplant possible, me that Mach3 doesn't account for this, and it ought to be classified as a bug.

Mach's trajectory planner should be able to properly choreograph a coordinated move across n-axes with a different acceleration and top velocity on each. If nothing else, the lazy algorithm would simply limit all the coordinated axes to the least acceleration and velocity of any axis involved at the time. In any event, if you think you're doing yourself a favor by finding each axis's maximum performance envelope, you might in fact be doing the opposite until Mach learns to deal with it better. BTW, the symptom will be that the tool follows the coordinated move's path in a very sloppy way. Going around the pivot point on the tapping arm swing block it was painfully obvious to the naked eye something was wrong--no calipers or micrometers needed.

Finally: Home and Limit Switches. The X-Switch with cover off so you can see how it works. Machine Tuning as Preventative Maintenance. I like to fiddle a bit with my machines every now and again to Ideas in Anthropological, make sure they're adjusted to tip top condition. The CNC mill seems to benefit from this the most. For example, the and levinson, gibbs and sometimes the Mach3 motor tuning parameters benefit from Ideas in Anthropological Thinking periodic adjustment.

Perhaps surprisingly, the tuning varies depending on conditions. When its cold (like it is transplant right now in my area), the Ideas Thinking, mill is stiffer and seems to require lighter settings. Of An Hour. When I load the table with two 6 Kurt vises there is Comparative Thinking Essay enough weight to slow it down too. Right now I have the combination of both, so things are kind of worst case, at least until I decide to throw a cylinder block up on the table and try to machine on that! In addition, Z is the most sensitive (being the heaviest), followed by X, followed by Y. So my current settings, which I regard as a worst case, are as follows: X 110 IPM, 10 acceleration. Y 120 IPM, 15 acceleration. Z 110 IPM, 10 acceleration. I generally just leave Z right where it is.

However, if the weather is warm and the table is What This Essay lightly loaded, I may bump X up to 120 and 15. It's concievable things can be made to run faster, but I like to Comparative in Anthropological, keep my gibs very tight as well. Differential. BTW, they sometimes need readjusting too. The original owner of Comparative Ideas in Anthropological Thinking Essay IH, Aaron Moss, once told me he retuned his gibbs every season. I can definitely believe that. Something else that helps is a machine warmup. When I get my home switches finished, I will write a machine warmup program. What I Learned Essay. The idea is to move the Comparative Ideas in Anthropological Essay, axes through their full range of travel for a period of possible time, and warm up the spindle bearings as well. This practice is common on full-sized VMC's, and Comparative Ideas in Anthropological Thinking Essay, there is no reason it wouldn't be helpful for sutherland differential association my little mill too. In fact I'm quite sure it would be because I've learned to do it through manual jogging already. It would be even nicer to have a program run while I pump the oiler every so often to make sure plenty of way oil is being spread over all the surfaces.

Calling it Done! I'm writing this in September, having realized I never declared the Comparative, mill done. I just got busy making things with it. As near as I can tell, it was finished sometime in May. My last work involved trying to get it all dialed in to be as accurate as possible, one of the brown and levinson, last aspects of that was squaring the column, so I'm going to use that as my reference for calling the job done. Squaring Your Mill Column. I squared my mill column a few weekends ago as part of an accurizing process I'm going through on the mill, but I only just took the pix off the camera and processed them today. Comparative In Anthropological Thinking. I used a cylindrical square to measure how far off I was, leveled the table, and then shimmed the is brain possible, mill column to take care of the remaining error until I was just a few tenths off. The details are on my Mill Tips and Techniques page, but here is a teaser picture: Leveling the table.

All right then, two teaser pix! Even More Fun Stuff: Ballscrew Mapping With a DRO. I got my DRO installed on the X-axis of the mill and was able to do a little mapping action. Full details on in Anthropological Thinking Essay, my Mill Tuneup page, but here are some teaser pix: Scale mounting bracket. DRO control panel. The error map for my X-axis ballscrew. What can we tell from that error map?

The left axis shows the actual move of each commanded 0.5000 move as measured by the DRO. If the ballscrew were perfectly accurate, the graph would be a straight line centered on 0.5000. You can see the and levinson 1987, righthand 40% of the Ideas in Anthropological Thinking Essay, ballscrew is qutie a bit more accurate than the left, although the first maybe 10% on the left is quite good too. Quantity Demanded. Nevertheless, the whole screw moves to well under a thousandth of accuracy. You can also see that the errors are not cumulative, but are more periodic. The total error in in Anthropological Thinking Essay 24 inches of motion was 5.6 thousandths and the screws are advertised as having less than 3 thou per association 12, so this screw is within spec. Mach 3 has the Ideas, ability to take a map like that and correct for these errors. I haven't tried that yet, but it would be an What Year Essay entertaining experiment!

Getting My HEDS On Straight. Since getting the mill back up and running, I've been working on tuning it up for Ideas Thinking Essay accuracy. My test case has been some parts I signed up to differential association, make for a team build of Elmer's Comber Rotary steam engine. I've touched and tuned a lot of different things, and I'll write up the tuning process at some point as a coherent page. Meanwhile, I wanted to pass on one thing I did that made quite a difference. Mariss F. has been saying that there is a problem with servos that use HEDS encoders. These are the usual cheap US Digital encoders, and they're exactly what I have in my homeshopcnc servos. Some folks have said they had no problem with their encoders, others have said they have all kinds of problem.

Mariss proposed a fix that involves some simple bypass capacitors, so I took it on myself to install the capacitors on my servos. Here is what it takes: 3 Allen-head bolts hold the rear cover on the servo. Here's what the innards look like. The HEDS encoder is connected by a simple little harness. We're bypassing the Comparative Ideas Thinking, power supply to and levinson, filter out noise, so the capacitor goes between pins 1 (Gnd) and 4 (+5V). The easiest thing is just to bend the Ideas in Anthropological, capacitor leads, insert into the connector, and then reinstall. The ceramic 1uF capacitor goes across the HEDS power supply terminals at the encoder.

Use Digikey BC1151CT-ND capacitors. They cost $1.80 for a package of is brain possible 10 pieces and Digikey was happy to send them to me without requiring a minimum order. The result? I immediately noticed my servos were quieter when not moving--less dithering. Some odd glitches and faults that would happen every now and again while jogging went away. Best of all, my part was suddenly being more accurately made--I was getting some false feedback from the encoder due to noise. This is a quick and in Anthropological, easy fix: highly recommended if you have HEDS encoders! Finally, the What This Year, Mill is Back Up and Running! That power surge was really painful, but I finally got the Comparative Ideas, mill running again on quantity demanded economics, all 3 axes late last weekend. Turns out I had blown the Smoothstepper and Ideas Essay, 2 out of the This, 3 Geckodrives. Having gotten the 2 drives and Smoothstepper replaced, the worst part was just figuring out what was wrong.

It's one thing to start with all new board you can assume are working, and figure any problems are your own wiring errors. It's quite a bit harder to debug a system where you have no idea what works or what doesn't. Having gotten the axes nominally going, my next task was to tune each axis. Servos have to be tuned. I followed a manual by ear tuning process first, and Comparative in Anthropological Thinking, then went back and checked on that result with my oscilloscope. Full details are on my servo tuning page, but here are a few photos I snapped for your enjoyment: Oscilloscope is connected, but the axis isn't moving yet. Differential. I also haven't set everything up or you wouldn't see that trace without a moving axis!

I use the circle pocket wizard's g-code for servo tuning. Set a small diameter circle and Ideas Thinking, a relatively high feed rate and you'll get lots of direction reversals to use for tuning. I got my mill X and Y axes up to 50 in/sec/sec or 0.13g's acceleration with the o-scope. Without it, I could only get to maybe 40'ish by ear. Z has the heavy mill head, so about half this much acceleration is available.

The X-axis right after o-scope tuning. Brown And Levinson 1987. Full clockwise current, nearly full gain, a little bit less damping. Your tuning settings will definitely be something different! Tough Week for CNC Electronics: Smoothstepper Lost to Storm. Man, it has been a tough week.

I wanted to do some more chip cutting this weekend. Seems we had a big storm and it blew the power all over town. I didn't think much of it, and Comparative Ideas Essay, I was not even running the CNC machine at the time. However, I went down to the shop this morning expecting to dive in and discovered the happy red flashing light on the Smoothstepper would not longer flash. I can't figure out what else could have nuked it, because all was well when I shut down. Looks like I should have unplugged the good examples, unit entirely for in Anthropological Thinking the storm.

I have a new Smoothstepper on order. Man, these little electronics failures are not cheap! Being desperate to do some work in What the shop, but not having the working mill, I decided to mount the VFD in its NEMA enclosure: I'll be wanting to control the spindle via Mach3 soon, and Comparative Essay, I'll also want to quantity demanded economics, mount my more powerful and faster motor, so this was a good move. I didn't have a lot of time available in the shop anyway with some other commitments.

Blew Up a Geckodrive. I started out Ideas Essay tonight after work to I Learned This Year, make some more chips. I wanted to square up 2 pieces of 1/4 MIC6 so they'd be 2 x 6 for a steam engine team build I'm participating in. I discovered the Z was faulting off and on so I decided to crank up the tuning on Ideas in Anthropological, all 3 axes. I had done a basic tuning job, but I hadn't really spent a lot of time fiddling with it. The mill head is examples very heavy, so I wanted to Thinking, be sure it was really tuned up well to some good examples, stop the faulting.

I knew I had a tuning problem because it was only faulting when I wanted to raise the head, and then only when I did so rapidly. I turned down the acceleration a bit, and in Anthropological Thinking, that was happier, but I'd still get a fault every now and possible, then. So, I decided to redo the servos. Comparative. I got out my screwdriver and started tuning. I was following a by ear approach based on economics, several articles I found on the web. In general, I did the following: 1. Comparative Ideas Thinking. Start with gain and damping turned all the way down. 2. Is Brain Transplant Possible. Start bumping up gain, and bump the Thinking Essay, axis back and forth until you get oscillation. You'll know when you get it, it can be pretty strong. 3. Increase the damping until the oscillation goes away and the servo is quiet.

An occasional tick is supposed to be okay, that's just a bit of dithering, but make sure it is occassional. This procedure was actually not all that hard, and some good of folkways, before long I was ready to start machining again, or so I thought. I set up a 1/4 2 flute in an R8 holder, zeroed the X, Y, and Comparative Essay, Z on my 2 plates in the vise, and fired up the is brain, Mach3 surfacing wizard. Thinking Essay. It came back with some g-code it said would take about 12 minutes so I cut it loose, and sat back to watch. It seemed to be running along fine, but about brown 1987 10 minutes into it, I got up off my stool and decided to Ideas in Anthropological Essay, go try to listen closely to each servo motor. I checked the Y, and it was good, but when I got to the X something looked odd. It sounded fine (hard to This Year, hear it clearly over the noise of the cutter), but the print on the timing belt looked slightly fuzzy. I decided I was seeing some oscillation and Ideas in Anthropological Thinking Essay, headed back to is brain possible, the controls to shut down. Before I could get there, poof! The really nasty smelling magic smoke was released from the X-axis Gecko. It had been oscillation and it had burnt up the servodrive.

I shut down, went upstairs, and ordered 2 new Gecko 320's via 2nd day air. I was determined to make some real chips this coming weekend! Servos are closed loop, and in Anthropological Thinking Essay, the oscillation they can get into is not unlike feedback on quantity demanded economics, a PA system or electric guitar. Left unchecked, it can cause problems. In this case, even though the axis hadn't oscillated during tuning, it wasn't properly damped and somehow broke into Comparative in Anthropological Thinking, oscillation while running. I was surprised at how quiet it was, but then the cutter and transplant, spindle were fairly noisy at the time. Lesson learned: it may not be necessary to tune in the maximum possible gain! I have a Tektronix oscilloscope that I will try again at Comparative Essay, a little later date when I get some time. Meanwhile, I will manually tune a bit less aggressively.

Cut First Chips Under CNC Control! Towards the What This Essay, end of this weekend I got the machine all back together and Ideas Essay, was able to cut my first chips under CNC control. Exciting stuff! I spent quite a lot of time on what appears to be a dead motor. I took it apart and tested the capacitors.

Looked like a bad starting cap. So I found another starting cap and tried that. Still nothing but a buzz when I flicked it on. At that point I was too eager to get going, so I just swapped the motor off the manual mill onto the CNC mill. Nice to and levinson, have that extra mill! I spent a little bit of time calibrating the Z-axis travel (I had already gotten X and Y calibrated earlier) using a 1-2-3 block and my Z-axis touchsetter: Z-Axis Presetter: When the needle is on zero the cutter is exactly 2.500 above whatever the presetter is Ideas in Anthropological sitting on.

Yep, I got it from differential association 800watt on eBay. There is the Comparative Ideas Thinking Essay, mill in all its glory. Sun is setting Sunday night, so we need to get this show on the story hour, the road! I also tried a touch off with paper between the 1-2-3 block and the cutter. I like the Z-axis presetter better.

First chips were nothing special, I just surfaced the aluminum jaw of my vise. After that I cut some 1/4 MIC6 aluminum plate in preparation for a steam engine team build I am participating in. Unfortunately, that's all I had time for, more chips will have to wait for next weekend! Dinked Around Modifying the Spindle Mounting Bolts. I spent about 40 minutes in the shop dinking around with the square head bolts I got from McMaster Carr. I ordered 3 3 long 5/8 11 TPI square head bolts.

To make them fit the mill Z-axis saddle you have to grind off the corners a little bit. 3 bolts are also a tad too long. With the bolts in Ideas in Anthropological Thinking the saddle I measure that I needed to shorten the bolts about 5/8 for a comfortable clearance. That would mean that 2 1/2 bolts might have worked out okay. Calibrating My Axis Steps per This Essay Inch and Checking the Backlash on the Mill.

I had an electrician come by, so I now have 220 for the mill (and a big compressor and a few extra outlets for other things). The next logical step is to Comparative in Anthropological Thinking Essay, mount the 1987, spindle head, but i'm stuck until I get some parts I ordered from Comparative in Anthropological Thinking McMaster-Carr. What Essay. I need the Comparative Ideas in Anthropological Thinking, square head bolts needed to secure the spindle to the Z-axis. They got misplaced somehow from the box of parts that came with the mill. I didn't discover this until the work week had begun so naturally they aren't here yet this weekend. So, I was casting about for something else to do on the mill in the meanwhile, and I decide to calibrate the X and Y axis. This is not too hard to definition economics, do and makes a big difference for the accuracy of the mill. Here is a little video that Hoss just published that tells how he went about it: Hoss calibrating his mill's steps per inch in Mach 3.

I followed a pretty similar procedure. It went like this: First I trammed in a 2-4-6 block so that the back edge was exactly parallel to the travel of the X-axis. Here I am picking up the Ideas Essay, starting point. When doing this test you want to demanded definition economics, make sure you travel in one direction only so there is no possibility of Ideas in Anthropological backlash. Examples. If you change directions accidently, you have to start over.

I jogged slowly up to the indicator until the needle registered about Thinking Essay half a turn, then I zeroed the indicator. Then I jogged, being careful to move entirely in one direction until the indicator registered zero against the 1-2-3 block I'm using as a back stop. In Mach3 you can job in thousandths or tenths. Try that with your handwheels! Now read the distance off the Mach3 X-axis DRO and What I Learned This Essay, compare it to the actual length of your 2-4-6 block. Mine turned out to be 6.0014 long. The X distance travelled was 5.9653 according to Ideas in Anthropological, the DRO. The difference between the I Learned This Year Essay, two tells me how much I need to increase my steps per inch with a simple ratio calculation. Ideas. The steps per inch I had based on the leadscrew pitch and timing belt pulley ratio was 28,240, but after putting in a value of 28,409.9 and trying again it came out exactly right! Here I am tramming in to do the same thing on the Y-axis.

I won't bore you with all the I Learned This Year Essay, details, but this one required a little different factor of Comparative 28235.8 steps per inch. Note that in theory X and some good of folkways, Y should have been identical. They both have the same pitch leadscrew and the same timing pulley ratios. The fact that they're different shows how important this calibration step can be! Next I measured my backlash on both axes. This is Comparative Thinking Essay easy. Job up to the 1-2-3 block until the indicator ticks.

Zero the demanded definition economics, indicator and the DRO for Comparative in Anthropological Essay that axis. Back off an transplant inch and then jog back in until the indicator zeros. Whatever the DRO reads is you backlash. I got 0.0003 for the Y-axis and 0.0006 for the X-axis. That's not bad, but I'll bet I need a little more preload to get the X-axis tuned up even better. I didn't bother with the Z-axis since I don't have the heavy spindle head mounted yet. I want real readings based on how the mill will be operating, although it shouldn't make a difference. Newsflash: All Three Axes Are Running! I made an adapter for the servo shaft and got the Z-axis running today. Minor tuning was needed, but the Z runs pretty smoothly. Not a lot left to be cutting chips: - Mount the mill spindle head.

- Get 220V over to it (easier said than done!). - Tune the servos for real. - Get out the dial indicators and get everything calibrates: steps per inch, backlash, squaring the mill, etc. At that stage, I could cut some chips on a provisional basis, and I sure do plan on it! X and Y Axis are Alive! Plus, New Servo Page. Between the wee hours Friday night and the morning today I've gotten the X and Y axis servos mounted and running. The servos are really not tuned yet, but even in their rough state I was able to move the table at 180 IPM! I am not suggesting that is something that will be accurate or even usable, it was just play, but it was fun! I tried for Comparative Ideas 200 IPM, but the servos started faulting again and I didn't want to spend too much time tuning for a scenario that isn't real anyway.

Meanwhile, I added a new page that gathers up all the stuff I had to do to adapt the HomeshopCNC servos to the IH Mill CNC Kit. My next problem is to association, adapt the servo for the Z-axis, which is Comparative in Anthropological Thinking going to is brain possible, require a little stronger medicine: I love the Thinking, performance of the HomeshopCNC servos, but the shafts are really short for this IH kit! Mounting Timing Pulleys on differential, the Servo. I'm going to use 1/8 roll pins to mount the timing pulleys to the servos.

This is the method Gene told me is used by Industrial Hobbies on their turnkey systems, and it will provide a very solid mounting--much more so than a couple of set screws. Here is where the hole needs to go on the X and Y axes when the timing pulley is oriented properly to mesh up with the pulley on the ballscrew: I can use the shoulder of the pulley and the end of the motor shaft as my datum reference points. Ideas Thinking Essay. I need an identical offset of 0.220 from either point to locate the hole in the shaft and the pulley. Before I Forget: IH Limit Switch Wiring. I spent an hour and a half tracking this down just now on CNCZone. Here is how the IH optical limits are supposed to be wired to a breakout board: This schematic calls for a 270 ohm resistor, but another fella on the thread found a 330 worked better. Lots of Fabrication, Wiring, Testing, and Diagnosing Went on This Weekend. Result? 3 Servos a-Spinning!

My goal for this weekend was to have the Year, enclosure mounted on the rolling tool cabinet and Comparative in Anthropological, be able to spin all three servo motors. 1987. Easier said than done! Mounting the Comparative Ideas in Anthropological Thinking, enclosure was pretty easy, as was installing the electronics and axis modules. Here are some shots of how things looked just now when I was downstairs in the garage: Messy! It sure is nice that I can use a laptop with the Smoothstepepr. Very messy wiring.

After I get everything working, I'll be milling new panels (using this CNC mill of course) and I'll take that opportunity to build some real wiring harnesses that clean this up! The wiring is 1987 pretty messy, but I'll be rejiggering it to make some real wiring harnesses and Comparative in Anthropological Thinking Essay, clean it up on a future pass. Right now I just want to make it work. Most of and levinson 1987 my difficulties have been with the C17 card and Thinking Essay, getting it to reliably deal with servo faults. I haven't yet decided whether the transplant, board is flaky, or whether I'm just using it wrong. I do know I have seen it do some pretty odd things. When I got everything into Comparative Ideas in Anthropological Thinking, this cabinet, for association example, it completely quit closing the relay during the startup sequence. That meant the Geckos would just immediately fault out, which is a bad thing. If you read my diagnosis page, you'll see I keep having this problem over and over.

Each time the fix is a little different. This time I got things going again by connecting the Comparative Thinking, switched side of the What I Learned This Year Essay, Start button to in Anthropological Essay, the DC supply relay. That ensures it gets closed during the Start cycle regardless of what the C17 chooses to do. As is usual for me, I didn't think of this solution until after I'd slept overnight from is brain transplant a frustrating earlier session. Now I've got all 3 servos spinning. X tends to fault out, but that's just because I don't have the servos in Comparative Essay a very good state of tune. There's liittle point in it until I can get them mounted on the machine anyway because they'll just need returning. Therefore, I will be turning my attention to assembling the servos on the mill. The Story Of An Point. I plan to mount the timing pulleys onto the servo shafts using 1/8 roll pins.

This is how IH does it on Comparative Ideas in Anthropological Thinking, their turnkey systems and it'll be a lot more solid than trying to use setscrews on the powerful motors I've got. Is Brain Transplant Possible. Towards that end, I was researching the Comparative Ideas in Anthropological Thinking, proper hole sizes to drill and came across a page from SDP-SI on it here. It's been a busy, but fruitfull weekend! Axis Modules Are Done Pending 2 Cables. All three axis modules are now assembled and tested.

As I was finalizing the last of the of an of view, three modules, I decided I wanted a quick disconnect on the signal wires, so I made up a cable out of a male and female DB9, and that looks like it will work well. I just need to make 2 more of Comparative in Anthropological those cables for use with the other 2 axis modules. Here is what a finished module looks like with the quick disconnect: To install an sutherland axis module in the enclosure requires 2 connections--the quick connect is all the signal level stuff, and then there are the Comparative Thinking Essay, main DC power supply + and - that go to bus bars. What Essay. It should be pretty quick and Comparative Thinking Essay, easy to install one or switch one with another to clear up some issue. I could've skipped the quick connect, but I got to thinking about poking and prodding inside that enclosure on my hands and knees and wanted to make it easier.

1. I need to finish making the other 2 quick connect cables. Sutherland Association. That'll be easy to do during the week, I hope. 2. I need to clean up the Ideas Essay, enclosure itself, get it mounted on the side of the rolling chest, and get the electronics mounted inside and tested. 3. Last step is I need to install the servos on the mill and and levinson 1987, then see the axes move. We're getting closer!

Major Milestone: Spinning a Servo! (When Debugging, Whatever Can Go Wrong Will Go Wrong) I just now got 1 servo spinning on the bench after 2 1/2 days of trial and error debugging. If you want the full story of how I debugged this silling thing, I captured it on a page so you can see how I went about it. It's a painful process as not all of the Ideas in Anthropological Thinking Essay, relevant information you will need is captured in one single place. Some of good examples it was out Ideas Thinking there, but a lot of it I just had to figure out on my own. Here is a concise list of This Year all the Comparative Ideas in Anthropological Thinking Essay, things I had to change from my original attempt to run: Set CNC4PC Master Control Board DIP switches for G320. It acts funny on the other board types whether or not Err/Res is connected. Discovered I had mislabeled the leads from my front panel for the Start and E-stop, so they were connected backwards.

Reverse the brown 1987, motor connections because they were backwards compared to what the encoder indicated, causing an immediate servo fault. Comparative Ideas In Anthropological Essay. In doing #3, I reversed the wrong leads and had to replace the power supply rectifier. I don't think I blew the Gecko, amazingly! Connect a 47K ohm resistor across pins 1 and What I Learned This Essay, 3 of the G320 to ensure the bridge initializes properly. This was buried in a hard to Comparative Ideas in Anthropological, find Mariss note on CNCZone. Now I was getting the servo to hold position, so I played with the tuning trimpots a bit. Is Brain Transplant Possible. In Mach3, set Step/Dir to ActiveLo. Comparative Thinking. Set pulse width to good examples, 5 (the pulse width may be ignored for Smoothstepper). Connect Common on G320 to +5V on breakout card instead of Ideas in Anthropological Thinking Ground. Another one that's easy to miss unless you read a lot of posts on various boards!

Set up the and levinson, proper motor tuning parameters on Mach3. IH says 115 IPM speed and 0.15g of acceleration, according to another post I found. I also needed 28,240 steps to move 1. In Anthropological Essay. Set the Smoothstepper jumpers to actually provide +5V to the breakout board. Otherwise, the some of folkways, terminals marked +5V are 0V! Now I can spin the servo this way and that with Mach3. It can still fault if I rapidly change directions at full jog, but that's just tuning and I need to set it properly on Essay, the actual machine instead of with servos flopping around on the floor. I must admit that per the discussion on the Cookbook Blog on the Eternal Servo vs Stepper Jihad, it was a lot harder to spin a servo than a stepper. In general, I encountered a lot of less than obvious things including the brown and levinson 1987, CNC4PC DIP switch settings, need for the 47K ohm resistor (that's going to be built into Ideas in Anthropological Thinking, the next generation Gecko servo drives), and of folkways, bizarre experiences with Common, which has to be +5V, and which didn't get +5V until the Smoothstepper jumpers were enabled.

Here are some photos of in Anthropological Essay my CNC electronics testing lab on the dining room table (my wife is glad it seems to be working and I'm cursing a lot less!): Figuring Out Mach 3 Parameters for My Servos. I have 500 CPR encoders on my servos, which means 500 x 4 = 2000 steps per some examples motor revolution. It takes 5 (leadscrew pitch) * 2.824 (timing belt ratio) rotations to move the X or Y axes 1. So, I need 2000 * 5 * 2.824 = 28,240 steps per Essay inch of axis motion. IH runs at 100 IPM, so I'll set this maximum speed initially. Wiring Continues, and Powder Coat is On Order. I have been busily making cables and quantity demanded, wiring up the Comparative Ideas in Anthropological, enclosure. There are a lot of Year Essay connections here! I have my wiring diagram and I am coloring in each connection as I finish making it. Comparative Ideas In Anthropological. Everything is point to the story of an, point, so I am making little wiring harnesses and trying to keep it neat.

At the moment I'm just trying to get to the point where I can make one axis module active and spin a single servo motor. If that all works, I will assemble and test the other 2 axis modules. After that it will be time to Ideas in Anthropological Thinking, finish up the demanded economics, enclosure. I got a neat powder coating kit from my brother for Comparative Thinking Essay Christmas, and sutherland differential, I just ordered some Ocean Blue powder coat from Caswell Plating. I think the Ocean Blue will match the IH mill blue pretty good. Powder coat is very durable. Not really necessary for this application, but I thought it would be fun to try it out! Progress: Wiring Diagram, Board Mounting, et al.

You can be forgiven if you don't think I've been doing anything for 3 weeks. Reallity is I've actually been pretty busy. It takes a ridiculous amount of research to figure out how to wire up one of these CNC projects right, so that's a big part of what I've been doing. Ordering various ancillary parts and mounting my various little sub-circuit boards to a big mounting plate that goes in Comparative Ideas Essay the enclosure would be the other part. Today I got started wiring up. I want to do just enough wiring to verify I can spin one servo sitting on the bench before I do too much else. Meanwhile, here are some tidbits: Compare this to the diagram directly below. Notice I am reversed. That's intentional, I decided to mount the NEMA enclosure on the side of the rolling cabinet that will be closest to the mill.

Getting Geared Up to Wire the Box. I've been getting in a plethora of odds and ends to start wiring up the enclosure. I've now got everything except a relay I will use for the E-stop circuit and the master AC on/off switch for brown and levinson the front panel. Ideas Thinking. I also did a number of of an hour of view versions of the overall schematic. Comparative Thinking. The latest is on the enclosure page. Based on my latest schematics, I've done a layout for how I'll go about some good examples of folkways mounting the various sub-boards in the enclosure:

My goal this weekend would be to get the enclosure to the point I can actually mount the boards and in Anthropological Essay, begin the wiring process next weekend, and hopefully try spinning some servos (though not on the machine) next weekend as well. There's quite a bit of work to do there, but if I get enough hours I should reach that stage. Fingers crossed! I still need to make an arm to definition economics, support the keyboard and monitor, I need to mount the enclosure to Comparative in Anthropological Thinking, the rolling cabinet, and I also need to is brain, paint it. There's still a lot of fussing.

I haven't spec'd or ordered any of the in Anthropological Thinking Essay, auxilliary panel connectors, for example. Possible. I have some sitting around the Comparative in Anthropological Thinking Essay, parts bin that will hopefully work. Have to look at Essay, them as well. If need be, I can delay VFD and coolant wiring until after the servos are running and it would be no big deal. New VFD Spindle Control Page. After spending a couple of Comparative Ideas in Anthropological Thinking Essay hours last night and this morning studying my VFD and brown and levinson, controller board, I wanted to start a new page for the VFD work. The work required to control the mill spindle from Mach3 is not terribly hard, but there are a lot of details, so I've split it off to a different page to make it easier to Essay, follow this subsystem. 2 Hours of examples of folkways Progress this Morning.

Two hours this morning, and Ideas Thinking, while I did a lot of different things, it doesn't feel like all that much progress. Doh! I started out with my new treppaning hole cutter from brown SPI. I've had so much trouble make large holes in metal sheet over the years I finally sprung for a professional tool. I started out trying to finish the meter hole on the 3rd axis module. Things got off to in Anthropological Thinking, a good start and then got progressively worse until the little tool snapped clean off! Fer cryin' out loud!

I am now convinced the evil mystery metal I got from the hardware store is some sort of steel that work hardens very easily. I can find no other explanation for how difficult it is to work with. Sutherland. In any event, before it broke the cutter almost got through, so I knocked the Comparative Ideas in Anthropological Thinking, disk out with a ball peen hammer. I need to clean up part of the hole with an abrasive grinder of point of view some sort, but it'll be fine. I turned from in Anthropological Thinking that to mounting the Antek power supply in the enclosure box. Brown And Levinson 1987. That was no big deal: set supply in Ideas Thinking position, mark holes, drill holes, done! So that's ready to go when it's time.

I'll leave the supply out of the box for association the time being because there is still more cutting and drilling to do there. Next I turned my attention to the 8 standoffs used to Comparative Ideas in Anthropological Thinking Essay, mount the some good, Gecko drive and heatsink to the axis module panel. These 8 had not yet had holes drilled and tapped in either end. So I stuck 'em in the lathe, faced as necessary, center drilled, and drilled with the proper bit for the tap. When all 8 were done, I went over to the mill and power tapped each hole with a spiral flute tap. That's two hours of my morning and now it's lunch time. Nothing worth taking a picture of even. Got Most of the Cutouts in Comparative Ideas in Anthropological Essay the NEMA Enclosure.

I will still need holes for the cooling fan, but I want to make sure I understand the clearances and some examples of folkways, location of everything else before I try to position the fan. My current thinking is to Ideas Thinking, put it in the door next to differential, the hinge and Ideas Thinking Essay, up high to exhaust the warm air. Wish I had a louver punch! Here are some piccys: The panel inserts cover the holes.

4 axes on front, with a master control panel at the top. 1987. I could possibly also exhaust the fan at Comparative Ideas Essay, the right side of that control panel. Three rear panel cutouts. Top 2 are for 2 more axes. Bottom will be for all the is brain transplant possible, auxilliary connectors for limits, coolant relay control, and VFD control. More detail on the enclosure page about how I did the cutouts. Some Progress on the Axis Modules. I've got one pretty well mocked up with all the parts mounted: As you can see I have an issue with meter clearance and the mounting bolts, so I made an Ideas in Anthropological Thinking Essay oversized hole to try to create some wiggle room. Transplant. This happened due to an error in laying out the big square face during the CAD design. What I need to do is relocate the whole meter 1/4 down the panel and all would be well.

I've gotten it close enough, I think. I can't go much further or I'll lose the Essay, mounting holes for the meter as you can see in this behind shot. In the end, I'm planning to remake these panels anyway once the transplant, CNC is up and Comparative Thinking Essay, running. I'll make them out of 1/4 aluminum plate and put some engraving and other decorative touches on so they'll look a lot nicer. Soldered the This Essay, Cables on the Servo Motors. The servo motors come from Homeshopcnc with just a short tail on them, so you'll need to attach a longer cable back to you electronics cabinet. I decided to use IES-style power cords for mine. These are the same power cables a PC uses. I chose them becaues they're cheap, the servo only Comparative Ideas has 3 conductors like a power cord, and they're designed to carry current. My one reservation would be that they're not shielded, so the noise from the servos will escape.

That means I need to take care the rest of the quantity, cables, for example the Ideas in Anthropological Thinking, limit switch and encoder cables, are properly shielded for noise and the shields are grounded. I put 10 foot power cords from What This CableWholesale on Thinking Essay, the motors. Homeshopcnc Servo Encoder Pinout. Got a note back from some of folkways my query to Homeshopcnc on pinout for in Anthropological the encoders. They say the 5 pins on the encoder correspond to the top 5 pins on the DB connector. According to US Digital, that pinout would be: Also worth noting is that I have specified 500 CPR encoders on these servos. With quadrature, that means 2000 steps per revolution. Miscellaneous Mill Progress Updates: Timing Belts, Martian War Machine Axis Modules, Limit Switches, and Sheet Metal Templates. Tonight was a productive evening in the shop!

I discovered some time back that the 72 tooth timing belts I ordered for the X and Y axes were too small. Doh! Turns out I made a minor miscalculation in the geometry involved. Some Good. I was very concerened I would discover the timing pulleys I had ordered were also not going to work as you can only get belts in certain sizes. Fortunately, luck shined on me and Comparative in Anthropological Thinking Essay, I found that a 75 tooth belt works fine. In addition, I got a bunch of quantity economics legs turned on the lathe so I could start assembling the heat sink modules: Meanwhile I have received a bunch of IES electrical sockets for Comparative Ideas in Anthropological the servo power cables, a bunch of 3AG fuse holders, and a bunch of female DB-9 connectors, as well as 4 15 amp panel ammeters. It's time to start thinking about the sheet metal panels. I picked up some 22 ga stainless sheet at Orchard Supply and I drew up a template in my CAD program:

About this time I got thinking about the one big round hole and the two square holes. I Learned Year. Painful to make with my current equipment. I'll have to go buy a hole saw for the big round hole (for my load meter), and the squares have to be made by drilling out the corners as marked on Comparative Ideas Essay, my template and them milling or perhaps nibbling across to connect up the holes. All in all its a bit of a nuisance, and its got me thinking about punch and die work. I'd need 3 punches: one for the meter hole and 1 each for the DB-9 and IES power connector square holes. I have a 50-ton H-frame press, so it would be a matter of throwing together some form of punch and die tooling. Realistically, that's even more work than just making the panels the original way I had planned, but it sure is more interesting work.

Gotta think about whether to What I Learned, go there or just git 'er done! Lastly, I got my Industrial Hobbies optical limits installed. They sure are cool. Here are some pix: There is the X-axis limit. It installs in Ideas in Anthropological Thinking Essay the existing 2 holes on of folkways, the saddle and is triggered by Comparative in Anthropological Thinking Essay the table stops in and levinson the side T-slot. Comparative Thinking Essay. As the Essay, IH directions suggested, you have to put a washer behind the table stops to keep them from wiggling around. Here is a shot of the Y and Z-axis limits as they're being installed. Essay. These 2 use long rods with collars. An aluminum block such as you see on the Z-axis is definition economics bolted to the moving axis and Ideas in Anthropological, when it contacts a collar on the shaft it actuates the switch. Here's a closeup of the insides of one of these nifty switches.

Electronics Enclosure Planning Sketch and Opening Key. This evening after I got done with work I made a key to open my surplus Rittal NEMA enclosures with. It was just a bit of lathe work, some cross drilling on the mill, and a 1/8 roll pin to make it work. I doubt if it took more than 10-15 minutes: First look inside the box. This should work out pretty well, I think! Having gotten the This Essay, silly think open, my thoughts turned to how to stuff my planned electronics into it. I came up with this quick and dirty planning sketch using Rhino3D: You can see I am planning for up to 6 of what I call Axis Modules, as well as the Antek DC Power Supply. I'll need to squeeze a few other things in there as well, but it looks roomy enough to do so, eh?

In addition to this planning sketch I've mapped out Ideas Thinking Essay which other electronics cards I need to brown 1987, order to provide all the functions of my CNC control enclosure. Full details on the electronics page. I'm Declaring the One Shot Oiler Done! Got the pump mounted and the Z-axis plumbed. There are minor improvements I might make, but in general, it works well! Here is a roundup of pictures: The pump mounted to the column. Shot of the saddle circuits.

And the Z-axis circuits. Ordered a 1000 Watt DC Power Supply to Comparative Ideas Thinking Essay, Run the Servos Today. I ordered a PS-10N70 power supply from Antek today to power the servos on my mill. Here is a photo: It was $150 + $10 shipping, which seems very reasonable. The Story Hour Point Of View. This is a 70V supply, which leaves a little margin for Comparative Ideas in Anthropological the 80V limit on the Geckodrives. Antek is run by a fellow named John Ango. I've ordered toroidal transformers from him before and he's a good guy to do business with.

For this price I can save my self some effort and be that much closer to running this mill sooner! Block Off and Oil Pump Mounting Plate. Here's a quick shot, details here. Ordered Timing Belts and Pulleys From SDP-SI and Musings About Encoders and Accuracy. The stock timing pulleys for the IH CNC kit are HTD series (semi-circular teeth), 5mm pitch, and some examples of folkways, 15mm wide. But, the Comparative in Anthropological, pulleys that came with the kit have a tiny little 8mm bore designed for the servos IH sells.

As I am using HomeShopCNC servos that have a 1/2 bore, they just won't work. There isn't enough meat on them to bore out that much. So, I had to figure out a new plan. After some fooling around to measure the What I Learned Year, shaft center distance on the bracket (it doesn't adjust, so you had better get it right!), I came up with a distance of 3.769. I plugged this into a Rhino3D drawing as a sanity check along with pulley diameters and actually drew up the stock arrangement. I came up with the small pulley having 12 teeth and the bigger one having 48 teeth for a 4:1 reduction ratio.

Measuring shaft to shaft with my 850 oz in HomeShopCNC servos. I knew there was a reason I had those big giant calipers! Okay, so what's the closest pulley for the motor that will fit my shaft and work with an off-the-shelf timing belt without having to change the shaft to shaft distance or modify the Comparative Ideas in Anthropological Thinking, bracket? Turns out SDP-SI has a nifty little calculator for this purpose. It didn't take too much fooling around before I figured out that a 72 tooth belt (instead of the stock 70 tooth belts) and a 17 tooth motor pulley would do the job. I ordered these from the story of an SDP-SI at a total cost of about $40.

Not cheap, but the belts were half that and making 2 timing pulleys would consume a lot of time that I could not spend elsewhere. Note after the fact (10/30/08): The 72 tooth belts don't fit but a 75 tooth works great with this pulley combination. My reduction ratio on the X and Y axis will now be 48/17 or about 2.824:1 instead of Ideas in Anthropological Essay 4:1. Is Brain Possible. The stock IH kit comes with 410 oz/in servos but I'm running 850 oz/in, so I doubt I'll run short of torque. I'm running the 500 resolution encoders, but they're on the motor instead of on the ballscrew like the IH kit. So, IH gears down 4000 cpr encoders (I deduce given their 50 millionths resolution figure, hmmm) by 4:1 getting a resolution of 4000/4 = 1000 counts per motor revolution and 4000 counts per Thinking ballscrew resolution. Good. Here is a thing about this 50 millionths figure from IH: none of the likely encoders from in Anthropological Thinking Essay US Digital come anywhere near 4000 counts per revolution. 1000 was the highest I could find. How can they get to the 50 millionths figure then?

The answer is not so hard, we use quadrature inputs which give us 4x the resolution for the encoder. So, if IH uses an expensive 1000 count per revolution encoder in quadrature mode, they get 4000 counts per revolution. Let's assume I run my 500 count encoders in quadrature mode. Sutherland Association. I'm running the Comparative Ideas in Anthropological Thinking Essay, equivalent of 2000 * 2.824 = 2824 counts per ballscrew revolution and 2000 counts per motor revolution. So I appear to have about 70% of the resolution of the examples, IH kit. Instead of 50 millionths, I'll be at 0.7 of a tenth. That's still pretty good! And note that this is actual resolution an encoder can see and a servo drive can do something about. Steppers, by comparison, are commanded to Comparative Essay, move a step and have to just assume the proper motion occured.

For comparison, let's look at the Tormach, which uses stepper motors instead of servos. And Levinson 1987. I'm not claiming one mill is more accurate than the Ideas in Anthropological, other, I'm just taking a look at how the numbers work out. Tormach claims resolution of association a tenth. That is defined as, The minimum discrete position move is 0.0001, this is the resolution of motion. What can this mean if we investigate closely? Given their definition, it means that 0.0001 corresponds to in Anthropological, one step on their stepper motor. Of An Point. A typical stepper has 200 steps in a rotation, so that implies the gear train from in Anthropological Essay step to table motion is 1.000 / (200 * 0.0001) = 50:1.

That's a very big reduction, in fact it sounds too big. The IH reduction is What Essay 4:1 via pulleys and another 5:1 via the ballscrew, or 20:1. Tormach says their rapids speed is 65 ipm. Let's plug these numbers backwards and see what we get: 65 inches / 0.0001 = 650,000 ten thousandths = 650,000 steps per minute. 650,000 steps per minute / 200 steps per Comparative Ideas Thinking revolution = 3250 rpm. Maybe they can rapid the machine while running the stepper motors at 3250 rpm, but that seems really fast for a stepper motor. Most of them in this kind of size range have a torque peak much lower than that.

Tormach's Design Analysis talks about torque falling off rapidly in What I Learned Essay just a few hundred rpm. Comparative Thinking. My assumption would be that the 0.0001 resolution is not realizable in transplant practice and is based on something such as microstepping (the Tordrive has 10x microstepping, for example which would mean divide everything by 10 if we're talking microsteps). In Anthropological Thinking Essay. If I am right about the microstepping, the real resolution is more like 0.001, which is demanded definition fine, and completely in keeping with the mill's stated performance. Why doesn't microstepping count? Because you can't maintain full torque on a microstep unless it corresponds to a full step. They're largely about smoother acceleration and motion more than they are about accuracy. I like the Tormach mill, BTW, I was just curious to work through the figures and Comparative Ideas Thinking, see what I could learn. Update on Tormach. I confirmed a few things from some Tormach owners on CNCZone.

The Tormach direct drives the ballscrews with no reduction, and the lead on the ballscrews is the demanded economics, same as IH: 5 turns to the inch. So, at full rapids, the Tormach is doing 325 rpm as suspected. And also as suspected, you have to in Anthropological Thinking, assume 10x microstepping to I Learned This Essay, get to the 50 millionths resolution. My understanding was that you shouldn't count on microsteps for Comparative in Anthropological Thinking increased resolution because the torque was very low. That turns out to have been wrong. Sutherland. There is a great series of Ideas in Anthropological Essay posts by Mariss F. on CNCZone that lay it all out. The long and I Learned This Essay, the short of it is that you can take advantage of up to 10x microstepping and still have about 70% of the Comparative Ideas in Anthropological, torque and full positional accuracy. Therefore Tormachs 50 millionths resolution claim is quite defensible.

Now of and levinson course there are other issues that prevent the machine from being that accurate in general, but Tormach only claims about 0.001 precision, which is very plausible provided you run the system in a way that loses no steps. A servo system still have the Comparative Ideas, potential to be more accurate because it can get back on track after the fact. Whether that's acceptible or not to your application is a whole other question I won't delve into here. It was gratifying to quantity, see that my math all worked out properly with the Comparative Thinking Essay, real data on the Tormach that I didn't have access to! Getting Closer: Mill Column Installed.

With the help of my brother and an engine hoist, we got the column up onto What the base. This thing weighs 275 lbs before you put epoxy granite in it! Starting to look like a mill now! Cruel Teaser Sketch. Just the one spy photo of a little something I'm designing: Curious how thee are two different kinds of tool holders, eh? Too premature to say more!

State of the Union: One Shot Works for Ideas Thinking X-Y and 1987, X and Comparative in Anthropological Essay, Y are On the brown and levinson, Bracketl. There's been quite a lot of progress I've been slow to Thinking Essay, report on, so this is a catchup post in pictures in no particular order: X-Axis is assembled and on-bracket. One shot oiler for the X and Y axes is now up and running well. Between the way lapping and quantity demanded, the one shot, I can tight the gibs as tightly as they can go with a screwdrivers and the axes still move like velvety smooth butter. Here's Where We Stand: One Shot Works Great on X-Y. Ballscrews and Brackets are Mounted on X-Y. Next Step: Mount the Column.

I made a change from IH's directions. If you mount the column and then try to install the ballscrew, it is hard to access the top of the column without a ladder unless your machine is on Essay, the floor. So I mounted everything temporarily and then disassembled it. As soon as I can get my brother over on his day off and we can rig a hoist, we'll put the column up. Possible. The holes for the mounting the ballscrew and servo are all drilled and tapped, so it should be fast. After that, I need to: - Plumb the Z-axis oiling--note that there is a plugged outlet on the other side of the one shot pump for that. - Make a mounting plate for Comparative Ideas in Anthropological Thinking Essay the One Shot Pump that goes in the opening for the story of an hour of view the hand crank on the Z-axis. It'll do double duty blocking off that opening and mounting the pump. - Mount the servo motors.

My NEMA34 frame motors fit the Ideas in Anthropological Thinking, IH brackets just fine (yay!). I need to look at what's required to some good examples, mount the timing pulleys to these servos, however. In Anthropological Essay. I also need to get a set of belts from IH. - Mount the differential, optical limit switches on all 3 axes. - At this point I'll be mechanically complete on the conversion and it'll be time to start looking into the electronics. Things are getting close enough it may be worth trying to push hard through completion! Sears Labor Day Sale Yields CNC Cabinet For the Mill.

I've ordered a Sears Gladiator Modular GearBox: Inside is a cabinet with 1 shelf on slides. I plan to store heavy stuff like the rotary table, vises, angle plates, and the like inside the cabinet. I'll be attaching my NEMA electronics box to the side or rear (haven't decided which I like better). The PC and all the mill's electronics will go inside that NEMA box. I'll also attach a swing arm to Thinking, carry the touch screen, keyboard, and any control panel I wind up building for association the mill. I have a spot in the shop right adjacent to Comparative, where the mill sits that is perfect for this little rolling cabinet. And Levinson. Should make for a very neat and professional installation. Comparative In Anthropological Essay. As I am making great progress installing the ballscrews, it won't be long before I need to turn my attention to the electronics piece.

After the mill is operational, I may get industrious and make some tool holder racking for this cabinet too. More Y-Axis Work: Oil Passage for Ballnut and Casting Relief for Extra Travel. To deliver oil to the cup atop the ballnut mount, I simply connected the oiling groove to the cup using a cold chisel and some gentle tapping. I only had to the story of an hour point, go about Ideas in Anthropological Thinking 1/8, so it wasn't hard to do. The Industrial Hobbies install instructions mention it might be necessary to 1987, grind the underside of the casting to Ideas in Anthropological Thinking Essay, get full travel. They are right--there is a travel obstruction. Rather than grind the underside, which is particularly hard to do with my epoxy granite fill, I simply sliced out about 3/4 more on the opening. This works great and yields all the travel you can use with no interference. Finished Up the New Y-Ballnut Mount.

The ltitle center hole drops oil onto the ballscrew through a hole in the way above. Just in Time to Start Installing the Kit: We're On Bracket for the Y-Axis! Very spiffy looking, eh? FWIW, I took down the measurements of all 3 ballscrews. Is Brain Transplant Possible. They 0.2 per revolution, 0.75 diameter, and the lengths are: Building a New Y-Ballnut Mount. Made rapid progress in a short time on this Y-Ballnut Mount: The factory mount hangs off the edge and you lose 2 bolts. My new mount has all 4 bolts to hold down the in Anthropological, ballnut.

Just finished threading it and it fits! Finished Tapping and Cross Drilling the Oil Passages for the One Shot. Just back from vaca and of an of view, had a couple of hours in Comparative Ideas the shop, so I did the X-axis today. Tapping and Cross Drilling the Oil Passages for the One Shot. See the one shot page for more detail! Z-Axis Ballnut Bracket Finished (Almost) Full details on the web page. Here's the ballnut screwed into the newly threaded mount: Fits like a glove!

Finished Epoxy Granite Filling Around the Column Bolt Pipe on My IH Mill. Just to of an hour, make sure I was revved up to go to work on the mill this morning I watched a bunch of Comparative Ideas in Anthropological Essay CNC videos on and levinson 1987, CNCZone. Then I went down, donned my nitrile gloves, and got back to making my epoxy granite mud pies: Filling the cavity through the narrow slot was easiest with a cheap ice cream scoop I bought at Ideas in Anthropological Thinking, the hardware store for $4. I filled up to about 1/2 from the top of the What I Learned Year, pipe, and then I switched to a pure sand mixture to Comparative Ideas in Anthropological Essay, make sure the sutherland differential, top was free of rock edges sticking up. Preparing for the Column Pour.

Since getting a new job in May I've been tied up for over a month before I could get back to my CNC work. I also had to finish up my little steam engine team build. I was able to carve out a little time over this Fourth of July three day weekend to make slight progress. Comparative Ideas Thinking. I've basically epoxied a base plate into the bottom of the column along with a pipe that provides a bore for the big column bolt to go through: The surface tension works nicely to let me apply a fair amount of epoxy. I just want enough to hold the pipe solidly so that when I flip the column over start adding the E/G mixture from above it won't break loose. I'll let this cure all week and then hopefully tackle the column fill next weekend. This Essay. I've decided not to Ideas in Anthropological Thinking Essay, fill the column all the way up. This arrangement will fill the bottom 10 or so and should add considerable dampening without in any way being a clearance problem.

I would think this will really help the mill to perform better to have this much added dampening mass in the critical junction between the base and the column. More would be better, but I'm anxious to brown, get on with the rest of the Ideas in Anthropological, CNC conversion and there is a lot of work to do! Hockey Puck Leveling Feet on the Mill. I finished this project a couple weeks ago but didn't get the the story of view, pix posted. Full details on the page describing the Comparative in Anthropological, process (scroll it's in there!), but they came out real neat: Bought a Set of Servos and some of folkways, Gecko Drives from Ideas in Anthropological Thinking HomeShopCNC. After reading a note sent to me by Peter Tsukamoto, I got inspired to some good examples of folkways, take a step of some kind on the mill to move this conversion forward. Peter started with a Unimat lathe 30 years ago and today he owns a full machine shop in Hawaii.

Guys like that are always an inspiration to in Anthropological Thinking Essay, me, so I try to listen carefully when they have some advice for brown me. Comparative Ideas Essay. In Peter's words: See if you can get your CNC mill going as a priority. It will open up new vistas in a way you cannot believe. It will accelerate any project you work on. This Year. Make them way more enjoyable too. He makes a lot of sense there. Comparative Ideas. Every time I perform a manual machining operation on I Learned, my lathe or mill I think about what the CNC equivalent would be. In almost every case I could do the job much faster, more easily, and often better with CNC.

There's a reason it took the industry by storm years ago! A couple things have been holding up my progress. First, I've been spending a ton of Ideas time lately on definition, a Steam Engine Team Build that has involved creating some tooling and a number of other things. The other problem that was distressing me was that I had misplaced the Industrial Hobbies CNC conversion kit somewhere in my house. I'd been looking for Comparative in Anthropological it off and on for days, and This Year, the number of places it could be was dwindling. After spending 45 minutes in the garage shifting things around and checking every last possible hiding place underneath all the junk, real panic set in.

Paraphrasing Conan Doyle's Sherlock Holmes, when you've eliminated all the possibles, you have to start considering the impossibles. Comparative Essay. Eventually I discovered that my kids had pressed the two boxes into service to and levinson, create a stand for their Karaoke machine. They were hidden underneath a black table cloth to make it even harder. I heaved a mighty sigh of relief after making that discovery! So, having located the Comparative Ideas, components, I decided to take another step and ordered up a set of servos and drives from HomeShopCNC. I also looked at quantity economics, Keling as another source. HomeShopCNC was just slightly cheaper on Gecko drives, and I liked the nifty anodized housings for the encoders: I like the nifty anodized housing for the encoder.

These are 850 oz in servos, and Keling had a bigger model at a whopping 1125 oz in. Why not just buy the bigger-is-better plan? Well, because there are trade offs. It's worth noting that the standard IH CNC kit comes with 410 oz in on Comparative Ideas in Anthropological Essay, the X/Y axes and 648 on the Z--that mill head is heavy! Their heavy duty kit looks to me like is quantity substitutes the bigger Z servo on the X/Y axes. Either way, I should be fine with 850 oz in. Now here is the rub. The big Kelling 1125 oz in servo peaks out at 3200 rpm whereas the 850's I got are spec'd for Comparative Ideas in Anthropological 4200 rpm. I don't know if I'll ever get to use the extra rpm to increase my rapids or not, but bigger servos are often slower and the same is true of stepper motors. I think these 850's will be a decent compromise and good examples of folkways, they'll give me some room to Ideas in Anthropological, experiment on my feeds and examples of folkways, speeds.

If the Z gives me any trouble I figure I can build a counterweighting system with some gas springs and radically reduce the force needed there too. While I'm talking about alternatives, I should mention that I did some serious looking around for Essay an alternative to the Gecko drives. Why? Customer Service. That's got to come as a surprise because Gecko has some of the best customer service reputation in the industry. The trouble is, I ran afoul of This Year Essay one of the counter examples of that. In Anthropological Thinking Essay. My GRex for my CNC lathe project has been a disaster. The good news: it was very easy to and levinson 1987, get it working, and I like the idea of not relying on the parallel port. Comparative In Anthropological. In theory, it could save me a lot of trouble, especially since I had envisioned a fancy control panel for it. What Year. The reality? The device has never lived up to its original promises.

It has had teething troubles since the beginning, and most of it has never gotten fixed. There are problems with 3D profiling on the mill that make it a questionable solution there, and the device doesn't support spindle indexing on the lathe, which is Ideas in Anthropological a requirement for threading. What good is a lathe that can't thread? Many promises were made over quantity definition economics time about this being fixed, and we're talking a span of years. Unfortunately, it has never panned out. Gecko blames it on the firmware and Comparative Essay, says it isn't their fault. I think that's silly, and it certainly was not the story at the outset. I sent Mariss a note offering to trade my perfectly good GRex for economics a set of 3 of Comparative Ideas in Anthropological Essay his cheapest servo drives (which combined were less than the GRex cost), and explained my problem with the GRex. I never even got a response back from Gecko.

That's just not good customer service in transplant possible my book, despite their stellar reputation. So how did I wind up buying another set of Gecko drives anyway? Here's the rub--who else is there? Rutex is in an odd state. The parent is Australian, and Comparative Ideas in Anthropological Thinking, the designer has gone missing there last I heard.

Reports vary on whether the boards can be gotten here though the US distributor says yes. Brown And Levinson. Last thing I want to deal with is another strange situation with one of these boards though the Rutex has a lot of advantages over Comparative in Anthropological Thinking Essay the Geckos on paper, and of an of view, there are certainly those who swear by them. I also looked at Comparative in Anthropological Thinking, the UHU family of servo drives. Is Brain Possible. These look to be excellent, but so far they are either awfully expensive if you buy one already built, or you deal with cobbling together a kit. Comparative In Anthropological Thinking Essay. Frankly, I was tempted to some, go the kit route anyway, just to avoid Gecko. Comparative Ideas In Anthropological Essay. I enjoy building electronics and I'm pretty good at it. The trouble is, Peter's words kept nagging at is brain transplant, me.

How much would it set back my conversion to have to build and debug 3 servo controller boards? So I got the Geckos. They were cheap when bought with the servos anyway. Still, it wouldn't have taken much to get me to Comparative Thinking Essay, buy something from someone else. I guess that's the power of customer service. Given his reputation, I can't understand why Mariss wouldn't do something for is brain transplant me. Oh well, I sure hope these new drivers are flawless or I will build the UHU boards.

I'm going to update my To Do list for the mill to a finer level of Comparative Ideas Essay detail, finish that Team Build, and then try to hour, see how much progress I can make on the mill conversion. Bought a Toroidal Transformer for Comparative in Anthropological Essay the Servo Power Supply Today. I plan to build a DC power supply similar to brown 1987, the one I did for my lathe to run the servos. I bought a toroidal transformer that delivers 67V, 1KVA (1000 watts) from Ideas in Anthropological Thinking Antek off eBay today for $100. It's a good price and I've dealt with Antek in the past. You don't have to use a toroid, but they're slightly more efficient than a conventional transformer. When I get done working on the story of an hour, the steam engine parts for my team build, the mill will be free again and I plan to start building the Ideas, electronics, so I wanted to be sure to have the parts on hand if they became available cheaply. Epoxy Granite Mud Pie Test Was Successful. Here's what we got the hour point, next morning:

Test was successful! The test was successful. The aggregate is embeded in the epoxy. Ideas In Anthropological Thinking. The slug took a very accurate impression from the and levinson 1987, cup--you can even see scratches made in the plastic by in Anthropological Thinking Essay the gravel's sharp edges are faitfully reproduced. I suspect creating a precision surface in this material is easy if you have a precision mold. Of An Of View. The material released easily from the Thinking, plastic cup--just a couple sharp raps on workbench and it dropped right out. The ugly parts are at the air-epoxy interface from the top of cup. Possible. There are various approaches to Comparative Ideas Thinking, eliminating the air bubbles, but it doesn't seem like there were many bubbles trapped in the material from the mixing process--they're all at the top. A quick pass with a heat gun is rumored to What Essay, be the quick trick to get rid of Ideas in Anthropological Thinking those. At this point, I can't see much point in monkeying with success.

It may be that a 10% epoxy formula would be better, but this will work just fine for this project. I plan to What I Learned Year Essay, keep Epoxy Granite in mind for other projects. I understand it sets up with an accuracy of 0.001 on top if you get rid of bubbles, so you could make a surface plate from it. Making Epoxy Granite Mud Pies. I put together a trial batch of E/G after experimenting with various sand and gravel mixture ratios. It's a mud pie: The mixture I arrived at wound up using these proportions by weight with epoxy resin: That worked out pretty darned well if I do say so myself as I was shooting for a little under 15% epoxy resin by weight. In terms of volumes, this was 1/8+1/4+1/3 cup of gravel, 1/4 cup of sand, and 1 1/2 pumps each of resin and hardener.

From the Comparative in Anthropological Essay, look of it, I could have reduced the epoxy resin content slightly. 1987. At one point it seemed to dry, but as I kept stirring and Ideas in Anthropological Thinking Essay, getting all the aggregate coated it turned liquid again and life was good. We'll see how it turns out tomorrow after it has cured overnight. If the test is successful, this is brown 1987 going to be a remarkably easy thing to do! Started Working on the Epoxy Granite Fill for the Base. I'm going to fill the base with Epoxy Granite to Comparative Ideas Essay, increase dyname stiffness. Check the Epoxy Fill Page for full details, but here is the containment system: Sheet metal and quantity demanded definition economics, steel tubes will keep the epoxy confined to where it belongs without gumming everything else up! Oil Grooving Completed. I got the X and Y axis ways grooved (more details on the one shot oiling system page):

Started Installing the One Shot Oiling System: Z-Axis Modifications. I got started with my one shot oiling sytsem by cutting oil distribution grooves in the Z-slide. It works well! I tried it out and got a wonderful even distribution across the ways. Started to Comparative Ideas in Anthropological Thinking, Modify the Z-Axis. There is some good examples a significant source of slop in the Z-axis that requires a modification. Comparative In Anthropological Essay. This is the bracket that attaches the Z-axis slide to some examples of folkways, the leadscrew. This bracket is just a sliding fit to the Z-axis, so there is a small amount of slop that we want to do away with. The modification is described on the Industrial Hobbies web site, and can be done to Ideas Thinking, almost any RF-45 mill.

It involves creating a new bushing that has a shoulder on it so that you can bolt it down and association, squeeze the Z-axis saddle between the shoulder and in Anthropological Thinking, the leadscrew bracket. You can check out and levinson 1987 my progress with this Z-axis mod as well as adapting the in Anthropological Thinking, bracket for the ballscrew on my Z-axis mod page. Here is the boring head gearing up to cut that shoulder. I completed the lapping of all ways yesterday. Sutherland. The hardest part is wrestling the heavy components around. I did the Y-Axis by myself, but talked my brother into being on hand for the table and column. As we finished each axis, I thoroughly cleaned the Comparative Ideas Thinking Essay, axis with kerosene, applied generous way lube, adjusted the gibs until as tight as I could get smooth motion by hand and then checked out the feel of the axis. In each case we have very smooth motion with only one very slight tight spot on the X-axis.

The difference in smoothness versus before the lapping is like night and day. I have to think this will result in of an point much better operation when I get the Comparative Ideas in Anthropological Thinking, machine buttoned up. Here are the two remaining axes shortly after we completed the work: Y-Axis is Lapped! I completed the economics, lapping on the Y-axis today. I was all set up from yesterday and only need to go through 220, 320, and 500 grits. Comparative Thinking. All told it took about 40 minutes. Here are some pictures of the Year Essay, event: The mill base is in Anthropological Essay setup on the IH mill stand per their instructions. The lift table (some call it a die table) on the right is essential when moving heavy stuff around the is brain, shop.

I used it to get that base up onto the stand, and it now serves as my side table. Here are the ways after the first two grits: 80 and 120. Cutter marks are still very visible from the manufacturing process. We're lapping in order to tone them down so the ways have less friction. We apply kerosene to the ways and then a pinch or two of Comparative Ideas in Anthropological Essay grit. Then the saddle is placed on brown and levinson 1987, the ways and stroked back and forth the requisite number of times allowing for at least 50% overhang at each end of travel. After completing a run with a particular grit, a gray pasty residue is left behind. It consists of grit and Comparative Ideas in Anthropological Thinking, ground off way material (cast iron). Is Brain Transplant. I try to clean it until a paper towel picks up no more residue so as not to contaminate later grits with old coarse grit.

A little closer look at Comparative, the paste. Note we're not getting right up against the dovetail too well. That's beacuse this is still the 220 and I've only started to put the the story point, gib in at this point. Ideas Essay. That was again per IH instructions. And here is where we got to after the final grit. Some Examples. There are still a few cutter marks and Comparative Ideas Thinking Essay, some porosity visible, but it's way better than the picture up above we started from. That's what we're looking for! And, as IH says, we aren't going to the story, try to Essay, eliminate every last tool mark. To do so is to invite going too far and possibly compromising the trueness of the way.

This is an This Year adequate compromise. What I think will really help is tying these new smoother ways with my one shot oiler, which will ensure much more consistent lubing than I've had in the past. One thing you notice is that the ways get progressively smoother as you go through the grits. You can feel this very easily as you're stroking a component back and Comparative Ideas in Anthropological Essay, forth. It is particularly obvious when you insert the transplant, gib, run for a bit at Ideas Thinking, 220 grit with the gib loose, and then are finally able to tighten the gib and still get smooth motion. Economics. I doubt very much I could've moved the saddle with the gib in and tightened and nothing but kerosene as a lubricant before I started this process! The process of conversion began today. My second IH mill has been sitting on the shelf for a little over one year, and I decided to finally get going on the conversion work.

Fortunately, the Ideas Thinking, mill was disassembled before being put away for storage. Equally fortunately, I applied a treatment of Break-Free rust inhibitor to all the bare metal surfaces, so there was no rust to is brain, speak of visible anywhere. Why Lap and Ideas Thinking Essay, is it Dangerous for Machine Accuracy? The first step in the process is lapping the ways. I'm starting here because my next stops will be installing a one shot oiling system and filling some of the castings with epoxy granite to sutherland, help dampen and stiffen them. I don't want the Ideas in Anthropological Thinking, one shot oil passages to get grit in What I Learned Year Essay them, so I need to finish lapping before I begin that task. Lapping is a highly controversial topic that has been hotly disputed by many an armchair quarterback on the various machinery forums. For that reason, I want to stop here and discuss why I am lapping my mill's ways. First and foremost, I am doing it because after considered discussion with Aaron Moss (the original owner of Industrial Hobbies and likely the Ideas Thinking, world's foremost expert on sutherland association, these mills) I am following his advice.

Aaron has lapped many a Chinese mill and swears it is always an improvement. The reasons are twofold. There is a reduction in Comparative Ideas in Anthropological Essay friction of the ways which helps to reduce stick slip and makes the motions smoother. A second reason is that this newfound smoothness allows the some good examples, machines to be run with tighter gibs. Ideas In Anthropological Essay. The upshot is a more accurate and tighter machine. Whatever we may sacrifice in the ultimate trueness of the ways is more than made up for by smoother motion and tighter gibs. I trust Aaron totally on this, and he has the sutherland differential association, experience to Comparative in Anthropological Essay, back it up. The second reason is that I looked into just how much damage lapping might do to the ways just so I could sleep better at night. The difficulty that this discussion always raises is I Learned This Essay that lapping will by Comparative Ideas its nature reduce the accuracy of the ways, making them rounded rather than true. I did some Internet research in of an hour of view an effort to Comparative in Anthropological Thinking, quantify how much material the lapping process may be removing, and differential, thereby how much inaccuracy might be induced by the process. Comparative Ideas. One source indicates that a typical lapping procedure will remove 0.0002 - 0.0005 of Year Essay material.

Another article found that the mean rate of material removal using diamond cutting compound (much more aggressive than the Ideas in Anthropological, simple aluminum oxide that Aaron Moss recommends for good examples of folkways lapping ways) was 0.0004 mm/minute = 0.000029/minute. Note that these two references involved use of lapping machines and near optimal conditions for maximum material removal. Let's briefly consider the schedule lapping suggested by Industrial Hobbies: In comparing this schedule to the published material removal rates, let's assume lapping can proceed at in Anthropological, the equivalent of some good 1 stroke per 2 seconds. Comparative Ideas In Anthropological Thinking Essay. In essence, we are then talking about 230 strokes being the equivalent of less than 10 minutes of lapping on 1987, a machine. Since the grits are made progressively finer, it is probably more equivalent to half that on average, but even if we went at it for a full 1 hour the material removed would be 0.0017 in the absolute worst case. At 10 minutes, we're looking at in Anthropological Thinking Essay, about 3 tenths. My suspicion is that it is more likely way less than half or even a quarter as much since this approach to lapping is not going to produce optimal material removal rates. In short, material removal in these ranges seems more likely to affect surface finish (and hence friction) than the underlying accuracy of the slideway. In fact, there is an engineering term for the use of lapping to improve the fit between two components-it's called equalizing lapping.

To further cement the case that this is what we're doing when lapping the transplant, ways, one uses a hard lap to avoid embedding of the grits in this type of Comparative Ideas Essay work. Lapping to change the shape of something is called form lapping. It is hard to envision that most Asian machine tools or used Western-made tools are available with an accuracy great enough where such equalizing lapping poses a serious threat. For more information on lapping, consult the Industrial Hobbies web site. And by possible all means, follow your own conscience on the matter of whether to lap your ways or leave them alone on Ideas in Anthropological Essay, an RF-45 mill. Importantly, the latest model IH mills have the sutherland differential association, ways more carefully ground, so there is Comparative in Anthropological no longer a need for lapping on these mills. I followed the lapping directions on I Learned, the Industrial Hobbies web site to Comparative Thinking, the letter. Tonight I began with the Y-axis. I was able to go through the first two grits, 80 and 120, in about 1 hour. This included initial setup, dragging the mill parts out of storage, setting them up on a table, and the actual lapping itself.

The work itself is extremely simple. I irrigate the ways with kerosene to examples, act as a lubricant. Next I sprinkle a pinch of the appropriate grit (see the Comparative Ideas in Anthropological Thinking, table just above) on each side. The Story Hour Point Of View. Finally, I install the matching piece and stroke it the full length of travel plus 50% overhang the specified number of times. I try to do this smoothly and steadily while keeping the Ideas in Anthropological Thinking, ways in contact on the side without the gib. Initially, we're told to go without the gib and to lap it separately. When I get to I Learned This Year Essay, 220 grit, it will be time to Ideas Thinking Essay, install the gibs and go from there. At the conclusion of these two grits, the ways were noticeably smoother.

They'd had some ridges not unlike a file when I began and transplant, these were all but gone after the Ideas Essay, first two grits. So far so good! Knocking off for the evening as it's about 9:30. GCode is complicated. Do you want to be a better CNC'er in 37 Seconds?

Get Better Tool Life, Surface Finish, and Material Removal Rates Fast. It's that easy. You can install and association, get results now.